Theosophical Glossary M-Z









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M.—The thirteenth letter of the Hebrew and of the English alphabets, and the twenty-fourth of the Arabic. As a Roman numeral, this letter stands for 1,000, and with a dash on it (M̅) signifies one million. In the Hebrew alphabet Mem symbolized water, and as a numeral is equivalent to 40. The Sanskrit ma is equivalent to number 5, and is also connected with water through the sign of the Zodiac, called Makâra (q.v.). Moreover, in the Hebrew and Latin numerals the m, stands “as the definite numeral for an indeterminate number” (Mackenzie’s Mason. Cyc.), and “the Hebrew sacred name of God applied to this letter is Meborach, Benedictus.” With the Esotericists the M is the symbol of the Higher Ego—Manas, Mind.

(Sk.). Lit., “five”. A name of Lakshmi.

Ma, Mut (Eg.). The goddess of the lower world, another form of Isis, as she is nature, the eternal mother. She was the sovereign and Ruler of the North wind, the precursor of the overflow of the Nile, and thus called “the opener of the nostrils of the living”. She is represented offering the ankh, or cross, emblem of physical life to her worshippers, and is called the “Lady of Heaven”.

Machagistia. Magic, as once taught in Persia and Chaldea, and raised in its occult practices into a religio-magianism. Plato, speaking of Machagistia, or Magianism, remarks that it is the purest form of the worship of things divine.

Macrocosm (Gr.). The “Great Universe” literally, or Kosmos.

Macroprosopus (Gr.). ‘A Kabalistic term, made of a compound Greek word: meaning the Vast or Great Countenance (See “Kabalistic Faces”); a title of Kether, the Crown, the highest Sephira. It is the name of the Universe, called Arikh-Anpin, the totality of that of which Microprosopus or Zauir-Anpin “the lesser countenance”, is the part and antithesis. In its high or abstract metaphysical sense, Microprosopus is Adam Kadmon, the vehicle of Ain-Suph, and the crown of the Sephirothal Tree, though since Sephira and Adam Kadmon are in fact one under two aspects, it comes to the same thing. Interpretations are many, and they differ.

Madhasadana or Madhu-Sûdana (Sk.). “Slayer of Madhu” (a demon), a title of Krishna from his killing the latter.

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Mâdhava (Sk). (1) A name of Vishnu or Krishna; (2) The month of April; (3) A title of Lakshmi when written Madhavi.

Madhya (Sk.). Ten thousand billions.

Madhyama (Sk.). Used of something beginningless and endless. Thus Vâch (Sound, the female Logos, or the female counterpart of Brahmâ is said to exist in several states, one of which is that of Mâdhyama, which is equivalent to saying that Vâch is eternal in one sense “the Word (Vâch) was with God, and in God”, for the two are one.

Mâdhyamikas (Sk.). A sect mentioned in the Vishnu Purâna. Agreeably to the Orientalists, a “Buddhist sect, which is an anachronism. It was probably at first a sect of Hindu atheists. A later school of that name, teaching a system of sophistic nihilism, that reduces every proposition into a thesis and its antithesis, and then denies both, has been started in Tibet and China. It adopts a few principles of Nâgârjuna, who was one of the founders of the esoteric Mahayâna systems, not their exoteric travesties. The allegory that regarded Nâgârjuna’s “Paramârtha” as a gift from the Nâgas (Serpents) shows that he received his teachings from the secret school of adepts, and that the real tenets are therefore kept secret.

Maga (Sk.). The priests of the Sun, mentioned in the Vishnu Purâna. They are the later Magi of Chaldea and Iran, the forefathers of the modern Parsis.

Magadha (Sk.). An ancient country in India, under Buddhist Kings.

Mage, or Magian. From Mag or Maha. The word is the root of the word magician. The Maha-âtma (the great Soul or Spirit) in India had its priests in the pre-Vedic times. The Magians were priests of the fire-god; we find them among the Assyrians and Babylonians, as well as among the Persian fire-worshippers. The three Magi, also denominated kings, that are said to have made gifts of gold, incense and myrrh to the infant Jesus, were fire-worshippers like the rest, and astrologers; for they saw his star. The high priest of the Parsis, at Surat, is called Mobed. Others derived the name from Megh; Meh-ab signifying some thing grand and noble. Zoroaster’s disciples were called Meghestom, according to Kleuker.

Magi (Lat.). The name of the ancient hereditary priests and learned adepts in Persia and Media, a word derived from Mâha great, which became later mog or mag, a priest in Pehlevi. Porphyry describes them (Abst. iv. 16) as “The learned men who are engaged among the Persians in the service of the Deity are called Magi”, and Suidas informs us that “among the Persians the lovers of wisdom (philalethai) are called Magi”.

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The Zendavesta (ii. 171, 261) divides them into three degrees: (1) The Herbeds or “Noviciates”; (2) Mobeds or “Masters”; (3) Destur Mobeds, or Perfect Masters”. The Chaldees had similar colleges, as also the Egyptians, Destur Mobeds being identical with the Hierophants of the mysteries, as practised in Greece and Egypt.

Magic. The great “Science”. According to Deveria and other Orientalists, “magic was considered as a sacred science inseparable from religion” by the oldest and most civilized and learned nations. The Egyptians, for instance, were one of the most sincerely religious nations, as were and still are the Hindus. “Magic consists of, and is acquired by the worship of the gods”, said Plato. Could then a nation, which, owing to the irrefragable evidence of inscriptions and papyri, is proved to have firmly believed in magic for thousands of years, have been deceived for so long a time. And is it likely that generations upon generations of a learned and pious hierarchy, many among whom led lives of self-martyrdom, holiness and asceticism, would have gone on deceiving themselves and the people (or even only the latter) for the pleasure of perpetuating belief in “miracles”? Fanatics, we are told, will do anything to enforce belief in their god or idols. To this we reply: in such case, Brahmans and Egyptian Rekhget-amens (q.v.) or Hierophants would not have popularized belief in the power of man by magic practices to command the services of the gods: which gods, are in truth, but the occult powers or potencies of Nature, personified by the learned priests themselves, in which they reverenced only the attributes of the one unknown and nameless Principle. As Proclus the Platonist ably puts it: “Ancient priests, when they considered that there is a certain alliance and sympathy in natural things to each other, and of things manifest to occult powers, and discovered that all things subsist in all, fabricated a sacred science from this mutual sympathy and similarity. . . . ..and applied for occult purposes, both celestial and terrene natures, by means of which, through a certain similitude, they deduced divine virtues into this inferior abode”. Magic is the science of communicating with and directing supernal, supramundane Potencies, as well as of commanding those of the lower spheres; a practical knowledge of the hidden mysteries of nature known to only the few, because they are so difficult to acquire, without falling into sins against nature. Ancient and mediæval mystics divided magic into three classes—Theurgia, Goëtia and natural Magic. “Theurgia has long since been appropriated as the peculiar sphere of the theosophists and metaphysicians”, says Kenneth Mackenzie. Goëtia is black magic, and “natural (or white) magic has risen with healing in its wings to the proud position of an exact and progressive study”. The comments added by our late learned Brother

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are remarkable. “The realistic desires of modern times have contributed to bring magic into disrepute and ridicule. . . . Faith (in one’s own self) is an essential element in magic, and existed long before other ideas which presume its pre-existence. It is said that it takes a wise man to make a fool; and a man’s ideas must be exalted almost to madness, i.e., his brain susceptibilities must be increased far beyond the low, miserable status of modern civilization, before he can become a true magician; (for) a pursuit of this science implies a certain amount of isolation and an abnegation of Self ”. A very great isolation, certainly, the achievement of which constitutes a wonderful phenomenon, a miracle in itself. Withal magic is not something supernatural. As explained by Jamblichus, “they through the sacerdotal theurgy announce that they are able to ascend to more elevated and universal Essences, and to those that are established above fate, viz., to god and the demiurgus: neither employing matter, nor assuming any other things besides, except the observation of a sensible time”. Already some are beginning to recognise the existence of subtle powers and influences in nature of which they have hitherto known nought. But as Dr. Carter Blake truly remarks, “the nineteenth century is not that which has observed the genesis of new, nor the completion of old, methods of thought”; to which Mr. Bonwick adds that “if the ancients knew but little of our mode of investigations into the secrets of nature, we know still less of their mode of research”.

Magic, White, or “Beneficent Magic”, so-called, is divine magic, devoid of selfishness, love of power, of ambition, or lucre, and bent only on doing good to the world in general, and one’s neighbour in particular. The smallest attempt to use one’s abnormal powers for the gratification of self, makes of these powers sorcery or black magic.

Magic, Black. (Vide Supra.)

Magician. This term, once a title of renown and distinction, has come to he wholly perverted from its true meaning. Once the synonym of all that was honourable and reverent, of a possessor of learning and wisdom, it has become degraded into an epithet to designate-one who is a pretender and a juggler; a charlatan, in short, or one who has “sold his soul to the Evil One”, who misuses his knowledge, and employs it for low and dangerous uses, according to the teachings of the clergy, and a mass of superstitious fools who believe the magician a sorcerer and an “Enchanter”. The word is derived from Magh, Mah in Sanskrit Mâha—great; a man well versed in esoteric knowledge. (Isis Unveiled.)

Magna Mater (Lat.). “Great Mother”. A title given in days of old, to all the chief goddesses of the nations, such as Diana of Ephesus, Isis, Mauth, and many others.

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Magnes. An expression used by Paracelsus and the mediæval Theosophists. It is the spirit of light, or Akâsa. A word much used by the mediæval Alchemists.

Magnetic Masonry. Also called “Iatric” masonry. It is described as a Brotherhood of Healers (from iatrikê a Greek word meaning “the art of healing”), and is greatly used by the “Brothers of Light”as Kenneth Mackenzie states in the Royal Masonic Cyclopedia. There appears to be a tradition in some secret Masonic works—so says Ragon at any rate, the great Masonic authority—to the effect that there was a Masonic degree called the Oracle of Cos, “instituted in the eighteenth century B.C., from the fact that Cos was the birthplace of Hippocrates”. The iatrikê was a distinct characteristic of the priests who took charge of the patients in the ancient Asclepia, the temples where the god Asclepios (Æsculapius) was said to heal the sick and the lame.

Magnetism. A Force in nature and in man. When it is the former, it is an agent which gives rise to the various phenomena of attraction, of polarity, etc. When the latter, it becomes “animal” magnetism, in contradistinction to cosmic, and terrestrial magnetism.

Magnetism, Animal. While official science calls it a “supposed” agent, and utterly rejects its actuality, the teeming millions of antiquity and of the now living Asiatic nations, Occultists, Theosophists, Spiritualists, and Mystics of every kind and description proclaim it as a well established fact. Animal magnetism is a fluid, an emanation. Some people can emit it for curative purposes through their eyes and the tips of their fingers, while the rest of all creatures, mankind, animals and even every inanimate object, emanate it either as an aura, or a varying light, and that whether consciously or not. When acted upon by Contact: with a patient or by the will of a human operator it is called “Mesmerism” (q.v.).

Magnum Opus (Lat.). In Alchemy the final completion, the “Great Labour” or Grand Œuvre; the production of the “Philosopher’s Stone” and “Elixir of Life” which, though not by far the myth some sceptics would have it, has yet to be accepted symbolically, and is full of mystic meaning.

Magus (Lat.). in the New Testament it means a Sage, a wise man of the Chaldeans; it is in English often used for a Magician, any wonder-worker; in the Rosicrucian Society it is the title of the highest members, the IXth grade; the Supreme Magus is the Head of the Order in the “Outer”; the Magi of the “Inner” are unknown except to those of the VIIIth grade. [w.w.w.]

Mahâ Buddhi (Sk.). Mahat. The Intelligent Soul of the World.

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The seven Prakritis or seven “natures” or planes, are counted from Mahâbuddhi downwards.

Mahâ Chohan (Sk.). The chief of a spiritual Hierarchy, or of a school of Occultism; the head of the trans-Himalayan mystics.

Mahâ Deva (Sk.). Lit., “great god”; a title of Siva.

Mahâ Guru (Sk.). Lit., “great teacher”. The Initiator.

Mahâjwala (Sk.). A certain hell.

Mahâ Kâla (Sk.). “Great Time”. A name of Siva as the “Destroyer”, and of Vishnu as the “Preserver”.

Mahâ Kalpa (Sk.). The “great age”.

Mahâ Manvantara (Sk.). Lit., the great interludes between the “Manus”. The period of universal activity. Manvantara implying here simply a period of activity, as opposed to Pralaya, or rest—without reference to the length of the cycle.

Mahâ Mâyâ (Sk.). The great illusion of manifestation. This universe, and all in it in their mutual relation, is called the great Illusion or Mahâmâyâ It is also the usual title given to Gautama the Buddha’s Immaculate Mother—Mayâdêvi, or the “Great Mystery”, as she is called by the Mystics.

Mahâ Pralaya (Sk.). The opposite of Mahâmanvantara, literally “the great Dissolution”, the “Night” following the “Day of Brahmâ”. It is the great rest and sleep of all nature after a period of active manifestation; orthodox Christians would refer to it as the “Destruction of the World”.

Mahâ Parinibbâna Sutta (Pali.). One of the most authoritative of the Buddhist sacred writings.

Mahâ Purusha (Sk.). Supreme or Great Spirit. A title of Vishnu.

Mahâ Râjikâs (Sk.). A gana or class of gods 236 in number. Certain Forces in esoteric teachings.

Mahâ Sûnyata (Sk.). Space, or eternal law; the great void or chaos.

Mahâ Vidyâ (Sk.). The great esoteric science. The highest Initiates alone are in possession of this science, which embraces almost universal knowledge.

Mahâ Yogin (Sk.). The “great ascetic”. A title of Siva.

Mahâ Yuga (Sk.). The aggregate of four Yugas or ages, of 4,320,000 solar years; a “Day of Brahmâ”, in the Brahmanical system; lit., “the great age”.

Mahâbhârata (Sk.). Lit., the “great war”; the celebrated epic poem of India (probably the longest poem in the world) which includes both the Ramayana and the Bhagavad Gîtâ “the Song Celestial”. No two

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Orientalists agree as to its date. But it is undeniably extremely ancient.

Mahâbhâratian period. According to the best Hindu Commentators and Swami Dayanand Saraswati, 5,000 years B.C.

Mahâbhashya (Sk.). The great commentary on Pânini’s grammar by Patanjali.

Mahâbhautic (Sk.). Belonging to the Macrocosmic principles.

Mahâbhutas (Sk.). Gross elementary principles of matter.

Mahârâjahs, The Four (Sk.). The four great Karmic deities with the Northern Buddhists placed at the four cardinal points to watch mankind.

Mahar Loka (Sk.). A region wherein dwell the Munis or “Saints” during Pralaya; according to the Purânic accounts. It is the usual abode of Bhriga, a Prajâpati (Progenitor) and a Rishi, one of the seven who are said to be co-existent with Brahmâ.

Mahâsura (Sk.). The great Asura; exoterically—Satan, esoterically—the great god.

Mahat (Sk.). Lit., “The great one”. The first principle of Universal Intelligence and Consciousness. In the Puranic philosophy the first product of root-nature or Pradhâna (the same as Mulaprakriti); the producer of Manas the thinking principle, and of Ahankâra, egotism or the feeling of “I am I” (in the lower Manas).

Mahâtma. Lit., “great soul”. An adept of the highest order. Exalted beings who, having attained to the mastery over their lower principles are thus living unimpeded by the “man of flesh”, and are in possession of knowledge and power commensurate with the stage they have reached in their spiritual evolution. Called in Pali Rahats and Arhats.

Mâhâtmya (Sk.). “Magnanimity”, a legend of a shrine, or any holy place.

Mahatowarat (Sk.). Used of Parabrahm; greater than the greatest spheres.

Mahattattwa (Sk). The first of the seven creations called respectively in the Purânas—Mahattattwa, Chûta, Indriya, Mukhya, Tiryaksrotas, Urdhwasrotas and Arvaksrotas.

Mahoraga (Sk.). Mahâ uraga, “great serpent”—Sesha or any others.

Mahavanso (Pali.). A Buddhist historical work written by Bhikshu Mohânâma, the uncle of King Dhatusma. An authority on the history of Buddhism and its spread in the island of Ceylon.

Mahayâna (Pal.). A school; lit., “the great vehicle”. A mystical

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system founded by Nâgârjuna. Its books were written in the second century B.C.

Maitreya Buddha (Sk.). The same as the Kalki Avatar of Vishnu (the “White Horse” Avatar), and of Sosiosh and other Messiahs. The only difference lies in the dates of their appearances. Thus, while Vishnu is expected to appear on his white horse at the end of the present Kali Yuga age “for the final destruction of the wicked, the renovation of creation and the restoration of purity”, Maitreya is expected earlier. Exoteric or popular teaching making slight variations on the esoteric doctrine states that Sakyamuni (Gautama Buddha) visited him in Tushita (a celestial abode) and commissioned him to issue thence on earth as his successor at the expiration of five thousand years after his (Buddha’s) death. This would be in less than 3,000 years hence. Esoteric philosophy teaches that the next Buddha will appear during the seventh (sub) race of this Round. The fact is that Maitreya was a follower of Buddha, a well-known Arhat, though not his direct disciple, and that he was the founder of an esoteric philosophical school. As shown by Eitel (Sanskrit-Chinese Dict.), “statues were erected in his honour as early as B.C. 350”.

Makâra (Sk.). “The Crocodile.” In Europe the same as Capricorn; the tenth sign of the Zodiac. Esoterically, a mystic class of devas. With the Hindus, the vehicle of Varuna, the water-god.

Makâra Ketu (Sk.). A name of Kâma, the Hindu god of love and desire.

Makâram or Panchakaram (Sk.). In occult symbology a pentagon, the five-pointed star, the five limbs, or extremities, of man. Very mystical.

Makâras (Sk.). The five M’s of the Tantrikas. (See “Tantra”).

Malachim (Heb.). The messengers or angels.

Malkuth (Heb.). The Kingdom, the tenth Sephira, corresponding to the final H () of the Tetragrammaton or IHVH. It is the Inferior Mother, the Bride of the Microprosopus (q.v.); also called the “Queen” It is, in one sense, the Shekinah. [w.w.w.]

Mamitu (Chald.). The goddess of Fate. A kind of Nemesis.

Manas (Sk.). Lit., “the mind”, the mental faculty which makes of man an intelligent and moral being, and distinguishes him from the mere animal; a synonym of Mahat. Esoterically, however, it means, when unqualified, the Higher EGO, or the sentient reincarnating Principle in man. When qualified it is called by Theosophists Buddhi-Manas or the Spiritual Soul in contradistinction to its human reflection—Kâma-Manas.

Manas, Kâma (Sk.). Lit., “the mind of desire.” With the Buddhists it is the sixth of the Chadâyatana (q.v.), or the six organs of

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knowledge, hence the highest of these, synthesized by the seventh called Klichta, the spiritual perception of that which defiles this (lower) Manas, or the “Human-animal Soul”, as the Occultists term it. While the Higher Manas or the Ego is directly related to Vijnâna (the 10th of the 12 Nidânas)—which is the perfect knowledge of all forms of knowledge, whether relating to object or subject in the nidanic concatenation of causes and effects; the lower, the Kâma Manas is but one of the Indriya or organs (roots) of Sense. Very little can be said of the dual Manas here, as the doctrine that treats of it, is correctly stated only in esoteric works. Its mention can thus be only very superficial.

Manas Sanyama (Sk.). Perfect concentration of the mind, and control over it, during Yoga practices.

Manas Taijasi (Sk.). Lit., the “radiant” Manas; a state of the Higher Ego, which only high metaphysicians are able to realize and comprehend.

Mânasa or Manaswin (Sk.). “The efflux of the divine mind,” and explained as meaning that this efflux signifies the manasa or divine sons of Brahmâ-Virâj. Nilakantha who is the authority for this statement, further explains the term “manasa” by manomâtrasarira. These Manasa are the Arupa or incorporeal sons of the Prajâpati Virâj, in another version. But as Arjuna Misra identifies Virâj with Brahmâ, and as Brahmâ is Mahat, the universal mind, the exoteric blind becomes plain. The Pitris are identical with the Kumâra, the Vairaja, the Manasa-Putra (mind sons), and are finally identified with the human “Egos”.

Mânasa Dhyânis (Sk.). The highest Pitris in the Purânas; the Agnishwatthas, or Solar Ancestors of Man, those who made of Man a rational being, by incarnating in the senseless forms of semi-ethereal flesh of the men of the third race. (See Vol. II. of Secret Doctrine.)

Mânasas (Sk.). Those who endowed humanity with manas or intelligence, the immortal EGOS in men. (See “Manas”.)

Manasasarovara (Sk.). Phonetically pronounced Mansoravara. A sacred lake in Tibet, in the Himalayas, also called Anavatapta. Manasasarovara is the name of the tutelary deity of that lake and, according to popular folk-lore, is said to be a nâga, a “serpent”. This, translated esoterically, means a great adept, a sage. The lake is a great place of yearly pilgrimage for the Hindus, as the Vedas are claimed to have been written on its shores.

Mânava (Sk.). A land of ancient India; a Kalpa or Cycle. The name of a weapon used by Râma; meaning of “Manu” as,―

Mânava Dharma Shâstra—is the ancient code of law of, or by Manu.

Mandala (Sk.). A circle; also the ten divisions of the Vedas.

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Mandara (Sk.). The mountain used by the gods as a stick to churn the ocean of milk in the Purânas.

Mandâkinî (Sk.). The heavenly Ganga or Ganges.

Mandragora (Gr.). A plant whose root has the human form. In Occultism it is used by black magicians for various illicit objects, and some of the “left-hand” Occultists make homunculi with it. It is commonly called mandrake, and is supposed to cry out when pulled out of the ground.

Manes or Manus (Lat.). Benevolent “gods”, i.e., “spooks” of the lower world (Kâmaloka); the deified shades of the dead—of the ancient profane, and the “materialized”ghosts of the modern Spiritualists, believed to be the souls of the departed, whereas, in truth, they are only their empty shells, or images.

Manichæans (Lat.). A sect of the third century which believed in two eternal principles of good and evil; the former furnishing mankind with souls, and the latter with bodies. This sect was founded by a certain half-Christian mystic named Mani, who gave himself out as the expected “Comforter”, the Messiah and Christ. Many centuries later, after the sect was dead, a Brotherhood arose, calling itself the “Manichees”, of a masonic character with several degrees of initiation. Their ideas were Kabalistic, but were misunderstood.

Mano (Gnost.). The Lord of Light. Rex Lucis, in the Codex Nazaræus. He is the Second “Life” of the second or manifested trinity “the heavenly life and light, and older than the architect of heaven and earth” (Cod. Naz., Vol. I. p. 145). These trinities are as follows. The Supreme Lord of splendour and of light, luminous and refulgent, before which no other existed, is called Corona (the crown); Lord Ferho, the unrevealed life which existed in the former from eternity; and Lord Jordan—the spirit, the living water of grace (Ibid. II pp. 45-51). He is the one through whom alone we can be saved. These three constitute the trinity in abscondito. The second trinity is composed of the three lives. The first is the similitude of Lord Ferho, through whom he has proceeded forth; and the second Ferho is the King of Light—MANO. The second life is Ish Amon (Pleroma), the vase of election, containing the visible thought of the Jordanus Maximus—the type (or its intelligible reflection), the prototype of the living water, who is the “spiritual Jordan”. (Ibid. II., p. 211.) The third life, which is produced by the other two, is ABATUR (Ab, the Parent or Father). This is the mysterious and decrepit “Aged of the Aged”, the Ancient “Senem sui obtegentem et grandævum mundi.” This latter third Life is the Father of the Demiurge Fetahil, the Creator of the world, whom the Ophites call Ilda-Baoth (q.v.), though Fetahil is the only-begotten one, the reflection of the Father, Abatur, who begets him

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by looking into the “dark water”. Sophia Achamoth also begets her Son Ilda-Baoth the Demiurge, by looking into the chaos of matter. But the Lord Mano, “the Lord of loftiness, the Lord of all genii”, is higher than the Father, in this kabalistic Codex—one is purely spiritual, the other material. So, for instance, while Abatur’s “only-begotten” one is the genius Fetahil, the Creator of the physical world, Lord Mano, the “Lord of Celsitude”, who is the son of Him, who is “the Father of all who preach the Gospel”, produces also an “only-begotten” one, the Lord Lehdaio, “a just Lord”. He is the Christos, the anointed, who pours out the “grace” of the Invisible Jordan, the Spirit of the Highest Crown. (See for further information Isis Unveiled. Vol. II., pp. 227, et. seq.)

Manodhâtu (Sk.). Lit., the “World of the mind”, meaning not only all our mental faculties, but also one of the divisions of the plane of mind. Each human being has his Manodhatu or plane of thought proportionate with the degree of his intellect and his mental faculties, beyond which he can go only by studying and developing his higher spiritual faculties in one of the higher spheres of thought.

Manomaya Kosha (Sk.). A Vedantic term, meaning the Sheath (Kosha) of the Manomaya, an equivalent for fourth and fifth “principles” in man. In esoteric philosophy this “Kosha” corresponds to the dual Manas.

Manticism, or Mantic Frenzy. During this state was developed the gift of prophecy. The two words are nearly synonymous. One was as honoured as the other. Pythagoras and Plato held it in high esteem, and Socrates advised his disciples to study Manticism. The Church Fathers, who condemned so severely the mantic frenzy in Pagan priests and Pythiæ, were not above applying it to their own uses. The Montanists, who took their name from Montanus, a bishop of Phrygia, who was considered divinely inspired, contended with the μάντεις (manteis) or prophets. “Tertullian, Augustine, and the martyrs of Carthage, were of the number”, says the author of Prophecy, Ancient and Modern. “The Montanists seem to have resembled the Bacchantes in the wild enthusiasm that characterized their orgies,” he adds. There is a diversity of opinion as to the origin of the word Manticism. There was the famous Mantis the Seer, in the days of Melampus and Prœtus King of Argos; and there was Manto, the daughter of the prophet of Thebes, herself a prophetess. Cicero describes prophecy and mantic frenzy, by saying, that “in the inner recesses of the mind is divine prophecy hidden and confined, a divine impulse, which when it burns more vividly is called furor”, frenzy. (Isis Unveiled.)

Mantra period (Sk.). One of the four periods into which Vedic literature has been divided.

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Mantra Shâstra (Sk.). Brahmanical writings on the occult science of incantations.

Mantra Tantra Shâstras (Sk.). Works on incantations, but specially on magic.

Mantras (Sk.). Verses from the Vedic works, used as incantations and charms. By Mantras are meant all those portions of the Vedas which are distinct from the Brahmanas, or their interpretation.

Mantrika Sakti (Sk.). The power, or the occult potency of mystic words, sounds, numbers or letters in these Mantras.

Manjusri (Tib.). The God of Wisdom. In Esoteric philosophy a certain Dhyan Chohan.

Manu (Sk.). The great Indian legislator. The name comes from the Sanskrit root man “to think”—mankind really, but stands for Swâyambhuva, the first of the Manus, who started from Swâyambhu, “the self-existent” hence the Logos, and the progenitor of mankind. Manu is the first Legislator, almost a Divine Being.

Manu Swâyambhuva (Sk). The heavenly man. Adam-Kadmon, the synthesis of the fourteen Manus.

Manus (Sk.). The fourteen Manus are the patrons or guardians of the race cycles in a Manvantara, or Day of Brahmâ. The primeval Manus are seven, they become fourteen in the Purânas.

Manushi or Manushi Buddhas (Sk.). Human Buddhas, Bodhisattvas, or incarnated Dhyan Chohans.

Manvantara (Sk.). A period of manifestation, as opposed to Pralaya (dissolution, or rest), applied to various cycles, especially to a Day of Brahmâ, 4,320,000,000 Solar years—and to the reign of one Manu—308,448,000. (See Vol. II. of the Secret Doctrine, p. 68 et. seq.) Lit., Manuantara—between Manus.

Maquom (Chald.) “A secret place” in the phraseology of the Zohar, a concealed spot, whether referring to a sacred shrine in a temple, to the “Womb of the World”, or the human womb. A Kabalistic term.

Mâra (Sk.). The god of Temptation, the Seducer who tried to turn away Buddha from his PATH. He is called the “Destroyer” and “Death” (of the Soul). One of the names of Kâma, God of love.

Marabut. A Mahometan pilgrim who has been to Mekka, a saint. After his death his body is placed in an open sepulchre built above ground, like other buildings, but in the middle of the streets and public places of populated cities. Placed inside the small and only room of the tomb (and several such public sarcophagi of brick and mortar may be seen to this day in the streets and squares of Cairo), the devotion of the way farers keeps a lamp ever burning at his head. The tombs of some of

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these marabuts are very famous for the miracles they are alleged to perform.

Marcionites. An ancient Gnostic Sect founded by Marcion who was a devout Christian as long as no dogma of human creation came to mar the purely transcendental, and metaphysical concepts, and the original beliefs of the early Christians. Such primitive beliefs were those of Marcion. He denied the historical facts (as now found in the Gospels) of Christ’s birth, incarnation and passion, and also the resurrection of the body of Jesus, maintaining that such statements were simply the carnalization of metaphysical allegories and symbolism, and a degradation of the true spiritual idea. Along with all the other Gnostics, Marcion accused the “Church Fathers”, as Irenæus himself complains, of “framing their (Christian) doctrine according to the capacity of their hearers, fabling blind things for the blind, according to their blindness; for the dull, according to their dulness: for those in error, according to their errors.”

Mârga (Sk.). “The “Path”, The Ashthânga mârga, the “holy” or sacred path is the one that leads to Nirvâna. The eight-fold path has grown out of the seven-fold path, by the addition of the (now) first of the eight Marga; i.e., “the possession of orthodox views”; with which a real Yogâcharya would have nothing to do.

Mârîchi (Sk.). One of the “mind-born” sons of Brahmâ in the Purânas. Brahmans make of him the personified light, the parent of Sûrya, the Sun and the direct ancestor of Mahâkâsyapa. The Northern Buddhists of the Yogachârya School, see in Mârîchi Deva, a Bodhisattva, while Chinese Buddhists (especially the Tauists), have made of this conception the Queen of Heaven, the goddess of light, ruler of the sun and moon. With the pious but illiterate Buddhists, her magic formula “Om Mârîchi svâha” is very powerful. Speaking of Mârîchi, Eitel mentions “Georgi, who explains the name as a ‘Chinese transcription of the name of the holy Virgin Mary’” (! !). As Mârîchi is the chief of the Maruts and one of the seven primitive Rishis, the supposed derivation does seem a little far fetched.

Mârishâ (Sk.). The daughter of the Sage Kanda and Pramlochâ, the Apsara-demon from Indra’s heaven. She was the mother of Daksha. An allegory referring to the Mystery of the Second and Third human Races.

Martinists. A Society in France, founded by a great mystic called the Marquis de St. Martin, a disciple of Martinez Pasqualis. It was first established at Lyons as a kind of occult Masonic Society, its members believing in the possibility of communicating with Planetary

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Spirits and minor Gods and genii of the ultramundane Spheres. Louis Claude de St. Martin, born in 1743, had commenced life as a brilliant officer in the army, but left it to devote himself to study and the belles lettres, ending his career by becoming an ardent Theosophist and a disciple of Jacob Boehmen. He tried to bring back Masonry to its primeval character of Occultism and Theurgy, but failed. He first made his “Rectified Rite” to consist of ten degrees, but these were brought down owing to the study of the original Masonic orders—to seven. Masons complain that he introduced certain ideas and adopted rites “at variance with the archæological history of Masonry”; but so did Cagliostro and St Germain before him, as all those who knew well the origin of Free masonry.

Mârttanda, (Sk.). The Vedic name of the Sun.

Mârut Jivas (Sk.). The monads of Adepts who have attained the final liberation, but prefer to re-incarnate on earth for the sake of Humanity. Not to be confused, however, with the Nirmânakâyas, who are far higher.

Mâruts (Sk.). With the Orientalists Storm-Gods, but in the Veda something very mystical. In the esoteric teachings as they incarnate in every round, they are simply identical with some of the Agnishwatta Pitris, the Human intelligent Egos. Hence the allegory of Siva transforming the lumps of flesh into boys, and calling them Maruts, to show senseless men transformed by becoming the Vehicles of the Pitris or Fire Maruts, and thus rational beings.

Masben  (Chald.). A Masonic term meaning “the Sun in putrefaction”. Has a direct reference—perhaps forgotten by the Masons—to their “Word at Low Breath”.

Mash-Mak. By tradition an Atlantean word of the fourth Race, to denote a mysterious Cosmic fire, or rather Force, which was said to be able to pulverize in a second whole cities and disintegrate the world.

Masorah (Heb.). The name is especially applied to a collection of notes, explanatory, grammatical and critical, which are found on the margin of ancient Hebrew MSS., or scrolls of the Old Testament. The Masoretes were also called Melchites.

Masoretic Points, or Vowels (Heb.). Or, as the system is now called, Masôra from Massoreh or Massoreth, “tradition”, and Mâsar, to “hand down”. The Rabbins who busied themselves with the Masorah, hence called Masorites, were also the inventors of the Masoretic points, which are supposed to give the vowelless words of the Scriptures their true pronunciation, by the addition of points representing vowels to the consonants. This was the invention of the learned and cunning Rabbins of the School of Tiberias (in the ninth century of our era), who,

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by doing so, have put an entirely new construction on the chief words and names in the Books of Moses, and made thereby confusion still more confounded. The truth is, that this scheme has only added additional blinds to those already existing in the Pentateuch and other works.

Mastaba (Eg.). The upper portion of an Egyptian tomb, which, say the Egyptologists, consisted always of three parts: namely (1) the Mastaba or memorial chapel above ground, (2) a Pit from twenty to ninety feet in depth, which led by a passage, to (3) the Burial Chamber, where stood the Sarcophagus, containing the mummy sleeping its sleep of long ages. Once the latter interred, the pit was filled up and the entrance to it concealed. Thus say the Orientalists, who divide the last resting place of the mummy on almost the same principles as theologians do man—into body, soul, and spirit or mind. The fact is, that these tombs of the ancients were symbolical like the rest of their sacred edifices, and that this symbology points directly to the septenary division of man. But in death the order is reversed; and while the Mastaba with its scenes of daily life painted on the walls, its table of offerings, to the Larva, the ghost, or “Linga Sarira”, was a memorial raised to the two Principles and Life which had quitted that which was a lower trio on earth; the Pit, the Passage, the Burial Chambers and the mummy in the Sarcophagus, were the objective symbols raised to the two perishable “principles”, the personal mind and Kama, and the three imperishable, the higher Triad, now merged into one. This “One” was the Spirit of the Blessed now resting in the Happy Circle of Aanroo.

Matari Svan (Sk.). An ærial being shown in Rig-Veda bringing down agni or fire to the Bhrigus; who are called “The Consumers”, and are described by the Orientalists as “a class of mythical beings who belonged to the middle or ærial class of gods”. In Occultism the Bhrigus are simply the “Salamanders” of the Rosicrucians and Kabalists.

Materializations. In Spiritualism the word signifies the objective appearance of the so-called “Spirits” of the dead, who reclothe themselves occasionally in matter; i.e., they form for themselves out of the materials at hand, which are found in the atmosphere and the emanations of those present, a temporary body hearing the human likeness of the defunct as he appeared, when alive. Theosophists accept the phenomenon of “materialization”; but they reject the theory that it is produced by “Spirits”, i.e., the immortal principles of the disembodied persons. Theosophists hold that when the phenomenon is genuine—and it is a fact of rarer occurrence than is generally believed—it is produced by the larvæ, the eidola or Kamalokic “ghosts” of dead personalities. (See

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“Kâmadhâtu”, “Kâmaloka” and “Kâmarupa”.) As Kâmaloka is on the earth plane and differs from its degree of materiality only in the degree of its plane of consciousness, for which reason it is concealed from our normal sight, the occasional apparition of such shells is as natural as that of electric balls and other atmospheric phenomena. Electricity as a fluid, or atomic matter (for Theosophists hold with Maxwell that it is atomic), though invisible, is ever present in the air, and manifests under various shapes, but only when certain conditions are there to “materialize” the fluid, when it passes from its own on to our plane and makes itself objective. Similarly with the eidola of the dead. They are present, around us, but being on another plane do not see us any more than we see them. But whenever the strong desires of living men and the conditions furnished by the abnormal constitutions of mediums are combined together, these eidola are drawn—nay, pulled down from their plane on to ours and made objective. This is Necromancy; it does no good to the dead, and great harm to the living, in addition to the fact that it interferes with a law of nature. The occasional materialization of the “astral bodies” or doubles of living persons is quite another matter. These “astrals” are often mistaken for the apparitions of the dead, since, chameleon-like, our own “Elementaries”, along with those of the disembodied and cosmic Elementals, will often assume the appearance of those images which are strongest in our thoughts. In short, at the so-called “materialization” seances it is those present and the medium, who create the peculiar likeness of the apparitions. Independent “apparitions” belong to another kind of psychic phenomena. Materializations are also called “form-manifestations” and “portrait statues”. To call them materialized spirits is inadmissible, for they are not spirits but animated portrait-statues, indeed.

Mathadhipatis (Sk.). Heads of various religious Brotherhoods in India, High Priests in Monasteries.

Matrâ (Sk.). The shortest period of time as applied to the duration of sounds, equal to the twinkling of the eye.

Mâtrâ (Sk.). The quantity of a Sanskrit Syllable.

Mâtripadma (Sk.). The mother-lotus; the womb of Nature.

Mâtris (Sk.). “Mothers,” the divine mothers. Their number is seven. They are the female aspects and powers of the gods.

Matronethah (Heb. Kab.). Identical with Malcuth, the tenth Sephira. Lit., Matrona is the “inferior mother”.

Matsya (Sk.). “A fish.” Matsya avatar was one of the earliest incarnations of Vishnu.

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Matsya Purâna (Sk.). The Scripture or Purâna which treats of that incarnation.

Mâyâ (Sk.). Illusion; the cosmic power which renders phenomenal existence and the perceptions thereof possible. In Hindu philosophy that alone which is changeless and eternal is called reality; all that which is subject to change through decay and differentiation and which has therefore a begining and an end is regarded as mâyâ—illusion.

Mâyâ Moha (Sk.). An illusive form assumed by Vishnu in order to deceive ascetic Daityas who were becoming too holy through austerities and hence too dangerous in power, as says the Vishnu Purâna.

Mâyâvi Rûpa (Sk.). “Illusive form”; the “double” in esoteric philosophy; döppelganger or perisprit in German and French.

Mayavic Upadhi (Sk.). The covering of illusion, phenomenal appearance.

Mazdeans. From (Ahura) Mazda. (See Spiegel’s Yasna, xl.) They were the ancient Persian nobles who worshipped Ormazd, and, rejecting images, inspired the Jews with the same horror for every concrete representation of the Deity. They seem in Herodotus’ time to have been superseded by the Magian religionists. The Parsis and Gebers, (geberim, mighty men, of Genesis vi. and x. 8) appear to be Magian religionists.

Mazdiasnian. Zoroastrian; lit., “worshipping god”.

M’bul (Heb.). The “waters of the flood”. Esoterically, the periodical outpourings of astral impurities on to the earth; periods of psychic crimes and iniquities, or of regular moral cataclysms.

Medinî (Sk.). The earth; so-called from the marrow (medas) of two demons. These monsters springing from the ear of the sleeping Vishnu, were preparing to kill Brahmâ who was lying on the lotus which grows from Vishnu’s navel, when the god of Preservation awoke and killed them. Their bodies being thrown into the sea produced such a quantity of fat and marrow that Nârâyana used it to form the earth with.

Megacosm (Gr.). The world of the Astral light, or as explained by a puzzled Mason “a great world, not identical with Macrocosm, the Universe, but something between it and Microcosm, the little world” or man.

Mehen (Eg.). In popular myths, the great serpent which represents the lower atmosphere. In Occultism, the world of the Astral light, called symbolically the Cosmic Dragon and the Serpent. (See the works of Eliphaz Lévi, who called this light le Serpent du Mal, and by other names, attributing to it all the evil influences on the earth.)

Melekh (Heb.). Lit., “a King”. A title of the Sephira Tiphereth,

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the V, or vau in the tetragrammaton—the son or Microprosopus (the Lesser Face).

Melhas (Sk.). A class of fire-gods or Salamanders.

Memrab (Heb.). In the Kabala, “the voice of the will”; i.e., the collective forces of nature in activity, called the “Word”, or Logos, by the Jewish Kabalists.

Mendæans (Gr.). Also called Sabians, and St. John Christians. The latter is absurd, since, according to all accounts, and even their own, they have nothing at all to do with Christianity, which they abominate. The modern sect of the Mendæans is widely scattered over Asia Minor and elsewhere, and is rightly believed by several Orientalists to be a direct surviving relic of the Gnostics. For as explained in the Dictionnaire des Apocryphes by the Abbé Migne (art. “Le Code Nazaréan” vulgaire-ment appelé “Livre d’Adam”), the Mendæans (written in French Mandaïtes, which name they pronounce as Mandai) “properly signifies science, knowledge or Gnosis. Thus it is the equivalent of Gnostics” (loc. cit. note p. 3). As the above cited work shows, although many travellers have spoken of a sect whose followers are variously named Sabians, St. John’s Christians and Mendæans, and who are scattered around Schat-Etarab at the junction of the Tigris and Euphrates (principally at Bassorah, Hoveïza, Korna, etc.), it was Norberg who was the first to point out a tribe belonging to the same sect established in Syria. And they are the most interesting of all. This tribe, some 14,000 or 15,000 in number, lives at a day’s march east of Mount Lebanon, principally at Elmerkah, (Lata-Kieh). They call themselves indifferently Nazarenes and Galileans, as they originally come to Syria from Galilee. They claim that their religion is the same as that of St. John the Baptist, and that it has not changed one bit since his day. On festival days they clothe them selves in camel’s skins, sleep on camel’s skins, and eat locusts and honey as did their “Father, St. John the Baptist”. Yet they call Jesus Christ an impostor, a false Messiah, and Nebso (or the planet Mercury in its evil side), and show him as a production of the Spirit of the “seven badly-disposed stellars” (or planets). See Codex Nazaræus, which is their Scripture.

Mendes (Gr.). The name of the demon-goat, alleged by the Church of Rome to have been worshipped by the Templars and other Masons. But this goat was a myth created by the evil fancy of the odium theologicum. There never was such a creature, nor was its worship known among Templars or their predecessors, the Gnostics. The god of Mendes, or the Greek Mendesius, a name given to Lower Egypt in pre-Christian days, was the ram-headed god Ammon, the living and holy spirit of Ra, the life-giving sun; and this led certain Greek authors into the error of

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affirming that the Egyptians called the “goat” (or the ram-headed god) himself, Mendes. Ammon was for ages the chief deity of Egypt, the supreme god; Amoun-Ra the “hidden god”, or Amen (the concealed) the Selfengendered who is “his own father and his own son”. Esoterically, he was Pan, the god of nature or nature personified, and probably the cloven foot of Pan the goat-footed, helped to produce the error of this god being a goat. As Ammon’s shrine was at Pa-bi-neb-tat, “the dwelling of Tat or Spirit, Lord of Tat” (Bindedi in the Assyrian inscriptions), the Greeks first corrupted the name into Bendes and then into Mendes from “Mendesius”. The “error” served ecclesiastical purposes too well to be made away with, even when recognized.

Mensambulism (Lat.). A word coined by some French Kabalists to denote the phenomenon of “table turning” from the Latin mensa, a table.

Meracha phath (Heb.). Used of the “breathing” of the divine Spirit when in the act of hovering over the waters of space before creation (See Siphra Dzeniutha).

Mercavah or Mercabah (Heb.). A chariot: the Kabalists say that the Supreme after he had established the Ten Sephiroth used them as a chariot or throne of glory on which to descend upon the souls of men.

Merodach (Chald.). God of Babylon, the Bel of later times. He is the son of Davkina, goddess of the lower regions, or the earth, and of Hea, God of the Seas and Hades with the Orientalists; but esoterically and with the Akkadians, the Great God of Wisdom, “he who resurrects the dead”. Hea, Ea, Dagon or Oannes and Merodach are one.

Meru (Sk.). The name of an alleged mountain in the centre (or “navel”) of the earth where Swarga, the Olympus of the indians, is placed. It contains the “cities” of the greatest gods and the abodes of various Devas. Geographically accepted, it is an unknown mountain north of the Himalayas. In tradition, Meru was the “Land of Bliss” of the earliest Vedic times. It is also referred to as Hemadri “the golden mountain”, Ratnasânu, “jewel peak”, Karnikâchala, “lotus-mountain”, and Amarâdri and Deva-parvata, “the mountain of the gods” The Occult teachings place it in the very centre of the North Pole, pointing it out as the site of the first continent on our earth, after the solidification of the globe.

Meshia and Meshiane (Zend). The Adam and Eve of the Zoroastrians, in the early Persian system; the first human couple.

Mesmer, Friedrich Anton. The famous physician who rediscovered and applied practically that magnetic fluid in man which was called animal magnetism and since then Mesmerism. He was born in Schwaben, in 1734 and died in 1815. He was an initiated member of the Brother-

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hoods of the Fratres Lucis and of Lukshoor (or Luxor), or the Egyptian Branch of the latter. It was the Council of “Luxor” which selected him—according to the orders of the “Great Brotherhood”—to act in the XVIIIth century as their usual pioneer, sent in the last quarter of every century to enlighten a small portion of the Western nations in occult lore. It was St. Germain who supervised the development of events in this case; and later Cagliostro was commissioned to help, but having made a series of mistakes, more or less fatal, he was recalled. Of these three men who were at first regarded as quacks, Mesmer is already vindicated. The justification of the two others will follow in the next century. Mesmer founded the “Order of Universal Harmony” in 1783, in which presumably only animal magnetism was taught, but which in reality expounded the tenets of Hippocrates, the methods of the ancient Asclepieia, the Temples of Healing, and many other occult sciences.

Metatron (Heb.). The Kabbalistic “Prince of Faces”, the Intelligence of the First Sephira, and the reputed ruler of Moses. His numeration is 314, the same as the deity title “Shaddai”, Almighty. He is also the Angel of the world of Briah, and he who conducted the Isrælites through the Wilderness, hence, the same as “the Lord God” Jehovah. The name resembles the Greek words metathronon or “beside the Throne”.[w.w.w.]

Metempsychosis. The progress of the soul from one stage of existence to another. Symbolized as and vulgarly believed to be rebirths in animal bodies. A term generally misunderstood by every class of European and American society, including many scientists. Metempsychosis should apply to animals alone. The kabalistic axiom, “A stone becomes a plant, a plant an animal, an animal a man, a man a spirit, and a spirit a god”, receives an explanation in Manu’s Mânava-Dharma-Shâstra and other Brahmanical books.

Metis (Gr.). Wisdom. The Greek theology associated Metis—Divine Wisdom, with Eros—Divine Love. The word is also said to form part of the Templars’ deity or idol Baphomet, which some authorities derive from Baphe, baptism, and Metis, wisdom; while others say that the idol represented the two teachers whom the Templars equally denied, viz., Papa or the Pope, and Mahomet. [w.w.w.]

Midgard (Scand.). The great snake in the Eddas which gnaws the roots of the Yggdrasil—the Tree of Life and the Universe in the legend of the Norsemen. Midgard is the Mundane Snake of Evil.

Midrashim (Heb.). “Ancient”—the same as Purâna; the ancient writings of the Jews as the Purânas are called the “Ancient” (Scriptures) of India.

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Migmar (Tib.). The planet Mars.

Mîmânsâ (Sk.). A school of philosophy; one of the six in India. There are two Mîmânsâ, the older and the younger. The first, the “Pûrva-Mîmânsâ”, was founded by Jamini, and the later or “Uttara Mîmânsâ”, by a Vyasa—and is now called the Vedânta school. Sankarâchârya was the most prominent apostle of the latter. The Vedânta school is the oldest of all the six Darshana (lit., “demonstrations”), but even to the Pûrva-Mîmânsâ no higher antiquity is allowed than 500 B.C. Orientalists in favour of the absurd idea that all these schools are “due to Greek influence”, in order to have them fit their theory would make them of still later date. The Shad-darshana (or Six Demonstrations) have all a starting point in common, and maintain that ex nihilo nihil fit.

Mimir (Scand.). A wise giant in the Eddas. One of the Jotuns or Titans. He had a well which he watched over (Mimir’s well), which contained the waters of Primeval Wisdom, by drinking of which Odin acquired the knowledge of all past, present, and future events.

Minas (Sk.). The same as Meenam, the Zodiacal sign Pisces or Fishes.

Minos (Gr.,). The great Judge in Hades. An ancient King of Crete.

Miölner (Scand.) The storm-hammer of Thor (See “Svastica”) made for him by the Dwarfs; with it the God conquered men and gods alike. The same kind of magic weapon as the Hindu Agneyastra, the fire-weapon.

Mirror. The Luminous Mirror, Aspaqularia nera, a Kabbalistic term, means the power of foresight and farsight, prophecy such as Moses had. Ordinary mortals have only the Aspaqularia della nera or Non Luminous Mirror, they see only in a glass darkly: a parallel symbolism is that of the conception of the Tree of Life, and that only of the Tree of Knowledge. [w.w.w.]

Mishnah (Heb.). The older portion of the Jewish Talmud, or oral law,, consisting of supplementary regulations for the guidance of the Jews with an ample commentary. The contents are arranged in six sections, treating of Seeds, Feasts, Women, Damages, Sacred Things and Purification. Rabbi Judah Haunasee codified the Mishnah about A.D. 140.[w.w.w.]

Mistletoe. This curious plant, which grows only as a parasite upon other trees, such as the apple and the oak, was a mystic plant in several ancient religions, notably that of the Celtic Druids: their priests cut the Mistletoe with much ceremony at certain seasons, and then only with a specially consecrated golden knife. Hislop suggests as a religious explanation that the Mistletoe being a Branch growing out of a Mother tree was worshipped as a Divine Branch out of an Earthly Tree, the

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union of deity and humanity. The name in German means “all heal”. Compare the Golden Branch in Virgil’s Æneid, Vi. 126: and Pliny, Hist. Nat., xvii. 4 “Sacerdos candida veste cultus arborem scandit, falce aurea demetit.” [w.w.w.]

Mitra or Mithra. (Pers.) An ancient Iranian deity, a sun-god, as evidenced by his being lion-headed. The name exists also in India and means a form of the sun. The Persian Mithra, he who drove out of heaven Ahriman, is a kind of Messiah who is expected to return as the judge of men, and is a sin-bearing god who atones for the iniquities of mankind. As such, however, he is directly connected with the highest Occultism, the tenets of which were expounded during the Mithraic Mysteries which thus bore his name.

Mitre. The head-dress of a religious dignitary, as of a Roman Catholic Bishop: a capending upwards in two lips, like a fish’s head with open mouth—os tincæ—associated with Dagon, the Babylonian deity, the word dag meaning fish. Curiously enough the os uteri has been so called in the human female and the fish is related to the goddess Aphrodite who sprang from the sea. It is curious also that the ancient Chaldee legends speak of a religious teacher coming to them springing out of the sea, named Oannes and Annedotus, half fish, half man. [w.w.w.]

Mizraim (Eg.). The name of Egypt in very ancient times, This name is now connected with Freemasonry. See the rite of Mizraim and the rite of Memphis in Masonic Cyclopædias.

Mlechchhas (Sk.). Outcasts. The name given to all foreigners, and those who are non-Aryas.

Mnevis (Eg.). The bull Mnevis, the Son of Ptah, and the symbol of the Sun-god Ra, as Apis was supposed to be Osiris in the sacred bull-form. His abode was at Heliopolis, the City of the Sun. He was black and carried on his horns the sacred uræus and disk.

Mobeds (Zend). Parsi, or Zoroastrian priests.

Moira (Gr.). The same as the Latin Fatum—fate, destiny, the power which rules over the actions, sufferings, the life and struggles of men. But this is not Karma; it is only one of its agent-forces.

Moksha (Sk.). “Liberation.” The same as Nirvâna; a post mortem state of rest and bliss of the “Soul-Pilgrim”.

Monad (Gr.). The Unity, the one; but in Occultism it often means the unified triad, Atma-Buddhi-Manas, or the duad, Atma-Buddhi, that immortal part of man which reincarnates in the lower kingdoms, and gradually progresses through them to Man and then to the final goal—Nirvâna.

Monas (Gr.). The same as the term Monad; “Alone”, a unit. In

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the Pythagorean system the duad emanates from the higher and solitary Monas, which is thus the “First Cause”.

Monogenes (Gr.). Lit., “the only-begotten”; a name of Proserpine and other gods and goddesses.

Moon. The earth’s satellite has figured very largely as an emblem in the religions of antiquity; and most commonly has been represented as Female, but this is not universal, for in the myths of the Teutons and Arabs, as well as in the conception of the Rajpoots of India (see Tod, Hist.), and in Tartary the moon was male. Latin authors speak of Luna. and also of Lunus, but with extreme rarity. The Greek name is Selene, the Hebrew Lebanah and also Yarcah. In Egypt the moon was associated with Isis, in Phenicia with Astarte and in Babylon with Ishtar. From certain points of view the ancients regarded the moon also as Androgyne. The astrologers allot an Influence to the moon over the several parts of a man, according to the several Zodiacal signs she traverses; as well as a special influence produced by the house she occupies in a figure.

The division of the Zodiac into the 28 mansions of the moon appears to be older than that into 12 signs: the Copts, Egyptians, Arabs, Persians and Hindoos used the division into 28 parts centuries ago, and the Chinese use it still.

The Hermetists said the moon gave man an astral form, while Theosophy teaches that the Lunar Pitris were the creators of our human bodies and lower principles. (See Secret Doctrine 1. 386.) [w.w.w.]

Moriah, Mount. The site of King Solomon’s first temple at Jerusalem according to tradition. It is to that mount that Abraham journeyed to offer Isaac in sacrifice.

Morya (Sk.). One of the royal Buddhist houses of Magadha; to which belonged Chandragupta and Asoka his grandson; also the name of a Rajpoot tribe.

Môt (Phœn.). The same as ilus, mud, primordial chaos; a word used in the Tyrrhenian Cosmogony (See “Suidas”).

Mout or Mooth (Eg.). The mother goddess; the primordial goddess, for “all the gods are born from Mooth”, it is said. Astronomically, the moon.

Mu (Senzar). The mystic word (or rather a portion of it) in Northern Buddhism. It means the “destruction of temptation” during the course of Yoga practice.

Mudra (Sk.). Called the mystic seal. A system of occult signs made with the fingers. These signs imitate ancient Sanskrit characters of magic efficacy. First used in the Northern Buddhist Yogâcharya School,

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they were adopted later by the Hindu Tantrikas, but often misused by them for black magic purposes.

Mukta and Mukti (Sk.). Liberation from sentient life; one beatified or liberated; a candidate for Moksha, freedom from flesh and matter, or life on this earth.

Mûlaprakriti (Sk.). The Parabrahmic root, the abstract deific feminine principle—undifferentiated substance. Akâsa. Literally, “the root of Nature” (Prakriti) or Matter.

Mulil (Chald.). A name of the Chaldean Bel.

Muluk-Taoos (Arab.). From Maluh, “Ruler”, a later form of Moloch, Melek, Malayak and Malachim, “messengers”, angels. It is the Deity worshipped by the Yezidis, a sect in Persia, kindly called by Christian theology “devil worshippers”, under the form of a peacock. The Lord “Peacock” is not Satan, nor is it the devil; for it is simply the symbol of the hundred eyed Wisdom; the bird of Saraswati, goddess of Wisdom; of Karttikeya the Kumâra, the Virgin celibate of the Mysteries of Juno, and all the gods and goddesses connected with the secret learning.

Mummy. The name for human bodies embalmed and preserved according to the ancient Egyptian method. The process of mummification is a rite of extreme antiquity in the land of the Pharaohs, and was considered as one of the most sacred ceremonies. It was, moreover, a process showing considerable learning in chemistry and surgery. Mummies 5,000 years old and more, reappear among us a preserved and fresh as when they first came from the hands of the Parashistes.

Mumukshatwa (Sk.). Desire for liberation (from reincarnation and thraldom of matter).

Mundakya Upanishad (Sk.). Lit., the “Mundaka esoteric doctrine”, a work of high antiquity. It has been translated by Raja Rammohun Roy.

Mundane Egg or Tree, or any other such symbolical object in the world Mythologies. Meru is a “Mundane Mountain”; the Bodhi Tree, or Ficus religiosa, is the Mundane Tree of the Buddhists; just as the Yggdrasil is the “Mundane Tree” of the Scandinavians or Norsemen.

Munis (Sk.). Saints, or Sages.

Murâri (Sk.). An epithet of Krishna or Vishnu; lit., the enemy of Mura—an Asura.

Mûrti(Sk.). A form, or a sign, or again a face, e.g., “Trimûrti”, the “three Faces” or Images.

Murttimat (Sk.). Something inherent or incarnate in something else and inseparable from it; like wetness in water, which is coexistent and coeval with it. Used of some attributes of Brahmâ and other gods.

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Muspel (Scand.). A giant in the Edda, the Fire-god, and the father of the Flames. It was these evil sons of the good Muspel Who after threatening evil in Glowheim (Muspelheim) finally gathered into a formidable army, and fought the “Last Battle” on the field of Wigred. Muspel is rendered as “World (or Mundane) Fire”. The conception Dark Surtur (black smoke) out of which flash tongues of flame, connects Muspel with the Hindu Agni.

Mutham or Mattam. (Sk.). Temples in India with cloisters and monasteries for regular ascetics and scholars.

Myalba (Tib.). In the Esoteric philosophy of Northern Buddhism, the name of our Earth, called Hell for those who reincarnate in it for punishment. Exoterically, Myalba is translated a Hell.

Mystagogy (Gr.). The doctrines or interpretations of the sacred mysteries.

Mysterium Magnum (Lat.). “The great Mystery”, a term used in Alchemy in connection with the fabrication of the “Philosopher’s Stone” and the “Elixir of Life”.

Mysteries. Greek teletai, or finishings, celebrations of initiation or the Mysteries. They were observances, generally kept secret from the profane and uninitiated, in which were taught by dramatic representation and other methods, the origin of things, the nature of the human spirit, its relation to the body, and the method of its purification and restoration to higher life. Physical science, medicine, the laws of music, divination, were all taught in the same manner. The Hippocratic oath was but a mystic obligation. Hippocrates was a priest of Asklepios, some of whose writings chanced to become public. But the Asklepiades were initiates of the Æsculapian serpent-worship, as the Bacchantes were of the Dionysia; and both rites were eventually incorporated with the Eleusinia. The Sacred Mysteries were enacted in the ancient Temples by the initiated Hierophants for the benefit and instruction of the candidates. The most solemn and occult Mysteries were certainly those which were performed in Egypt by “the band of secret-keepers”, as Mr. Bonwick calls the Hierophants. Maurice describes their nature very graphically in a few lines. Speaking of the Mysteries performed in Philæ (the Nile-island), he says that “it was in these gloomy caverns that the grand and mystic arcana of the goddess (Isis) were unfolded to the adoring aspirant, while the solemn hymn of initiation resounded through the long extent of these stony recesses”. The word “mysteries” is derived from the Greek muô, “to close the mouth”, and every symbol connected with them had, a hidden meaning. As Plato and many other sages of antiquity affirm, the Mysteries were highly religious, moral and beneficent as a school of ethics. The Grecian mysteries, those of

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Ceres and Bacchus, were only imitations of the Egyptian; and the author of Egyptian Belief and Modern Thought, informs us that our own “word chapel or capella is said to be the Caph-El or college of El, the Solar divinity”. The well-known Kabiri are associated with the Mysteries. In short, the Mysteries were in every country a series of dramatic performances, in which the mysteries of cosmogony and nature, in general, were personified by the priests and neophytes, who enacted the part of various gods and goddesses, repeating supposed scenes (allegories) from their respective lives. These were explained in their hidden meaning to the candidates for initiation, and incorporated into philosophical doctrines.

Mystery Language. The sacerdotal secret jargon employed by the initiated priests, and used only when discussing sacred things. Every nation had its own “mystery” tongue, unknown save to those admitted to the Mysteries.

Mystes (Gr.). In antiquity, the name of the new Initiates; now that of Roman Cardinals, who having borrowed all their other rites and dogmas from Aryan, Egyptian and Hellenic “heathen”, have helped themselves also to the μυσις of the neophytes. They have to keep their eyes and mouth shut on their consecration and are, therefore, called Mystæ.

Mystica Vannus Iacchi. Commonly translated the mystic Fan: but in an ancient terra-cotta in the British Museum the fan is a Basket such as the Ancients’ Mysteries displayed with mystic contents: Inman says with emblematic testes. [w.w.w.]

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N.—The 14th letter in both the English and the Hebrew alphabets. In the latter tongue the N is called Nûn, and signifies a fish. It is the symbol of the female principle or the womb. Its numerical value is 50 in the Kabalistic system, but the Peripatetics made it equivalent to 900, and with a stroke over it () 9,000. With the Hebrews, however, the final Nun was 700.

Naaseni. The Christian Gnostic sect, called Naasenians, or serpent worshippers, who considered the constellation of the Dragon as the symbol of their Logos or Christ.

Nabatheans. A sect almost identical in their beliefs with the Nazarenes and Sabeans, who had more reverence for John the Baptist than for Jesus. Maimonides identifies them with the astrolaters. . . . “Respecting the beliefs of the Sabeans”, he says, “the most famous is the book, The agriculture of the Nabatheans”. And we know that the Ebionites, the first of whom were the friends and relatives of Jesus, according to tradition, in other words, the earliest and first Christians, “were the direct followers and disciples of the Nazarene sect”, according to Epiphanius and Theodoret (See the Contra Ebionites of Epiphanius, and also “Galileans” and “Nazarenes”).

Nabhi (Sk.). The father of Bhârata, who gave his name to Bhârata Varsha (land) or India.

Nabia (Heb.). Seership, soothsaying. This oldest and most respected of mystic phenomena is the name given to prophecy in the Bible, and is correctly included among the spiritual powers, such as divination, clairvoyant visions, trance-conditions, and oracles. But while enchanters, diviners, and even astrologers are strictly condemned in the Mosaic books, prophecy, seership, and nabia appear as the special gifts of heaven. In early ages they were all termed Epoptai (Seers), the Greek word for Initiates; they were also designated Nebim, “the plural of Nebo, the Babylonian god of wisdom.” The Kabalist distinguishes between the seer and the magician; one is passive, the other active; Nebirah, is one who looks into futurity and a clairvoyant; Nebi-poel, he who possesses magic powers. We notice that Elijah and Apollonius resorted to the same means to isolate themselves from the disturbing influences of the outer world, viz., wrapping their heads entirely in a woollen mantle, from its being an electric non-conductor we must suppose.

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Nabu (Chald.). Nebu or Nebo, generally; the Chaldean god of Secret Wisdom, from which name the Biblical, Hebrew term Nabiim (prophets) was derived. This son of Anu and Ishtar was worshipped chiefly at Borsippa; but he had also his temple at Babylon, above that of Bel, devoted to the seven planets. (See “Nazarenes” and “Nebo”.)

Nâga (Sk.). Literally “Serpent”. The name in the Indian Pantheon of the Serpent or Dragon Spirits, and of the inhabitants of Pâtâla, hell. But as Pâtâla means the antipodes, and was the name given to America by the ancients, who knew and visited that continent before Europe had ever heard of it, the term is probably akin to the Mexican Nagals the (now) sorcerers and medicine men. The Nagas are the Burmese Nats, serpent-gods, or “dragon demons”. In Esotericism, however, and as already stated, this is a nick-name for the “wise men” or adepts in China and Tibet, the “Dragons.” are regarded as the titulary deities of the world, and of various spots on the earth, and the word is explained as meaning adepts, yogis, and narjols. The term has simply reference to their great knowledge and wisdom. This is also proven in the ancient Sûtras and Buddha’s biographies. The Nâga is ever a wise man, endowed with extraordinary magic powers, in South and Central America as in India, in Chaldea as also in ancient Egypt. In China the “worship” of the Nâgas was widespread, and it has become still more pronounced since Nâgârjuna (the “great Nâga”, the “great adept” literally), the fourteenth Buddhist patriarch, visited China. The “Nâgas” are regarded by the Celestials as “the tutelary Spirits or gods of the five regions or the four points of the compass and the centre, as the guardians of the five lakes and four oceans” (Eitel). This, traced to its origin and translated esoterically, means that the five continents and their five root-races had always been under the guardianship of “terrestrial deities”, i.e., Wise Adepts. The tradition that Nâgas washed Gautama Buddha at his birth, protected him and guarded the relics of his body when dead, points again to the Nâgas being only wise men, Arhats, and no monsters or Dragons. This is also corroborated by the innumerable stories of the conversion of Nâgas to Buddhism. The Nâga of a lake in a forest near Râjagriha and many other “Dragons” were thus converted by Buddha to the good Law.

Nâgadwîpa (Sk.). Lit., “the island of the Dragons”; one of the Seven Divisions of Bhâratavarsha, or modern India, according to the Purânas. No proofs remain as to who were the Nâgas (a historical people however), the favourite theory being that they were a Scythic race. But there is no proof of this. When the Brahmans invaded India they “found a race of wise men, half-gods, half-demons”, says the legend, men who were the teachers of other races and became likewise

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the instructors of the Hindus and the Brahmans themselves. Nagpur is justly believed to be the surviving relic of Nâgadwîpa. Now Nagpur is virtually in Râjputana near Oodeypore, Ajmere, etc. And is it not well known that there was a time when Brahmans went to learn Secret Wisdom from the Râjputs? Moreover a tradition states that Apollonius of Tyana was instructed in magic by the Nâgas of Kashmere.

Nagal. The title of the chief Sorcerer or “medicine man” of some tribes of Mexican Indians. These keep always a daimon or god, in the shape of a serpent—and sometimes some other sacred animal—who is said to inspire them.

Nâgarâjas (Sk.). The usual name given to all the supposed “guardian Spirits” of lakes and rivers, meaning literally “Dragon Kings”. All of these are shown in the Buddhist chronicles as having been converted to the Buddhist monastic life: i.e, as becoming Arhats from the Yogis that they were before.

Nâgârjuna (Sk.). An Arhat, a hermit (a native of Western India) converted to Buddhism by Kapimala and the fourteenth Patriarch, and now regarded as a Bodhisattva-Nirmanakaya. He was famous for his dialectical subtlety in metaphysical arguments; and was the first teacher of the Amitâbha doctrine and a representative of the Mahâyâna School. Viewed as the greatest philosopher of the Buddhists, he was referred to as “one of the four suns which illumine the world”. He was born 223 B.C., and going to China after his conversion converted in his turn the whole country to Buddhism.

Nagkon Wat (Siam.). Imposing ruins in the province of Siamrap (Eastern Siam), if ruins they may be called. An abandoned edifice of most gigantic dimensions, which, together with the great temple of Angkorthâm, are the best preserved relics of the past in all Asia. After the Pyramids this is the most occult edifice in the whole world. Of an oblong form, it is 796 feet in length and 588 in width, entirely built of stone, the roof included, but without cement like the pyramids of Ghizeh, the stones fitting so closely that the joints are even now hardly discernible. It has a central pagoda 250 feet in height from the first floor, and four smaller pagodas at the four corners, about 175 feet each. In the words of a traveller, (The Land of the White Elephant, Frank Vincent, p. 209) “in style and beauty of architecture, solidity of construction, and magnificent and elaborate carving and sculpture, the great Nagkon Wat has no superior, certainly no rival, standing at the present day.” (See Isis Unv., Vol. I. pp. 561-566.)

Nahash (Heb.). “The Deprived”; the Evil one or the Serpent, according to the Western Kabalists.

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Nahbkoon (Eg) The god who unites the “doubles”, a mystical term referring to the human disembodied “principles”.

Naimittika (Sk.). Occasional, or incidental; used of one of the four kinds of Pralayas (See “Pralaya”).

Naïn (Scand.). The “Dwarf of Death”.

Najo (Hind.). Witch; a sorceress.

Nakshatra (Sk.). Lunar asterisms.

Namah (Sk.). In Pali Namo. The first word of a daily invocation among Buddhists, meaning “I humbly trust, or adore, or acknowledge” the Lord; as: “Namo tasso Bhagavato Arahato” etc., addressed to Lord Buddha. The priests are called “Masters of Namah”—both Buddhist and Taoist, because this word is used in liturgy and prayers, in the invocation of the Triratna (q.v.), and with a slight change in the occult incantations to the Bodhisvattvas and Nirmânakâyas.

Nanda (Sk.). One of the Kings of Magadha (whose dynasty was overthrown by Chandragupta q.v.).

Nandi (Sk.). The sacred white bull of Siva and his Vâhan (Vehicle).

Nanna (Scand.). The beautiful bride of Baldur, who fought with the blind Hodur (“he who rules over darkness”) and received his death from the latter by magic art. Baldur is the personification of Day, Hodur of Night, and the lovely Nanna of Dawn.

Nannak (Chald.), also Nanar and Sin. A name of the moon; said to be the son of Mulil, the older Bel and the Sun, in the later mythology. In the earliest, the Moon is far older than the Sun.

Nara (Sk.). “Man”, the original, eternal man.

Nârâ. (Sk.). The waters of Space, or the Great Deep, whence the name of Nârâyana or Vishnu.

Nara Sinha (Sk.). Lit., “Man-lion”; an Avatar of Vishnu.

Nârada (Sk.). One of the Seven great Rishis, a Son of Brahmâ. This “Progenitor” is one of the most mysterious personages in the Brahmanical sacred symbology. Esoterically Nârada is the Ruler of events during various Karmic cycles, and the personification, in a certain sense, of the great human cycle; a Dhyan Chohan. He plays a great part in Brahmanism, which ascribes to him some of the most occult hymns in the Rig Veda, in which sacred work he is described as “of the Kanwa family”. He is called Deva-Brahmâ, but as such has a distinct character from the one he assumes on earth—or Pâtâla. Daksha cursed him for his interference with his 5,000 and 10,000 sons, whom he persuaded to remain Yogins and celibates, to be reborn time after time on this earth (Mahâbhârata). But this is an allegory. He was the inventor of the

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Vina, a kind of lute, and a great “lawgiver”. The story is too long to be given here.

Nâraka (Sk.). In the popular conception, a hell, a “prison under earth”. The hot and cold hells, each eight in number, are simply emblems of the globes of our septenary chain, with the addition of the “eighth sphere” supposed to be located in the moon. This is a transparent blind, as these “hells” are called vivifying hells because, as explained, any being dying in one is immediately born in the second, then in the third, and so on; life lasting in each 500 years (a blind on the number of cycles and reincarnations). As these hells constitute one of the six gâti (conditions of sentient existence), and as people are said to be reborn in one or the other according to their Karmic merits or demerits, the blind becomes self-evident. Moreover, these Nârakas are rather purgatories than hells, since release from each is possible through the prayers and intercessions of priests for a consideration, just as in the Roman Catholic Church, which seems to have copied the Chinese-ritualism in this pretty closely. As said before, esoteric philosophy traces every hell to life on earth, in one or another form of sentient existence.

Nârâyana (Sk.). The “mover on the Waters” of space: a title of Vishnu, in his aspect of the Holy Spirit, moving on the Waters of Creation. (See Manu, Book II.) In esoteric symbology it stands for the primeval manifestation of the life-principle, spreading in infinite Space.

Nargal (Chald.). The Chaldean and Assyrian chiefs of the Magi (Rab Mag).

Narjol (Tib.). A Saint; a glorified Adept.

Naros or Neros (Heb.). A cycle, which the Orientalists describe as consisting of 600 years. But what years? There were three kinds of Neros: the greater, the middle and the less. It is the latter cycle only which was of 600 years. (See “Neros”.)

Nâstika (Sk.). Atheist, or rather he who does not worship or recognize the gods and idols.

Nâth (Sk.). A Lord: used of gods and men; a title added to the first name of men and things as Badrinath (lord of mountains), a famous place of pilgrimage; Gopinath (lord of the shepherdesses), used of Krishna.

Nava Nidhi (Sk.). Lit., “the nine Jewels”; a consummation of spiritual development, in mysticism.

Nazar (Heb.). One “set apart”; a temporary monastic class of celibates spoken of in the Old Testament, who married not, nor did they use wine during the time of their vow, and who wore their hair long,

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cutting it only at their initiation. Paul must have belonged to this class of Initiates, for he himself tells the Galatians (i. x5) that he was separated or “set apart” from the moment of his birth; and that he had his hair cut at Cenchrea, because “he had a vow” (Acts xviii.18), i.e., had been initiated as a Nazar; after which he became a “master-builder” (i Corinth. iii.10). Joseph is styled a Nazar (Gen. xlix. 26). Samson and Samuel were also Nazars, and many more.

Nazarenes (Heb.). The same as the St. John Christians; called the Mend or Sabeans. Those Nazarenes who left Galilee several hundred years ago and settled in Syria, east of Mount Lebanon, call themselves also Galileans; though they designate Christ “a false Messiah” and recognise only St. John the Baptist, whom they call the “Great Nazar”. The Nabatheans with very little difference adhered to the same belief as the Nazarenes or the Sabeans. More than this—the Ebionites, whom Renan shows as numbering among their sect all the surviving relatives of Jesus, seem to have been followers of the same sect if we have to believe St. Jerome, who writes: “I received permission from the Nazaræans who at Beræa of Syria used this (Gospel of Matthew written in Hebrew) to translate it. . . . . The Evangel which the Nazarenes and Ebionites use which recently I translated from Hebrew into Greek.” (Hieronymus’ Comment. to Matthew, Book II., chapter xii., and Hieronymus’ De Viris Illust. cap 3.) Now this supposed Evangel of Matthew, by whomsoever written, “exhibited matter”, as Jerome complains (loc. cit.), “not for edification but for destruction”(of Christianity). But the fact that the Ebionites, the genuine primitive Christians, “rejecting the rest of the apostolic writings, made use only of this (Matthew’s Hebrew) Gospel” (Adv. Hær., i. 26) is very suggestive. For, as Epiphanius declares, the Ebionites firmly believed, with the Nazarenes, that Jesus was but a man “of the seed of a man” (Epiph. Contra Ebionites). Moreover we know from the Codex of the Nazarenes, of which the “Evangel according to Matthew” formed a portion, that these Gnostics, whether Galilean, Nazarene or Gentile, call Jesus, in their hatred of astrolatry, in their Codex Naboo-Meschiha or “Mercury”. (See “Mendæans”). This does not shew much orthodox Christianity either in the Nazarenes or the Ebionites; but seems to prove on the contrary that the Christianity of the early centuries and modern Christian theology are two entirely opposite things.

Nebban or Neibban (Chin.). The same as Nirvâna, Nippang in Tibet.

Nebo (Chald.). The same as the Hindu Budha, son of Soma the Moon, and Mercury the planet. (See “Nabu”.)

Necromancy (Gr.). The raising of the images of the dead, considered

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in antiquity and by modern Occultists as a practice of black magic. Iamblichus, Porphyry and other Theurgists have deprecated the practice, no less than did Moses, who condemned the “witches” of his day to death, the said witches being only Necromancers—as in the case of the Witch of Endor and Samuel.

Nehaschim (Kab.). “The serpent’s works.” It is a name given to the Astral Light, “the great deceiving serpent” (Mâyâ), during certain practical works of magic. (See Sec. Doc. II. 409.)

Neilos (Gr.). The river Nile; also a god.

Neith (Eg.). Neithes. The Queen of Heaven; the moon-goddess in Egypt. She is variously called Nout, Nepte, Nur. (For symbolism, see “Nout”.)

Neocoros (Gr.). With the Greeks the guardian of a Temple.

Neophyte (Gr.). A novice; a postulant or candidate for the Mysteries. The methods of initiation varied. Neophytes had to pass in their trials through all the four elements, emerging in the fifth as glorified Initiates. Thus having passed through Fire (Deity), Water (Divine Spirit), Air (the Breath of God), and the Earth (Matter), they received a sacred mark, a tat and a tau, or a  and a . The latter was the monogram of the Cycle called the Naros, or Neros. As shown by Dr. E. V. Kenealy, in his Apocalypse, the cross in symbolical language (one of the seven meanings) “  exhibits at the same time three primitive letters, of which the word LVX or Light is compounded. . . . The Initiates were marked with this sign, when they were admitted into the perfect mysteries. We constantly see the Tau and the Resh united thus . Those two letters in the old Samaritan, as found on coins, stand, the first for 400, the second for 200 = 600. This is the staff of Osiris.” Just so, but this does not prove that the Naros was a cycle of 600 years; but simply that one more pagan symbol had been appropriated by the Church. (See “Naros” and “Neros” and also “I. H. S.”)

Neo-platonism. Lit.,”The new Platonism” or Platonic School. An eclectic pantheistic school of philosophy founded in Alexandria by Ammonius Saccas, of which his disciple Plotinus was the head (A.D. 189-270). It sought to reconcile Platonic teachings and the Aristotelean system with oriental Theosophy. Its chief occupation was pure spiritual philosophy, metaphysics and mysticism. Theurgy was introduced towards its later years. It was the ultimate effort of high intelligences to check the ever-increasing ignorant superstition and blind faith of the times; the last product of Greek philosophy, which was finally crushed and put to death by brute force.

Nephesh Chia (Kab.). Animal or living Soul.

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Nephesh (Heb.). Breath of life. Anima, Mens, Vita, Appetites. This term is used very loosely in the Bible. It generally means prana “life”; in the Kabbalah it is the animal passions and the animal Soul. [w.w.w.] Therefore, as maintained in theosophical teachings, Nephesh is the synonym of the Prâna-Kâmic Principle, or the vital animal Soul in man. [H. P. B.]

Nephilim (Heb.). Giants, Titans, the Fallen Ones.

Nephtys (Eg.). The sister of Isis, philosophically only one of her aspects. As Osiris and Typhon are one under two aspects, so Isis and Nephtys are one and the same symbol of nature under its dual aspect. Thus, while Isis is the wife of Osiris, Nephtys is the wife of Typhon, the foe of Osiris and his slayer, although she weeps for him. She is often represented at the bier of the great Sun-god, having on her head a disk between the two horns of a crescent. She is the genius of the lower world, and Anubis, the Egyptian Pluto, is called her son. Plutarch has given a fair esoteric explanation of the two sisters. Thus he writes: Nephtys designs that which is under the earth, and which one sees not (i.e., its disintegrating and reproducing power), and Isis that which is above earth, and which is visible (or physical nature). . . . The circle of the horizon which divides these two hemispheres and which is common to both, is Anubis.” The identity of the two goddesses is shown in that Isis is also called the mother of Anubis. Thus the two are the Alpha and Omega of Nature.

Nergal (Chald.). On the Assyrian tablets he is described as the “giant king of war, lord of the city of Cutha”. It is also the Hebrew name for the planet Mars, associated invariably with ill-luck and danger. Nergal-Mars is the “shedder of blood”. In occult astrology it is less malefic than Saturn, but is more active in its associations with men and its influence on them.

Neros (Heb.). As shown by the late E. V. Kenealy this “Naronic Cycle” was a mystery, a true “secret of god”, to disclose which during the prevalence of the religious mysteries and the authority of the priests, meant death. The learned author seemed to take it for granted that the Neros was of 600 years duration, but he was mistaken. (See “Natos”.) Nor were the establishment of the Mysteries and the rites of Initiation due merely the necessity of perpetuating the knowledge of the true meaning of the Naros and keeping this cycle secret from the profane; for the Mysteries are as old as the present human race, and there were far more important secrets to veil than the figures of any cycle. (See “Neophyte” and “I. H. S.”, also “Naros”.) The mystery of 666, “the number of the great heart” so called, is far better represented by the Tau and the Resh than 600.

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Nerthus (Old Sax.). The goddess of the earth, of love and beauty with the old Germans; the same as the Scandinavian Freya or Frigga. Tacitus mentions the great honours paid to Nerthus when her idol was carried on a car in triumph through several districts.

Neshamah (Heb.). Soul, anima, afflatus. In the Kabbalah, as taught in the Rosicrucian order, one of the three highest essences of the Human Soul, corresponding to the Sephira Binah. [w.w.w.]

Nesku or Nusku (Chald.). Is described in the Assyrian tablets as the “holder of the golden sceptre, the lofty god”.

Netzach (Heb.). “Victory”. The seventh of the Ten Sephiroth, a masculine active potency. [w.w.w.]

Nidâna (Sk.). The 12 causes of existence, or a chain of causation, “a concatenation of cause and effect in the whole range of existence through 12 links”. This is the fundamental dogma of Buddhist thought, “the understanding of which solves the riddle of life, revealing the inanity of existence and preparing the mind for Nirvâna”. (Eitel’s Sans. Chin. Dict.) The 12 links stand thus in their enumeration. (1) Jâti, or birth, according to one of the four modes of entering the stream of life and reincarnation—or Chatur Yoni (q.v.), each mode placing the being born in one of the six Gâti (q.v.). (2) Jarâmarana, or decrepitude and death, following the maturity of the Skandhas (q.v.). (3) Bhava, the Karmic agent which leads every new sentient being to be born in this or another mode of existence in the Trailokya and Gâti. (4) Upâdâna, the creative cause of Bhava which thus becomes the cause of Jâti which is the effect; and this creative cause is the clinging to life. (5) Trishnâ, love, whether pure or impure. (6) Vêdâna, or sensation; perception by the senses, it is the 5th Skandha. (7) Sparsa, the sense of touch. (8) Chadâyatana, the organs of sensation. (9) Nâmarûpa, personality, i.e., a form with a name to it, the symbol of the unreality of material phenomenal appearances. (10) Vijnâna, the perfect knowledge of every perceptible thing and of all objects in their concatenation and unity. (11) Samskâra, action on the plane of illusion. (12) Avidyâ, lack of true perception, or ignorance. The Nidânas belonging to the most subtle and abstruse doctrines of the Eastern metaphysical system, it is impossible to go into the subject at any greater length.

Nidhi (Sk) A treasure. Nine treasures belonging to the god Kuvera—the Vedic Satan—each treasure being under the guardianship of a demon; these are personified, and are the objects of worship of the Tantrikas.

Nidhogg (Scand.). The “Mundane” Serpent.

Nidra (Sk.). Sleep. Also the female form of Brahmâ.

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Nifiheim (Scand.). The cold Hell, in the Edda. A place of eternal non-consciousness and inactivity. (See Secret Doctrine, Vol. II., p. 245).

Night of Brahmâ. The period between the dissolution and the active life of the Universe which is called in contrast the “Day of Brahmâ”.

Nilakantha (Sk.). A name of Siva meaning “blue throated”. This is said to have been the result of some poison administered to the god.

Nile-God (Eg.). Represented by a wooden image of the river god receiving honours in gratitude for the bounties its waters afford the country. There was a “celestial” Nile, called in the Ritual Nen-naou or “primordial waters”; and a terrestrial Nile, worshipped at Nilopolis and Hapimoo. The latter was represented as an androgynous being with a beard and breasts, and a fat blue face; green limbs and reddish body. At the approach of the yearly inundation, the image was carried from one place to another in solemn procession.

Nimbus (Lat.). The aureole around the heads of the Christ and Saints in Greek and Romish Churches is of Eastern origin. As every Orientalist knows, Buddha is described as having his head surrounded with shining glory six cubits in width; and, as shown by Hardy (Eastern Monachism), “his principal disciples are represented by the native painters as having a similar mark of eminence”. In China, Tibet and Japan, the heads of the saints are always surrounded with a nimbus.

Nimitta (Sk.). 1. An interior illumination developed by the practice of meditation. 2. The efficient spiritual cause, as contrasted with Upadâna, the material cause, in Vedânta philosophy. See also Pradhâna in Sânkhya philosophy.

Nine. The “Kabbalah of the Nine Chambers” is a form of secret writing in cipher, which originated with the Hebrew Rabbis, and has been used by several societies for purposes of concealment notably some grades of the Freemasons have adopted it. A figure is drawn of two horizontal parallel lines and two vertical parallel lines across them, this process forms nine chambers, the centre one a simple square, the others being either two or three sided figures, these are allotted to the several letters in any order that is agreed upon. There is also a Kabbalstic attribution of the ten Sephiroth to these nine chambers, but this is not published. [w.w.w.]

Nirguna (Sk.). Negative attribute; unbound, or without Gunas (attributes), i.e., that which is devoid of all qualities, the opposite of Saguna, that which has attributes (Secret Doctrine, II. 95), e.g., Parabrahmam is Nirguna; Brahmâ, Saguna. Nirguna is a term which shows the impersonality of the thing spoken of.

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Nirmânakâya (Sk.). Something entirely different in esoteric philosophy from the popular meaning attached to it, and from the fancies of the Orientalists. Some call the Nirmânakâya body “Nirvana with remains” (Schlagintweit, etc.) on the supposition, probably, that it is a kind of Nirvânic condition during which consciousness and form are retained. Others say that it is one of the Trikâya (three bodies), with the “power of assuming any form of appearance in order to propagate Buddhism” (Eitel’s idea); again, that “it is the incarnate avatara of a deity” (ibid.), and so on. Occultism, on the other hand, says: that Nirmânakâya, although meaning literally a transformed “body”, is a state. The form is that of the adept or yogi who enters, or chooses, that post mortem condition in preference to the Dharmakâya or absolute Nirvânic state. He does this because the latter kâya separates him for ever from the world of form, conferring upon him a state of selfish bliss, in which no other living being can participate, the adept being thus precluded from the possibility of helping humanity, or even devas. As a Nirmânakâya, however, the man leaves behind him only his physical body, and retains every other “principle” save the Kamic—for he has crushed this out for ever from his nature, during life, and it can never resurrect in his post mortem state. Thus, instead of going into selfish bliss, he chooses a life of self-sacrifice, an existence which ends only with the life-cycle, in order to be enabled to help mankind in an invisible yet most effective manner. (See The Voice of the Silence, third treatise, “The Seven Portals”.) Thus a Nirmânakâya is not, as popularly believed, the body “in which a Buddha or a Bodhisattva appears on earth”, but verily one, who whether a Chutuktu or a Khubilkhan, an adept or a yogi during life, has since become a member of that invisible Host which ever protects and watches over Humanity within Karmic limits. Mistaken often for a “Spirit”, a Deva, God himself, &c., a Nirmânakâya is ever a protecting, compassionate, verily a guardian angel, to him who becomes worthy of his help. Whatever objection may be brought forward against this doctrine; however much it is denied, because, forsooth, it has never been hitherto made public in Europe and therefore since it is unknown to Orientalists, it must needs be “a myth of modern invention”—no one will be bold enough to say that this idea of helping suffering mankind at the price of one’s own almost interminable self-sacrifice, is not one of the grandest and noblest that was ever evolved from human brain.

Nirmathya (Sk.). The sacred fire produced by the friction of two pieces of wood—the “fire” called Pavamâna in the Purânas. The allegory contained therein is an occult teaching.

Nirriti (Sk.). A goddess of Death and Decay.

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Nirukta (Sk.). An anga or limb, a division of the Vedas; a glossarial comment.

Nirupadhi (Sk.). Attributeless; the negation of attributes.

Nirvâna (Sk.). According to the Orientalists, the entire “blowing out”, like the flame of a candle, the utter extinction of existence. But in the esoteric explanations it is the state of absolute existence and absolute consciousness, into which the Ego of a man who has reached the highest degree of perfection and holiness during life goes, after the body dies, and occasionally, as in the case of Gautama Buddha and others, during life. (See “Nirvâni”.)

Nirvâni (Sk.). One who has attained Nirvâna—an emancipated soul. That Nirvâna means nothing of the kind asserted by Orientalists every scholar who has visited China, India and Japan is well aware. It is “escape from misery” but only from that of matter, freedom from Klêsha, or Kâma, and the complete extinction of animal desires. If we are told that Abidharma defines Nirvâna “as a state of absolute annihilation”, we concur, adding to the last word the qualification “of everything connected with matter or the physical world”, and this simply because the latter (as also all in it) is illusion, mâyâ. Sâkya-mûni Buddha said in the last moments of his life that “the spiritual body is immortal” (See Sans. Chin. Dict.). As Mr. Eitel, the scholarly Sinologist, explains it: “The popular exoteric systems agree in defining Nirvâna negatively as a state of absolute exemption from the circle of transmigration; as a state of entire freedom from all forms of existence; to begin with, freedom from all passion and exertion; a state of indifference to all sensibility”—and he might have added “death of all compassion for the world of suffering”. And this is why the Bodhisattvas who prefer the Nirmânakâya to the Dharmakâya vesture, stand higher in the popular estimation than the Nirvânîs. But the same scholar adds that: “Positively (and esoterically) they define Nirvâna as the highest state of spiritual bliss, as absolute immortality through absorption of the soul (spirit rather) into itself, but preserving individuality so that, e.g., Buddhas, after entering Nirvâna, may reappear on earth”—i.e., in the future Manvantara.

Nîshada (Sk.). (1) One of the seven qualities of sound—the one and sole attribute of Akâsa; (2) the seventh note of the Hindu musical scale; (3) an outcast offspring of a Brahman and a Sudra mother; (4) a range of mountains south of Meru—north of the Himalayas.

Nissi (Chald.) One of the seven Chaldean gods.

Nîti (Sk.). Lit., Prudence, ethics.

Nitya Parivrita. (Sk.). Lit., continuous extinction.

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Nitya Pralaya (Sk.). Lit., “perpetual” Pralaya or dissolution. It is the constant and imperceptible changes undergone by the atoms which last as long as a Mahâmanvantara, a whole age of Brahmâ, which takes fifteen figures to sum up. A stage of chronic change and dissolution, the stages of growth and decay. It is the duration of “Seven Eternities”. (See Secret Doctrine I. 371, II. 69, 310.) There are four kinds of Pralayas, or states of changelessness. The Naimittika, when Brahma slumbers; the Prakritika, a partial Pralaya of anything during Manvantara; Atyantika, when man has identified himself with the One Absolute synonym of Nirvâna; and Nitya, for physical things especially, as a state of profound and dreamless sleep.

Nitya Sarga (Sk.). The state of constant creation or evolution, as opposed to Nitya Pralaya—the state of perpetual incessant dissolution (or change of atoms) disintegration of molecules, hence change of forms.

Nizir (Chald.). The “Deluge Mountain”; the Ararat of the Babylonians with “Xisuthrus” as Noah.

Nixies. The water-sprites; Undines.

Niyashes (Mazd.). Parsi prayers.

Nofir-hotpoo (Eg.). The same as the god Khonsoo, the lunar god of Thebes. Lit., “he who is in absolute rest”. Nofir-hotpoo is one of the three persons of the Egyptian trinity, composed of Ammon, Mooth, and their son Khonsoo or Nofir-hotpoo.

Nogah (Chald.). Venus, the planet; glittering splendour.

Noo (Eg.). Primordial waters of space called “Father-Mother”; the “face of the deep” of the Bible; for above Noo hovers the Breath of Kneph, who is represented with the Mundane Egg in his mouth.

Noom (Eg.). A celestial sculptor, in the Egyptian legends, who creates a beautiful girl whom he sends like another Pandora to Batoo (or “man”), whose happiness is thereafter destroyed. The “sculptor” or artist is the same as Jehovah, the architect of the world, and the girl is “Eve”.

Noon (Eg.). The celestial river which flows in Noot, the cosmic abyss or Noo. As all the gods have been generated in the river (the Gnostic Pleroma), it is called “the Father-Mother of the gods”.

Noor Ilahee (Arab.). “The light of the Elohim”, literally. This light is believed by some Mussulmen to be transmitted to mortals “through a hundred prophet-leaders”. Divine knowledge; the Light of the Secret Wisdom.

Noot (Eg.). The heavenly abyss in the Ritual or the Book of the Dead. It is infinite space personified in the Vedas by Aditi, the goddess who, like Noon (q.v.) is the “mother of all the gods”.

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Norns (Scand.). The three sister goddesses in the Edda, who make known to men the decrees of Orlog or Fate. They are shown as coming out of the unknown distances enveloped in a dark veil to the Ash Yggdrasil (q.v.), and “sprinkle it daily with water from the Fountain of Urd, that it may not wither but remain green and fresh and strong” (Asgard and the Gods). Their names are “Urd”, the Past; “Werdandi”, the Present; and “Skuld”, the Future, “which is either rich in hope or dark with tears”. Thus they reveal the decrees of Fate “for out of the past and present the events and actions of the future are born” (loc. cit.).

Notaricon (Kab.). A division of the practical Kabbalah; treats of the formation of words from the initials or finals of the words in every sentence; or conversely it forms a sentence of words whose initials or finals are those of some word [w.w.w.].

Noumenon (Gr.). The true essential nature of being as distinguished from the illusive objects of sense.

Nous. (Gr.). A Platonic term for the Higher Mind or Soul. It means Spirit as distinct from animal Soul—psyche; divine consciousness or mind in man: Nous was the designation given to the Supreme deity (third logos) by Anaxagoras. Taken from Egypt where it was called Nout, it was adopted by the Gnostics for their first conscious Æon which, with the Occultists, is the third logos, cosmically, and the third “principle” (from above) or manas, in man. (See “Nout”.)

Nout. (Gr.). In the Pantheon of the Egyptians it meant the “One-only-One”, because they did not proceed in their popular or exoteric religion higher than the third manifestation which radiates from the Unknown and the Unknowable, the first unmanifested and the second logoi in the esoteric philosophy of every nation. The Nous of Anaxagoras was the Mahat of the Hindu Brahmâ, the first manifested Deity—“the Mind or Spirit self-potent”; this creative Principle being of course the primum mobile of everything in the Universe—its Soul and Ideation. (See “Seven Principles” in man.)

Number Nip. An Elf, the mighty King of the Riesengebirge, the most powerful of the genii in Scandinavian and German folk-lore.

Nuns. There were nuns in ancient Egypt as well as in Peru and old Pagan Rome. They were the “virgin brides” of their respective (Solar) gods. Says Herodotus, “The brides of Ammon are excluded from all intercourse with men”, they are “the brides of Heaven”; and virtually they became dead to the world, just as they are now. In Peru they were “Pure Virgins of the Sun”, and the Pallakists of Ammon-Ra are referred to in some inscriptions as the “divine spouses”. “The sister of Oun-nefer, the chief prophet of Osiris, during the reign of Rameses II.,” is described as “Taia, Lady Abbess of Nuns” (Mariette Bey).

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Nuntis (Lat.). The “Sun-Wolf”, a name of the planet Mercury. He is the Sun’s attendant, Solaris luminis particeps. (See Secret Doct. II. 28.)

Nyâya (Sk.). One of the six Darshanas or schools of Philosophy in India; a system of Hindu logic founded by the Rishi Gautama.

Nyima (Tib.). The Sun—astrologically.

Nyingpo (Tib.). The same as Alaya, “the World Soul”; also called Tsang.

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O.—The fifteenth letter and fourth vowel in the English alphabet. It has no equivalent in Hebrew, whose alphabet with one exception is vowelless. As a numeral, it signified with the ancients 11; and with a dash on it 11,000. With other ancient people also, it was a very sacred letter. In the Dêvanâgari, or the characters of the gods, its significance is varied, but there is no space to give instances.

Oak, sacred. With the Druids the oak was a most holy tree, and so also with the ancient Greeks, if we can believe Pherecydes and his cosmogony, who tells us of the sacred oak “in whose luxuriant branches a serpent (i.e., wisdom) dwelleth, and cannot be dislodged”. Every nation had its own sacred trees, pre-eminently the Hindus.

Oannes. (Gr.). Musarus Oannes, the Annedotus, known in the Chaldean “legends”, transmitted through Berosus and other ancient writers, as Dag or Dagon, the “man-fish”. Oannes came to the early Babylonians as a reformer and an instructor. Appearing from the Erythræan Sea, he brought to them civilisation, letters and sciences, law, astronomy and religion, teaching them agriculture, geometry and the arts in general. There were Annedoti who came after him, five in number (our race being the fifth)—“all like Oannes inform and teaching the same”; but Musarus Oannes was the first to appear, and this he did during the reign of Ammenon, the third of the ten antediluvian Kings whose dynasty ended with Xisuthrus, the Chaldean Noah (See “Xisuthrus”). Oannes was “an animal endowed with reason . . . whose body was that of a fish, but who had a human head under the fish’s with feet also below, similar to those of a man, subjoined to the fish’s tail, and whose voice and language too were articulate and human” (Polyhistor and Apollodorus). This gives the key to the allegory. It points out Oannes, as a man and a “priest”, an Initiate. Layard showed long ago (See Nineveh) that the “fish’s head” was simply a head gear, the mitre worn by priests and gods, made in the form of a fish’s head, and which in a very little modified form is what we see even now on the heads of high Lamas and Romish Bishops. Osiris had such a mitre. The fish’s tail is simply the train of a long stiff mantle as depicted on some Assyrian tablets, the form being seen reproduced in the sacerdotal gold cloth garment worn during service by the modern Greek priests. This allegory of Oannes, the Annedotus, reminds us of the “Dragon” and

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“Snake-Kings”; the Nâgas who in Buddhist legends instruct people in wisdom on lakes and rivers, and end by becoming converts to the good Law and Arhats. The meaning is evident. The “fish” is an old and very suggestive symbol in the Mystery-language, as is also “water”. Ea or Hea was the god of the sea and Wisdom, and the sea serpent was one of his emblems, his priests being “serpents” or Initiates. Thus one sees why Occultism places Oannes and the other Annedoti in the group of those ancient “adepts” who were called “marine” or “water dragons”—Nâgas. Water typified their human origin (as it is a symbol of earth and matter and also of purification), in distinction to the “fire Nâgas” or the immaterial, Spiritual Beings, whether celestial Bodhisattvas or Planetary Dhyânis, also regarded as the instructors of mankind. The hidden meaning becomes clear to the Occultist, once he is told that “this being (Oannes) was accustomed to pass the day among men, teaching; and when the Sun had set, he retired again into the sea, passing the night in the deep, “for he was amphibious”, i.e., he belonged to two planes: the spiritual and the physical. For the Greek word amphibios means simply “life on two planes”, from amphi, “on both sides”, and bios, “life”. The word was often applied in antiquity to those men who, though still wearing a human form, had made themselves almost divine through knowledge, and lived as much in the spiritual supersensuous regions as on earth. Oannes is dimly reflected in Jonah, and even in John, the Precursor, both connected with Fish and Water.

Ob (Heb.). The astral light-—or rather, its pernicious evil currents—was personified by the Jews as a Spirit, the Spirit of Ob. With them, any one who dealt with spirits and necromancy was said to be possessed by the Spirit of Ob.

Obeah. Sorcerers and sorceresses of Africa and the West Indies. A sect of black magicians, snake-charmers, enchanters, &c.

Occult Sciences. The science of the secrets of nature—physical and psychic, mental and spiritual; called Hermetic and Esoteric Sciences. In the West, the Kabbalah may be named; in the East, mysticism, magic, and Yoga philosophy, which latter is often referred to by the Chelas in India as the seventh “Darshana” (school of philosophy), there being only six Darshanas in India known to the world of the profane. These sciences are, and have been for ages, hidden from the vulgar for the very good reason that they would never be appreciated by the selfish educated classes, nor understood by the uneducated; whilst the former might misuse them for their own profit, and thus turn the divine science into black magic. It is often brought forward as an accusation against the Esoteric philosophy and the Kabbalah that their literature is full of “a

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barbarous and meaningless jargon” unintelligible to the ordinary mind. But do not exact Sciences—medicine, physiology, chemistry, and the rest—do the same? Do not official Scientists equally veil their facts and discoveries with a newly coined and most barbarous Græco-Latin terminology? As justly remarked by our late brother, Kenneth Mackenzie—“To juggle thus with words, when the facts are so simple, is the art of the Scientists of the present time, in striking contrast to those of the XVIIth century, who called spades spades, and not ‘agricultural implements’.” Moreover, whilst their facts would be as simple and as comprehensible if rendered in ordinary language, the facts of Occult Science are of so abstruse a nature, that in most cases no words exist in European languages to express them; in addition to which our “jargon” is a double necessity—(a) for the purpose of describing clearly these facts to him who is versed in the Occult terminology; and (b) to conceal them from the profane.

Occultist. One who studies the various branches of occult science. The term is used by the French Kabbalists (See Eliphas Lévi’s works). Occultism embraces the whole range of psychological, physiological, cosmical, physical, and spiritual phenomena. From the word occultus hidden or secret. It therefore applies to the study of the Kabbalah, astrology, alchemy, and all arcane sciences.

Od (Gr.). From odos, “passage”, or passing of that force which is developed by various minor forces or agencies such as magnets, chemical or vital action, heat, light, &c. It is also called “odic” and “odylic force”, and was regarded by Reichenbach and his followers as an independent entitative force—which it certainly is—stored in man as it is in Nature.

Odacon. The fifth Annedotus, or Dagon (See “Oannes”) who appeared during the reign of Euedoreschus from Pentebiblon, also “from the Erythræan Sea like the former, having the same complicated form between a fish and a man” (Apollodorus, Cory p. 30).

Odem or Adm (Heb.). A stone (the cornelian) on the breast-plate of the Jewish High Priest. It is of red colour and possesses a great medicinal power.

Odin (Scand.). The god of battles, the old German Sabbaoth, the same as the Scandinavian Wodan. He is the great hero in the Edda and one of the creators of man. Roman antiquity regarded him as one with Hermes or Mercury (Budha), and modern Orientalism (Sir W. Jones) accordingly confused him with Buddha. In the Pantheon of the Norse men, he is the “father of the gods” and divine wisdom, and as such he is of course Hermes or the creative wisdom. Odin or Wodan in creating

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the first man from trees—the Ask (ash) and Embla (the alder)—endowed them with life and soul, Honir with intellect, and Lodur with form and colour.

Odur (Scand.). The human husband of the goddess Freya, a scion of divine ancestry in the Northern mythology.

Oeaihu, or Oeaihwu. The manner of pronunciation depends on the accent. This is an esoteric term for the six in one or the mystic seven. The occult name for the “seven vowelled” ever-present manifestation of the Universal Principle.

Ogdoad (Gr.). The tetrad or “quaternary” reflecting itself produced the ogdoad, the “eight”, according to the Marcosian Gnostics. The eight great gods were called the “sacred Ogdoad”.

Ogham (Celtic). A mystery language belonging to the early Celtic races, and used by the Druids. One form of this language consisted in the association of the leaves of certain trees with the letters, this was called Beth-luis-nion Ogham, and to form words and sentences the leaves were strung on a cord in the proper order. Godfrey Higgins suggests that to complete the mystification certain other leaves which meant nothing were interspersed. [w.w.w.]

Ogir or Hler (Scand). A chief of the giants in the Edda and the ally of the gods. The highest of the Water-gods, and the same as the Greek Okeanos.

Ogmius. The god of wisdom and eloquence of the Druids, hence Hermes in a sense.

Ogygia (Gr.). An ancient submerged island known as the isle of Calypso, and identified by some with Atlantis. This is in a certain sense correct. But then what portion of Atlantis, since the latter was a continent rather than an “enormous” island!

Oitzoe (Pers.). The invisible goddess whose voice spoke through the rocks, and whom, according to Pliny, the Magi had to consult for the election of their kings.

Okhal (Arab.). The “High”priest of the Druzes, an Initiator into their mysteries.

Okhema (Gr.). A Platonic term meaning “vehicle” or body.

Okuthor (Scand.). The same as Thor, the “thunder god”.

Olympus (Gr.). A mount in Greece, the abode of the gods according to Homer and Hesiod.

Om or Aum (Sk.). A mystic syllable, the most solemn of all words in India. It is “an invocation, a benediction, an affirmation and a promise”; and it is so sacred, as to be indeed the word at low breath of occult, primitive masonry. No one must be near when the syllable is

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pronounced for a purpose. This word is usually placed at the beginning of sacred Scriptures, and is prefixed to prayers. It is a compound of three letters a,u,m, which, in the popular belief, are typical of the three Vedas, also of three gods—A (Agni) V (Varuna) and M (Maruts) or Fire, Water and Air. In esoteric philosophy these are the three sacred fires, or the “triple fire” in the Universe and Man, besides many other things. Occultly, this “triple fire” represents the highest Tetraktys also, as it is typified by the Agni named Abhimânin and his transformation into his three sons, Pâvana, Pavamâna and Suchi, “who drinks up water”, i.e., destroys material desires. This monosyllable is called Udgîtta, and is sacred with both Brahmins and Buddhists.

Omito-Fo (Chin.). The name of Amita-Buddha, in China.

Omkâra (Sk.). The same as Aum or Om. It is also the name of one of the twelve lingams, that was represented by a secret and most sacred shrine at Ujjain—no longer existing, since the time of Buddhism.

Omoroka (Chald.). The “sea” and the woman who personifies it according to Berosus, or rather of Apollodorus. As the divine water, however, Omoroka is the reflection of Wisdom from on high.

Onech (Heb.). The Phœnix so named after Enoch or Phenoch. For Enoch (also Khenoch) means literally the initiator and instructor, hence the Hierophant who reveals the last mystery. The bird Phœnix is always associated with a tree, the mystical Ababel of the Koran, the Tree of Initiation or of knowledge.

Onnofre or Oun-nofre (Eg.). The King of the land of the Dead, the Underworld, and in this capacity the same as Osiris, “who resides in Amenti at Oun-nefer, king of eternity, great god manifested in the celestial abyss”. (A hymn of the XIXth dynasty.) (See also “Osiris”.)

Ophanim (Heb.). More correctly written Auphanim. The “wheels” seen by Ezekiel and by John in the Revelation—world.spheres (Secret Doctrine I., 92.) The symbol of the Cherubs or Karoubs (the Assyrian Sphinxes). As these beings are represented in the Zodiac by Taurus, Leo, Scorpio and Aquarius, or the Bull, the Lion, the Eagle and Man, the occult meaning of these creatures being placed in company of the four Evangelists becomes evident. In the Kabbalah they are a group of beings allotted to the Sephira Chokmah, Wisdom.

Ophis (Gr.). The same as Chnuphis or Kneph, the Logos; the good serpent or Agathodæmon.

Ophiomorphos (Gr.). The same, but in its material aspect, as the Ophis-Christos. With the Gnostics the Serpent represented “Wisdom in Eternity”.

Ophis-Christos (Gr.). The serpent Christ of the Gnostics.

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Ophiozenes (Gr.). The name of the Cypriote charmers of venomous serpents and other reptiles and animals.

Ophites (Gr.). A Gnostic Fraternity in Egypt, and one of the earliest sects of Gnosticism, or Gnosis (Wisdom, Knowledge), known as the “Brotherhood of the Serpent”. It flourished early in the second century, and while holding some of the principles of Valentinus had its own occult rites and symbology. A living serpent, representing the Christos-principle (i.e., the divine reincarnating Monad, not Jesus the man), was displayed in their mysteries and reverenced as a symbol of wisdom, Sophia, the type of the all-good and all-wise. The Gnostics were not a Christian sect, in the common acceptation of this term, as the Christos of pre-Christian thought and the Gnosis was not the “god-man” Christ, but the divine EGO, made one with Buddhi. Their Christos was the “Eternal Initiate”, the Pilgrim, typified by hundreds of Ophidian symbols for several thousands of years before the “Christian” era, so-called. One can see it on the “Belzoni tomb” from Egypt, as a winged serpent with three heads (Atma-Buddhi-Manas), and four human legs, typifying its androgynous character; on the walls of the descent to the sepulchral chambers of Rameses V., it is found as a snake with vulture’s wings—the vulture and hawk being solar symbols. “The heavens are scribbled over with interminable snakes”, writes Herschel of the Egyptian chart of stars. “The Meissi (Messiah?) meaning the Sacred Word, was a good serpent”, writes Bonwick in his Egyptian Belief. “This serpent of goodness, with its head crowned, was mounted upon a cross and formed a sacred standard of Egypt.” The Jews borrowed it in their “brazen serpent of Moses”. It is to this “Healer” and “Saviour”, therefore, that the Ophites referred, and not to Jesus or his words, “As Moses lifted up the serpent in the desert, so it behoves the Son of Man to be lifted up”—when explaining the meaning of their ophis. Tertullian, whether wittingly or unwittingly, mixed up the two. The four-winged serpent is the god Chnuphis. The good serpent bore the cross of life around its neck, or suspended from its mouth. The winged serpents become the Seraphim (Seraph, Saraph) of the Jews. In the 87th chapter of the Ritual (the Book of the Dead) the human soul transformed into Bata, the omniscient serpents says:—“I am the serpent Ba-ta, of long years, Soul of the Soul, laid out and born daily; I am the Soul that descends on the earth”, i.e., the Ego.

Orai (Gr.). The name of the angel-ruler of Venus, according to the Egyptian Gnostics.

Orcus (Gr.). The bottomless pit in the Codex of the Nazarenes.

Örgelmir (Scand.). Lit., “seething clay”. The same as Ymir, the giant, the unruly, turbulent, erratic being, the type of primordial matter,

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out of whose body, after killing him, the sons of Bör created a new earth. He is also the cause of the Deluge in the Scandinavian Lays, for he flung his body into Ginnungagap, the yawning abyss; the latter being filled with it, the blood flowed over and produced a great flood in which all the Hrimthurses, the frost giants, were drowned; one of them only the cunning Bergelmir saves himself and wife in a boat and became the father of a new race of giants. “And there were giants on the earth in those days.”

Orion (Gr.). The same as Atlas, who supports the world on his shoulders.

Orlog (Scand.). Fate, destiny, whose agents were the three Norns, the Norse Parcæ.

Ormazd or Ahura Mazda (Zend). The god of the Zoroastrians or the modern Parsis. He is symbolized by the sun, as being the Light of Lights. Esoterically, he is the synthesis of his six Amshaspends or Elohim, and the creative Logos. In the Mazdean exoteric system, Ahura Mazda is the supreme god, and one with the supreme god of the Vedic age—Varuna, if we read the Vedas literally.

Orpheus (Gr.). Lit., the “tawny one”. Mythology makes him the son of Æager and the muse Calliope. Esoteric tradition identifies him with Arjuna, the son of Indra and the disciple of Krishna. He went round the world teaching the nations wisdom and sciences, and establishing mysteries. The very story of his losing his Eurydice and finding her in the underworld or Hades, is another point of resemblance with the story of Arjuna, who goes to Pâtâla (Hades or hell, but in reality the Antipodes or America) and finds there and marries Ulupi, the daughter of the Nâga king. This is as suggestive as the fact that he was considered dark in complexion even by the Greeks, who were never very fair-skinned themselves.

Orphic Mysteries or Orphica (Gr.). These followed, but differed greatly from, the mysteries of Bacchus. The system of Orpheus is one of the purest morality and of severe asceticism. The theology taught by him is again purely Indian. With him the divine Essence is inseparable from whatever is in the infinite universe, all forms being concealed from all eternity in It. At determined periods these forms are manifested from the divine Essence or manifest themselves. Thus through this law of emanation (or evolution) all things participate in this Essence, and are parts and members instinct with divine nature, which is omnipresent. All things having proceeded from, must necessarily return into it; and therefore, innumerable transmigrations or reincarnations and purifications are needed before this final consummation can take place. This is pure Vedânta philosophy. Again, the Orphic Brotherhood ate no

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animal food and wore white linen garments, and had many ceremonies like those of the Brahmans.

Oshadi Prastha (Sk.). Lit., “the place of medicinal herbs”. A mysterious city in the Himalayas mentioned even from the Vedic period. Tradition shows it as once inhabited by sages, great adepts in the healing art, who used only herbs and plants, as did the ancient Chaldees. The city is mentioned in the Kumâra Sambhava of Kalidasa.

Osiris. (Eg.). The greatest God of Egypt, the Son of Seb (Saturn), celestial fire, and of Neith, primordial matter and infinite space. This shows him as the self-existent and self-created god, the first manifesting deity (our third Logos), identical with Ahura Mazda and other “First Causes”. For as Ahura Mazda is one with, or the synthesis of, the Amshaspends, so Osiris, the collective unit, when differentiated and personified, becomes Typhon, his brother, Isis and Nephtys his sisters, Horus his son and his other aspects. He was born at Mount Sinai, the Nyssa of the O. T. (See Exodus xvii. 15), and buried at Abydos, after being killed by Typhon at the early age of twenty-eight, according to the allegory. According to Euripides he is the same as Zeus and Dionysos or Dio-Nysos “the god of Nysa”, for Osiris is said by him to have been brought up in Nysa, in Arabia “the Happy”. Query: how much did the latter tradition influence, or have anything in common with, the statement in the Bible, that “Moses built an altar and called the name Jehovah Nissi”, or Kabbalistically—“Dio-Iao-Nyssi”? (See Isis Unveiled Vol. II. p. 165.) The four chief aspects of Osiris were—Osiris-Phtah (Light), the spiritual aspect; Osiris-Horus (Mind), the intellectual manasic aspect; Osiris-Lunus, the “Lunar” or psychic, astral aspect; Osiris-Typhon, Daïmonic, or physical, material, therefore passional turbulent aspect. In these four aspects he symbolizes the dual EGO—the divine and the human, the cosmico-spiritual and the terrestrial.

Of the many supreme gods, this Egyptian conception is the most suggestive and the grandest, as it embraces the whole range of physical and metaphysical thought. As a solar deity he had twelve minor gods under him—the twelve signs of the Zodiac. Though his name is the “Ineffable”, his forty-two attributes bore each one of his names, and his seven dual aspects completed the forty-nine, or 7 x 7; the former symbolized by the fourteen members of his body, or twice seven. Thus the god is blended in man, and the man is deified into a god. He was addressed as Osiris-Eloh. Mr. Dunbar T. Heath speaks of a Phœnician inscription which, when read, yielded the following tumular inscription in honour of the mummy: “Blessed be Ta-Bai, daughter of Ta-Hapi, priest of Osiris-Eloh. She did nothing against anyone in anger. She spoke no falsehood against any one. Justified before

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Osiris, blessed be thou from before Osiris! Peace be to thee.” And then he adds the following remarks: “The author of this inscription ought, I suppose, to be called a heathen, as justification before Osiris is the object of his religious aspirations. We find, however, that he gives to Osiris the appellation Eloh. Eloh is the name used by the Ten Tribes of Israel for the Elohim of Two Tribes. Jehovah-Eloh (Gen. iii. 21.) in the version used by Ephraim corresponds to Jehovah Elohim in that used by Judah and ourselves. This being so, the question is sure to be asked, and ought to be humbly answered—What was the meaning meant to be conveyed by the two phrases respectively, Osiris-Eloh and Jehovah-Eloh? For my part I can imagine but one answer, viz., that Osiris was the national God of Egypt, Jehovah that of Israel, and that Eloh is equivalent to Deus, Gott or Dieu”. As to his human development, he is, as the author of the Egyptian Belief has it . . . “One of the Saviours or Deliverers of Humanity. . . . . As such he is born in the world. He came as a benefactor, to relieve man of trouble. . . . . In his efforts to do good he encounters evil . . . and he is temporarily overcome. He is killed . . Osiris is buried. His tomb was the object of pilgrimage for thousands of years. But he did not rest in his grave. At the end of three days, or forty, he rose again and ascended to Heaven. This is the story of his Humanity” (Egypt. Belief ). And Mariette Bey, speaking of the Sixth Dynasty, tells us that “the name of Osiris . . commences to be more used. The formula of Justified is met with”: and adds that “it proves that this name (of the Justified or Makheru was not given to the dead only”. But it also proves that the legend of Christ was found ready in almost all its details thousands of years before the Christian era, and that the Church fathers had no greater difficulty than to simply apply it to a new personage.

Ossa. (Gr.) A mount, the tomb of the giants (allegorical).

Otz-Chiim. (Heb.). The Tree of Life, or rather of Lives, a name given to the Ten Sephiroth when arranged in a diagram of three columns. [w.w.w.]

Oulam, or Oulom (Heb.). This word does not mean “eternity” or infinite duration, as translated in the texts, but simply an extended time, neither the beginning nor the end of which can be known.

Ouranos (Gr.). The whole expanse of Heaven called the “Waters of Space”, the Celestial Ocean, etc. The name very likely comes from the Vedic Varuna, personified as the water god and regarded as the chief Aditya among the seven planetary deities. In Hesiod’s Theogony, Ouranos (or Uranus) is the same as Cœlus (Heaven) the oldest of all the gods and the father of the divine Titans.

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P.—The 16th letter in both the Greek and the English alphabets, and the 17th in the Hebrew, where it is called or pay, and is symbolized by the mouth, corresponding also, as in the Greek alphabet, to number 80. The Pythagoreans also made it equivalent to 100, and with a dash—thus (P̅) it stood for 400,000. The Kabbalists associated with it the sacred name of Phodeh (Redeemer), though no valid reason is given for it.

P and Cross, called generally the Labarum of Constantine. It was, however, one of the oldest emblems in Etruria before the Roman Empire. It was also the sign of Osiris. Both the long Latin and the Greek pectoral crosses are Egyptian, the former being very often seen in the hand of Horus. “The cross and Calvary so common in Europe, occurs on the breasts of mummies” (Bonwick).

Pachacamac (Peruv.). The name given by the Peruvians to the Creator of the Universe, represented as a host of creators. On his altar only the first-fruits and flowers were laid by the pious.

Pacis Bull. The divine Bull of Hermonthes, sacred to Amoun-Horus, the Bull Netos of Heliopolis being sacred to Amoun-Ra.

Padârthas (Sk.). Predicates of existing things; so-called in the Vaiseshika or “atomic” system of philosophy founded by Kanâda. This school is one of the six Darshanas.

Padmâ (Sk.). The Lotus; a name of Lakshmi, the Hindu Venus, who is the wife or the female aspect, of Vishnu.

Padma Âsana (Sk.). A posture prescribed to and practised by some Yogis for developing concentration.

Padma Kalpa (Sk.). The name of the last Kalpa or the preceding Manvantara, which was a year of Brahmâ.

Padma Yoni (Sk). A title of Brahmâ (also called Abjayoni), or the “lotus-born”.

Pæan (Gr.). A hymn of rejoicing and praise in honour of the sun-god Apollo or Helios.

Pagan (Lat.). Meaning at first no worse than a dweller in the country or the woods; one far removed from the city-temples, and therefore unacquainted with the state religion and ceremonies. The word “heathen” has a similar significance, meaning one who lives on the heaths and in the country. Now, however, both come to mean idolaters.

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Pagan Gods. The term is erroneously understood to mean idols. The philosophical idea attached to them was never that of something objective or anthropomorphic, but in each case an abstract potency, a virtue, or quality in nature. There are gods who are divine planetary spirits (Dhyan Chohans) or Devas, among which are also our Egos. With this exception, and especially whenever represented by an idol or in anthropomorphic form, the gods represent symbolically in the Hindu, Egyptian, or Chaldean Pantheons—formless spiritual Potencies of the “Unseen Kosmos”.

Pahans (Prakrit) Village priests.

Paksham (Sk.). An astronomical calculation; one half of the lunar month or 14 days; two paksham (or paccham) making a month of mortals, but only a day of the Pitar devata or the “father-gods”.

Palæolithic A newly-coined term meaning in geology “ancient stone” age, as a contrast to the term neolithic, the “newer” or later stone age.

Palâsa Tree (Sk.). Called also Kanaka (butea frondosa) a tree with red flowers of very occult properties.

Pâli. The ancient language of Magadha, one that preceded the more refined Sanskrit. The Buddhist Scriptures are all written in this language.

Palingenesis (Gr.). Transformation; or new birth.

Pan (Gr.). The nature-god, whence Pantheism; the god of shepherds, huntsmen, peasants, and dwellers on the land. Homer makes him the son of Hermes and Dryope. His name means ALL. He was the inventor of the Pandæan pipes; and no nymph who heard their sound could resist the fascination of the great Pan, his grotesque figure not withstanding. Pan is related to the Mendesian goat, only so far as the latter represents, as a talisman of great occult potency, nature’s creative force. The whole of the Hermetic philosophy is based on nature’s hidden secrets, and as Baphomet was undeniably a Kabbalistic talisman, so was the name of Pan of great magic efficiency in what Eliphas Lévi would call the “Conjuration of the Elementals”. There is a well-known pious legend which has been current in the Christian world ever since the day of Tiberias, to the effect that the “great Pan is dead”. But people are greatly mistaken in this; neither nature nor any of her Forces can ever die. A few of these may be left unused, and being forgotten lie dormant for long centuries. But no sooner are the proper conditions furnished than they awake, to act again with tenfold power.

Panænus(Gr.). A Platonic philosopher in the Alexandrian school of Philaletheans.

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Pancha Kosha (Sk.). The five “sheaths”. According to Vedantin philosophy, Vijnânamaya Kosha, the fourth sheath, is composed of Buddhi, or is Buddhi. The five sheaths are said to belong to the two higher principles—Jivâtma and Sâkshi, which represent the Upahita and An-upahita, divine spirit respectively. The division in the esoteric teaching differs from this, as it divides man’s physical-metaphysical aspect into seven principles.

Pancha Krishtaya (Sk.). The five races.

Panchakâma (Sk.). Five methods of sensuousness and sensuality.

Panchakritam (Sk.). An element combined with small portions of the other four elements.

Panchama (Sk.). One of the five qualities of musical sound, the fifth, Nishâda and Daivata completing the seven; G of the diatonic scale.

Panchânana (Sk.). “Five-faced”, a title of Siva; an allusion to the five races (since the beginning of the first) which he represents, as the ever reincarnating Kumâra throughout the Manvantara. In the sixth root-race he will be called the “six-faced”.

Panchâsikha (Sk.). One of the seven Kumâras who went to pay worship to Vishnu on the island of Swetadwipa in the allegory.

Panchen Rimboche (Tib.). Lit., “the great Ocean, or Teacher of Wisdom”. The title of the Teshu Lama at Tchigadze; an incarnation of Amitabha the celestial “father” of Chenresi, which means to say that he is an Avatar of Tson-kha-pa (See “Sonkhapa”). De jure the Teshu Lama is second after the Dalaï Lama; de facto, he is higher, since it is Dharma Richen, the successor of Tson-kha-pa at the golden monastery founded by the latter Reformer and established by the Gelukpa sect (yellow caps) who created the Dalaï Lamas at Llhassa, and was the first of the dynasty of the “Panchen Rimboche”. While the former (Dalaï Lama are addressed as “Jewel of Majesty”, the latter enjoy a far higher title, namely “Jewel of Wisdom”, as they are high Initiates.

Pândavâranî (Sk.). Lit., the “Pandava Queen”; Kunti, the mother of the Pandavas. (All these are highly important personified symbols in esoteric philosophy.)

Pândavas (Sk.). The descendants of Pandu.

Pandora (Gr.). A beautiful woman created by the gods under the orders of Zeus to be sent to Epimetheus, brother of Prometheus; she had charge of a casket in which all the evils, passions and plagues which torment humanity were locked up. This casket Pandora, led by curiosity, opened, and thus set free all the ills which prey on mankind.

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Pandu (Sk.). “The Pale”, literally; the father of the Pandavas Princes, the foes of the Kurava in the Mahâbhârata.

Pânini (Sk.). A celebrated grammarian, author of the famous work called Pâninîyama; a Rishi, supposed to have received his work from the god Siva. Ignorant of the epoch at which he lived, the Orientalists place his date between 600 B.C. and 300 A.D.

Pantacle (Gr.). The same as Pentalpha; the triple triangle of Pythagoras or the five-pointed star. It was given the name because it reproduces the letter A (alpha) on the five sides of it or in five different positions—its number, moreover, being composed of the first odd (3) and the first even (2) numbers. It is very occult. In Occultism and the Kabala it stands for man or the Microcosm, the “Heavenly Man”, and as such it was a powerful talisman for keeping at bay evil spirits or the Elementals. In Christian theology it refers to the five wounds of Christ; its interpreters failing, however, to add that these “five wounds” were themselves symbolical of the Microcosm, or the “Little Universe”, or again, Humanity, this symbol pointing out the fall of pure Spirit (Christos) into matter (Iassous, “life”, or man). In esoteric philosophy the Pentalpha, or five-pointed star, is the symbol of the EGO or the Higher Manas. Masons use it, referring to it as the five-pointed star, and connecting it with their own fanciful interpretation. (See the word “Pentacle” for its difference in meaning from “Pantacle”.)

Pantheist. One who identifies God with Nature and vice versâ. Pantheism is often objected to by people and regarded as reprehensible. But how can a philosopher regard Deity as infinite, omnipresent and eternal unless Nature is an aspect of IT, and IT informs every atom in Nature?

Panther (Heb.). According to the Sepher Toldosh Jeshu, one of the so-called Apocryphal Jewish Gospels, Jesus was the son of Joseph Panther and Mary, hence Ben Panther. Tradition makes of Panther a Roman soldier. [w.w.w.]

Pâpa-purusha (Sk.). Lit., “Man of Sin”: the personification in a human form of every wickedness and sin. Esoterically, one who is reborn, or reincarnated from the state of Avitchi—hence, “Soulless”.

Para (Sk.). “Infinite” and “supreme” in philosophy—the final limit. Param is the end and goal of existence; Parâpara is the boundary of boundaries.

Parabrahm (Sk.). “Beyond Brahmâ”, literally. The Supreme Infinite Brahma, “Absolute”—the attributeless, the secondless reality. The impersonal and nameless universal Principle.

Paracelsus. The symbolical name adopted by the greatest Occultist

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of the middle ages—Philip Bombastes Aureolus Theophrastus von Hohenheim—born in the canton of Zurich in 1493. He was the cleverest physician of his age, and the most renowned for curing almost any illness by the power of talismans prepared by himself. He never had a friend, but was surrounded by enemies, the most bitter of whom were the Churchmen and their party. That he was accused of being in league with the devil stands to reason, nor is it to be wondered at that finally he was murdered by some unknown foe, at the early age of forty-eight. He died at Salzburg, leaving a number of works behind him, which are to this day greatly valued by the Kabbalists and Occultists. Many of his utterances have proved prophetic. He was a clairvoyant of great powers, one of the most learned and erudite philosophers and mystics, and a distinguished Alchemist. Physics is indebted to him for the discovery of nitrogen gas, or Azote.

Paradha (Sk.). The period of one-half the Age of Brahmâ.

Parama (Sk.). The “one Supreme”.

Paramapadâtmava (Sk.). Beyond the condition of Spirit, “supremer” than Spirit, bordering on the Absolute.

Paramapadha (Sk.). The place where—according to Visishtadwaita Vedantins—bliss is enjoyed by those who reach Moksha (Bliss). This “place” is not material but made, says the Catechism of that sect, “of Suddhasatwa, the essence of which the body of Iswara”, the lord, “is made”.

Paramapaha (Sk) A state which is already a conditioned existence.

Paramartha (Sk) Absolute existence.

Pâramârthika (Sk.). The one true state of existence according to Vedanta.

Paramarshis (Sk.). Composed of two words: parama, “supreme”, and Rishis, or supreme Rishis—Saints.

Paramâtman (Sk.). The Supreme Soul of the Universe.

Paranellatons. In ancient Astronomy the name was applied to certain stars and constellations which are extra Zodiacal, lying above and below the constellations of the Zodiac; they were 36 in number: allotted to the Decans, or one-third parts of each sign. The paranellatons ascend or descend with the Decans alternately, thus when Scorpio rises, Orion in its paranellaton sets, also Auriga; this gave rise to the fable that the horses of Phaeton, the Sun, were frightened by a Scorpion, and the Charioteer fell into the River Po; that is the constellation of the River Eridanus which lies below Auriga the star. [w.w.w.]

Paranirvâna (Sk.). Absolute Non-Being, which is equivalent to absolute Being or “Be-ness”, the state reached by the human Monad at the

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end of the great cycle (See Secret Doctrine I, 135). The same as Paranishpanna.

Parasakti (Sk.). “The great Force”—one of the six Forces of Nature; that of light and heat.

Parâsara (Sk.). A Vedic Rishi, the narrator of Vishnu Purâna.

Paratantra (Sk.). That which has no existence of, or by itself, but only through a dependent or causal connection.

Paroksha (Sk.). Intellectual apprehension of a truth.

Parsees. Written also Parsis. The followers of Zoroaster. This is the name given to the remnant of the once-powerful Iranian nation, which remained true to the religion ‘of its forefathers—the fire-worship. This remnant now dwells in India, some 50,000 strong, mostly in Bombay and Guzerat.

Pâsa (Sk.). The crucifixion noose of Siva, the noose held in his right hand in some of his representations.

Paschalis, Martinez. A very learned man, a mystic and occultist. Born about 1700, in Portugal. He travelled extensively, acquiring knowledge wherever he could in the East, in Turkey, Palestine, Arabia, and Central Asia. He was a great Kabbalist. He was the teacher of the Initiator of the Marquis de St. Martin, who founded the mystical Martinistic School and Lodges. Paschalis is reported to have died in St. Domingo about 1779, leaving several excellent works behind him.

Pasht (Eg.). The cat-headed goddess, the Moon, called also Sekhet. Her statues and representations are seen in great numbers at the British Museum. She is the wife or female aspect of Ptah (the son of Kneph), the creative principle, or the Egyptian Demiurgus. She is also called Beset or Bubastis, being then both the re-uniting and the separating principle. Her motto is: “punish the guilty and remove defilement”, and one of her emblems is the cat. According to Viscount Rougé, her worship is extremely ancient (B.C. 3000), and she is the mother of the Asiatic race, the race that settled in Northern Egypt. As such she is called Ouato.

Pashut (Heb.). “Literal interpretation.” One of the four modes of interpreting the Bible used by the Jews.

Pashyantî (Sk.). The second of the four degrees (Parâ, Pashyantî, Madhyamâ and Vaikharî), in which sound is divided according to its differentiation.

Pass not, The Ring. The circle within which are confined all those who still labour under the delusion of separateness.

Passing of the River (Kab.). This phrase may be met with in works

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referring to mediæval magic: it is the name given to a cypher alphabet used by Kabbalistic Rabbis at an early date; the river alluded to is the Chebar—the name will also be found in Latin authors as Literæ Transitus. [w.w.w.]

Pastophori (Gr.). A certain class of candidates for initiation, those who bore in public processions (and also in the temples) the sacred coffin or funeral couch of the Sun-gods—killed and resurrected, of Osiris, Tammuz (or Adonis), of Atys and others. The Christians adopted their coffin from the pagans of antiquity.

Pâtâla (Sk). The nether world, the antipodes; hence in popular superstition the infernal regions, and philosophically the two Americas, which are antipodal to India. Also, the South Pole as standing opposite to Meru, the North Pole.

Pâtaliputra (Sk.). The ancient capital of Magadha, a kingdom of Eastern India, now identified with Patna.

Pâtanjala (Sk.). The Yoga philosophy; one of the six Darshanas or Schools of India.

Patanjali (Sk.). The founder of the Yoga philosophy. The date assigned to him by the Orientalists is 200 B.C.; and by the Occultists nearer to 700 than 600 B.C. At any rate he was a contemporary of Pânini.

Pâvaka (Sk.). One of the three personified fires—eldest sons of Abhimanim or Agni, who had forty-five sons; these with the original son of Brahmâ, their father Agni, and his three descendants, constitute the mystic 49 fires. Pâvaka is the electric fire.

Pavamâna (Sk.). Another of the three fires (vide supra)—the fire produced by friction.

Pavana (Sk) God of the wind; the alleged father of the monkey-god Hanuman (See “Râmâyana”).

Peling (Tib.). The name given to all foreigners in Tibet, to Europeans especially.

Pentacle (Gr.). Any geometrical figure, especially that known as the double equilateral triangle, the six-pointed star (like the theosophical pentacle); called also Solomon’s seal, and still earlier “the sign of Vishnu”; used by all the mystics, astrologers, etc.

Pentagon (Gr.), from pente “five”, and gonia “angle”; in geometry a plane figure with five angles.

Per-M-Rhu (Eg.). This name is the recognised pronunciation of the ancient title of the collection of mystical lectures, called in English The Book of the Dead. Several almost complete papyri have been found, and there are numberless extant copies of portions of the work. [w.w.w.]

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Personality. In Occultism—which divides man into seven principles, considering him under the three aspects of the divine, the thinking or the rational, and the animal man—the lower quaternary or the purely astrophysical being; while by Individuality is meant the Higher Triad, considered as a Unity. Thus the Personality embraces all the characteristics and memories of one physical life, while the Individuality is the imperishable Ego which re-incarnates and clothes itself in one personality after another.

Pesh-Hun (Tib.). From the Sanskrit pesuna “spy”; an epithet given to Nârada, the meddlesome and troublesome Rishi.

Phala (Sk.). Retribution; the fruit or result of causes.

Phâlguna (Sk.). A name of Arjuna; also of a month.

Phallic (Gr.). Anything belonging to sexual worship; or of a sexual character externally, such as the Hindu lingham and yoni—the emblems of the male and female generative power—which have none of the unclean significance attributed to it by the Western mind.

Phanes (Gr.). One of the Orphic triad—Phanes, Chaos and Chronos. It was also the trinity of the Western people in the pre-Christian period.

Phenomenon (Gr.). In reality “an appearance”, something previously unseen, and puzzling when the cause of it is unknown. Leaving aside various kinds of phenomena, such as cosmic, electrical, chemical, etc., and holding merely to the phenomena of spiritism, let it be remembered that theosophically and esoterically every “miracle”—from the biblical to the theumaturgic—is simply a phenomenon, but that no phenomenon is ever a miracle, i.e., something supernatural or outside of the laws of nature, as all such are impossibilities in nature.

Philaletheans (Gr.). Lit., “the lovers of truth”; the name is given to the Alexandrian Neo-Platonists, also called Analogeticists and Theosophists. (See Key to Theosophy, p. 1, et seq.) The school was founded by Ammonius Saccas early in the third century, and lasted until the fifth. The greatest philosophers and sages of the day belonged to it.

Philalethes, Eugenius. The Rosicrucian name assumed by one Thomas Vaughan, a mediæval English Occultist and Fire Philosopher. He was a great Alchemist. [w.w.w.]

Philæ (Gr.). An island in Upper Egypt where a famous temple of that name was situated, the ruins of which may be seen to this day by travellers.

Philo Judæus. A Hellenized Jew of Alexandria, and a very famous historian and writer; born about 30 B.C., died about 45 A.D. He

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ought thus to have been well acquainted with the greatest event of the 1st century of our era, and the facts about Jesus, his life, and the drama of the Crucifixion. And yet he is absolutely silent upon the subject, both in his careful enumeration of the then existing Sects and Brotherhoods in Palestine and in his accounts of the Jerusalem of his day. He was a great mystic and his works abound with metaphysics and noble ideas, while in esoteric knowledge he had no rival for several ages among the best writers. [See under “Philo Judæus” in the Glossary of the Key to Theosophy.]

Philosopher’s Stone. Called also the “Powder of Projection”. It is the Magnum Opus of the Alchemists, an object to be attained by them at all costs, a substance possessing the power of transmuting the baser metals into pure gold. Mystically, however, the Philosopher’s Stone symbolises the transmutation of the lower animal nature of man into the highest and divine.

Philostratus (Gr.). A biographer of Apollonius of Tyana, who described the life, travels and adventures of this sage and philosopher.

Phla (Gr.). A small island in the lake Tritonia, in the days of Herodotus.

Phlegiæ (Gr.). A submerged ancient island in prehistoric days and identified by some writers with Atlantis; also a people in Thessaly.

Pho (Chin.). The animal Soul.

Phœbe (Gr.). A name given to Diana, or the moon.

Phœbus-Apollo (Gr.). Apollo as the Sun, “the light of life and of the world”.

Phoreg (Gr.). The name of the seventh Titan not mentioned in the cosmogony of Hesiod. The “mystery” Titan.

Phorminx (Gr.). The seven-stringed lyre of Orpheus.

Phoronede (Gr.). A poem of which Phoroneus is the hero; this work is no longer extant.

Phoroneus (Gr.). A Titan; an ancestor and generator of mankind. According to a legend of Argolis, like Prometheus he was credited with bringing fire to this earth (Pausanias). The god of a river in Peloponnesus.

Phren (Gr.). A Pythagorean term denoting what we call the Kâma-Manas still overshadowed by the Buddhi-Manas.

Phtah (Eg.). The God of death; similar to Siva, the destroyer. In later Egyptian mythology a sun-god. It is the seat or locality of the Sun and its occult Genius or Regent in esoteric philosophy.

Phta-Ra (Eg.). One of the 49 mystic (occult) Fires.

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Picus, John, Count of Mirandola. A celebrated Kabbalist and Alchemist, author of a treatise “on gold” and other Kabbalistic works. He defied Rome and Europe in his attempt to prove divine Christian truth in the Zohar. Born in 1463, died 1494.

Pillaloo Codi (Tamil). A nickname in popular astronomy given to the Pleiades, meaning “hen and chickens”. The French also, curiously enough call this constellation, “Poussinière”.

Pillars, The Two. Jachin and Boaz were placed at the entrance to the Temple of Solomon, the first on the right, the second on the left. Their symbolism is developed in the rituals of the Freemasons.

Pillars, The Three. When the ten Sephiroth are arranged in the Tree of Life, two vertical lines separate them into 3 Pillars, namely the Pillar of Severity, the Pillar of Mercy, and the central Pillar of Mildness. Binah, Geburah, and Hod form the first, that of Severity; Kether, Tiphereth, Jesod and Malkuth the central pillar; Chokmah, Chesed and Netzach the Pillar of Mercy. [w.w.w.]

Pillars of Hermes. Like the “pillars of Seth” (with which they are identified) they served for commemorating occult events, and various esoteric secrets symbolically engraved on them. It was a universal practice. Enoch is also said to have constructed pillars.

Pingala (Sk.). The great Vedic authority on the Prosody and chhandas of the Vedas. Lived several centuries B.C.

Pippala (Sk.). The tree of knowledge: the mystic fruit of that tree “upon which came Spirits who love Science”. This is allegorical and occult.

Pippalâda (Sk.). A magic school wherein Atharva Veda is explained founded by an Adept of that name.

Pisâchas (Sk.). In the Purânas, goblins or demons created by Brahmâ. In the southern Indian folk-lore, ghosts, demons, larvæ and vampires—generally female—who haunt men. Fading remnants of human beings in Kâmaloka, as shells and Elementaries.

Pistis Sophia (Sk.). “Knowledge-Wisdom.” A sacred book of the early Gnostics or the primitive Christians.

Pitar Devata (Sk.). The “Father-Gods”, the lunar ancestors of mankind.

Pitaras (Sk.). Fathers, Ancestors. The fathers of the human races.

Pitris (Sk.). The ancestors, or creators of mankind. They are of seven classes, three of which are incorporeal, arupa, and four corporeal. In popular theology they are said to be created from Brahmâ’s side. They are variously genealogized, but in esoteric philosophy they are as given

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in the Secret Doctrine. In Isis Unveiled it is said of them: “It is generally believed that the Hindu term means the spirits of our ancestors, of disembodied people, hence the argument of some Spiritualists that fakirs (and yogis) and other Eastern wonder-workers, are mediums. This is in more than one sense erroneous. The Pitris are not the ancestors of the present living men, but those of the human kind, or Adamic races; the spirits of human races, which on the great scale of descending evolution preceded our races of men, and they were physically, as well as spiritually, far superior to our modern pigmies. In Mânava Dharma Shâstra they are called the Lunar Ancestors.” The Secret Doctrine has now explained that which was cautiously put forward in the earlier Theosophical volumes.

Pîyadasi (Pali). “The beautiful”, a title of King Chandragupta (the “Sandracottus” of the Greeks) and of Asoka the Buddhist king, his grandson. They both reigned in Central India between the fourth and third centuries B.C., called also Devânâmpiya, “the beloved of the gods”.

Plaksha (Sk.). One of the seven Dwipas (continents or islands) in the Indian Pantheon and the Purânas.

Plane. From the Latin planus (level, flat) an extension of space or of something in it, whether physical or metaphysical, e.g., a “plane of consciousness”. As used in Occultism, the term denotes the range or extent of some state of consciousness, or of the perceptive power of a particular set of senses, or the action of a particular force, or the state of matter corresponding to any of the above.

Planetary Spirits. Primarily the rulers or governors of the planets. As our earth has its hierarchy of terrestrial planetary spirits, from the highest to the lowest plane, so has every other heavenly body. In Occultism, however, the term “Planetary Spirit” is generally applied only to the seven highest hierarchies corresponding to the Christian archangels. These have all passed through a stage of evolution corresponding to the humanity of earth on other worlds, in long past cycles. Our earth, being as yet only in its fourth round, is far too young to have produced high planetary spirits. The highest planetary spirit ruling over any globe is in reality the “Personal God” of that planet and far more truly its “over-ruling providence” than the self-contradictory Infinite Personal Deity of modern Churchianity.

Plastic Soul. Used in Occultism in reference to the linga sharira or the astral body of the lower Quaternary. It is called “plastic” and also “Protean” Soul from its power of assuming any shape or form and moulding or modelling itself into or upon any image impressed in the

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astral light around it, or in the minds of the medium or of those present at séances for materialization. The linga sharira must not be confused with the mayavi rupa or “thought body”—the image created by the thought and will of an adept or sorcerer; for while the “astral form” or linga sharira is a real entity, the “thought body” is a temporary illusion created by the mind.

Plato. An Initiate into the Mysteries and the greatest Greek philosopher, whose writings are known the world over. He was the pupil of Socrates and the teacher of Aristotle. He flourished over 400 years before our era.

Platonic School, or the “Old Akadéme”, in contrast with the later or Neo-Platonic School of Alexandria (See “Philalethean”).

Pleroma (Gr.). “Fulness”, a Gnostic term adopted to signify the divine world or Universal Soul. Space, developed and divided into a series of æons. The abode of the invisible gods. It has three degrees.

Plotinus. The noblest, highest and grandest of all the Neo-Platonists after the founder of the school, Ammonius Saccas. He was the most enthusiastic of the Philaletheans or “lovers of truth”, whose aim was to found a religion on a system of intellectual abstraction, which is true Theosophy, or the whole substance of Neo-Platonism. If we are to believe Porphyry, Plotinus has never disclosed either his birth-place or connexions, his native land or his race. Till the age of twenty-eight he had never found teacher or teaching which would suit him or answer his aspirations. Then he happened to hear Ammonius Saccas, from which day he continued to attend his school. At thirty-nine he accompanied the Emperor Gordian to Persia and India with the object of learning their philosophy. He died at the age of sixty-six after writing fifty-four books on philosophy. So modest was he that it is said he “blushed to think he had a body”. He reached Samâdhi (highest ecstasy or “re-union with God” the divine Ego) several times during his life. As said by a biographer, “so far did his contempt for his bodily organs go, that he refused to use a remedy, regarding it as unworthy of a man to use means of this kind”. Again we read, “as he died, a dragon (or serpent) that had been under his bed, glided through a hole in the wall and disappeared”—a fact suggestive for the student of symbolism. He taught a doctrine identical with that of the Vedantins, namely, that the Spirit-Soul emanating from the One deific principle was, after its pilgrimage, re-united to It.

Point within a Circle. In its esoteric meaning the first unmanifested logos appearing on the infinite and shoreless expanse of Space, represented by the Circle. It is the plane of Infinity and Absoluteness. This is

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only one of the numberless and hidden meanings of this symbol, which is the most important of all the geometrical figures used in metaphysical emblematology. As to the Masons, they have made of the point “an individual brother” whose duty to God and man is bounded by the circle, and have added John the Baptist and John the Evangelist to keep company with the “brother”, representing them under two perpendicular parallel lines.

Popes-Magicians. There are several such in history; e.g., Pope Sylvester II., the artist who made an “oracular head”, like the one fabricated by Albertus Magnus, the learned Bishop of Ratisbon. Pope Sylvester was considered a great “enchanter and sorcerer” by Cardinal Benno, and the “head” was smashed to pieces by Thomas Aquinas, because it talked too much. Then there were Popes Benedict IX., John XX., and the VIth and VIIth Gregory, all regarded by their contemporaries as magicians. The latter Gregory was the famous Hildebrand. As to Bishops and lesser Priests who studied Occultism and became expert in magic arts, they are numberless.

Popol Vuh. The Sacred Books of the Guatemalians. Quiché MSS., discovered by Brasseur de Bourbourg.

Porphyry, or Porphyrius. A Neo-Platonist and a most distinguished writer, only second to Plotinus as a teacher and philosopher. He was born before the middle of the third century A.D., at Tyre, since he called himself a Tyrian and is supposed to have belonged to a Jewish family. Though himself thoroughly Hellenized and a Pagan, his name Melek (a king) does seem to indicate that he had Semitic blood in his veins. Modern critics very justly consider him the most practically philosophical, and the soberest, of all the Neo-Platonists. A distinguished writer, he was specially famous for his controversy with Iamblichus regarding the evils attendant upon the practice of Theurgy. He was, however, finally converted to the views of his opponent. A natural-born mystic, he followed, as did his master Plotinus, the pure Indian Râj-Yoga training, which leads to the union of the Soul with the Over-Soul or Higher Self (Buddhi-Manas). He complains, however, that, all his efforts notwithstanding, he did not reach this state of ecstacy before he was sixty, while Plotinus was a proficient in it. This was so, probably because while his teacher held physical life and body in the greatest contempt, limiting philosophical research to those regions where life and thought become eternal and divine, Porphyry devoted his whole time to considerations of the hearing of philosophy on practical life. “The end of philosophy is with him morality”, says a biographer, “we might almost say, holiness—the healing of man’s infirmities, the imparting to him a purer and more vigorous life. Mere knowledge, however true, is

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not of itself sufficient; knowledge has for its object life in accordance with Nous”—“reason”, translates the biographer. As we interpret Nous, however, not as Reason, but mind (Manas) or the divine eternal Ego in man, we would translate the idea esoterically, and make it read “the occult or secret knowledge has for its object terrestrial life in accordance with Nous, or our everlasting reincarnating Ego”, which would be more consonant with Porphyry’s idea, as it is with esoteric philosophy. (See Porphyry’s De Abstinentia i., 29.) Of all the Neo-Platonists, Porphyry approached the nearest to real Theosophy as now taught by the Eastern secret school. This is shown by all our modern critics and writers on the Alexandrian school, for “he held that the Soul should be as far as possible freed from the bonds of matter, . . . be ready . . . to cut off the whole body”. (Ad Marcellam, 34.) He recommends the practice of abstinence, saying that “we should be like the gods if we could abstain from vegetable as well as animal food”. He accepts with reluctance theurgy and mystic incantation as those are “powerless to purify the noëtic (manasic) principle of the soul”: theurgy can “but cleanse the lower or psychic portion, and make it capable of perceiving lower beings, such as spirits, angels and gods” (Aug. De Civ. Dei. X., 9), just as Theosophy teaches. “Do not defile the divinity”, he adds, with the vain imaginings of men you will not injure that which is for ever blessed (Buddhi-Manas) but you will blind yourself to the perception of the greatest and most vital truths”. (Ad Marcellam,18.) “If we would he free from the assaults of evil spirits, we must keep ourselves clear of those things over which evil spirits have power, for they attack not the pure soul which has no affinity with them”. (De Abstin. ii., 43.) This is again our teaching. The Church Fathers held Porphyry as the bitterest enemy, the most irreconcilable to Christianity. Finally, and once more as in modern Theosophy, Porphyry—as all the Neo-Platonists, according to St. Augustine—“praised Christ while they disparaged Christianity”; Jesus, they contended, as we contend, “said nothing himself against the pagan deities, but wrought wonders by their help”. “They could not call him as his disciples did, God, but they honoured him as one of the best and wisest of men”. (De Civ. Dei., xix., 23.) Yet, “even in the storm of controversy, scarcely a word seems to have been uttered against the private life of Porphyry. His system prescribed purity and . . . . he practised it”. (See A Dict. of Christian Biography, Vol. IV., “Porphyry”.)

Poseidonis (Gr.). The last remnant of the great Atlantean Continent. Plato’s island Atlantis is referred to as an equivalent term in Esoteric Philosophy.

Postel, Guillaume. A French adept, born in Normandy in 1510.

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His learning brought him to the notice of Francis I., who sent him to the Levant in search of occult MSS., where he was received into and initiated by an Eastern Fraternity. On his return to France he became famous. He was persecuted by the clergy and finally imprisoned by the Inquisition, but was released by his Eastern brothers from his dungeon. His Clavis Absconditorum, a key to things hidden and forgotten, is very celebrated.

Pot-Amun. Said to be a Coptic term. The name of an Egyptian priest and hierophant who lived under the earlier Ptolemies. Diogenes Laertius tells us that it signifies one consecrated to the “Amun”, the god of wisdom and secret learning, such as were Hermes, Thoth, and Nebo of the Chaldees. This must be so, since in Chaldea the priests consecrated to Nebo also bore his name, being called the Neboïm, or in some old Hebrew Kabbalistic works, “Abba Nebu”. The priests generally took the names of their gods. Pot-Amun is credited with having been the first to teach Theosophy, or the outlines of the Secret Wisdom-Religion, to the uninitiated.

Prabhavâpyaya (Sk.). That whence all originates and into which all things resolve at the end of the life-cycle.

Prachetâs (Sk.). A name of Varuna, the god of water, or esoterically—its principle.

Prâchetasas (Sk.). See Secret Doctrine, II., 176 et seq. Daksha is the son of the Prachetasas, the ten sons of Prachinavahis. Men endowed with magic powers in the Purânas who, while practising religious austerities, remained immersed at the bottom of the sea for 10,000 years. The name also of Daksha, called Prâchetasa.

Pradhâna (Sk.). Undifferentiated substance, called elsewhere and in other schools—Akâsa; and Mulaprakriti or Root of Matter by the Vedantins. In short, Primeval Matter.

Pragna (Sk.). or Prajna. A synonym of Mahat the Universal Mind. The capacity for perception. (S. D., I. 139) Consciousness.

Prahlâda (Sk.). The son of Hiranyakashipu, the King of the Asuras. As Prahlâda was devoted to Vishnu, of whom his father was the greatest enemy, he became subjected in consequence to a variety of tortures and punishments. In order to save his devotee from these, Vishnu assumed the form of Nri-Sinha (man-lion, his fourth avatar) and killed the father.

Prajâpatis (Sk.). Progenitors; the givers of life to all on this Earth. They are seven and then ten—corresponding to the seven and ten Kabbalistic Sephiroth; to the Mazdean Amesha-Spentas, &c. Brahmâ the creator, is called Prajâpati as the synthesis of the Lords of Being.

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Prâkrita (Sk.). One of the provincial dialects of Sanskrit—“the language of the gods”, and therefore, its materialisation.

Prâkritika Pralaya (Sk.). The Pralaya succeeding to the Age of Brahmâ, when everything that exists is resolved into its primordial essence (or Prakriti).

Prakriti (Sk.). Nature in general, nature as opposed to Purusha—spiritual nature and Spirit, which together are the “two primeval aspects of the One Unknown Deity”. (Secret Doctrine, I. 51.)

Pralaya (Sk.). A period of obscuration or repose—planetary, cosmic or universal—the opposite of Manvantara (S. D., I. 370.).

Pramantha (Sk.). An accessory to producing the sacred fire by friction. The sticks used by Brahmins to kindle fire by friction.

Prameyas (Sk.). Things to be proved; objects of Pramâna or proof.

Pram-Gimas (Lithuanian). Lit., “Master of all”, a deity-title.

Pramlochâ (Sk.). A female Apsaras—a water-nymph who beguiled Kandu. (See “Kandu”.)

Prâna (Sk.). Life-Principle; the breath of Life.

Prânamâya Kosha (Sk.). The vehicle of Prâna, life, or the Linga Sarîra a Vedantic term.

Pranâtman (Sk.). The same as Sutrâtmâ, the eternal germ-thread on which are strung, like beads, the personal lives of the EGO.

Pranava (Sk.). A sacred word, equivalent to Aum.

Prânâyâma (Sk.). The suppression and regulation of the breath in Yoga practice.

Pranidhâna (Sk.). The fifth observance of the Yogis; ceaseless devotion. (See Yoga Shâstras, ii. 32.)

Prâpti (Sk.). From Prâp, to reach. One of the eight Siddhis (powers) of Râj-Yoga. The power of transporting oneself from one place to another, instantaneously, by the mere force of will; the faculty of divination, of healing and of prophesying, also a Yoga power.

Prasanga Madhyamika (Sk.). A Buddhist school of philosophy in Tibet. it follows, like the Yogâchârya system, the Mahâyâna or “Great Vehicle” of precepts; but, having been founded far later than the Yogâchârya, it is not half so rigid and severe. It is a semi-exoteric and very popular system among the literati and laymen.

Prashraya, or Vinaya (Sk.). “The progenetrix of affection.” A title bestowed upon the Vedic Aditi, the “Mother of the Gods”.

Pratibhâsika (Sk.). The apparent or illusory life.

Pratisamvid (Sk.). The four “unlimited forms of wisdom” attained

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by an Arhat; the last of which is the absolute knowledge of and power over the twelve Nidânas. See “Nidâna”.)

Pratyâbhâva (Sk.). The state of the Ego under the necessity of repeated births.

Pratyagâtmâ (Sk.). The same as Jivâtmâ, or the one living Universal Soul—Alaya.

Pratyâhâra (Sk.). The same as “Mahâpralaya”.

Pratyâharana (Sk.). The preliminary training in practical Râj-Yoga.

Pratyaksha (Sk). Spiritual perception by means of senses.

Pratyasarga (Sk.). In Sankhya philosophy the “intellectual evolution of the Universe”; in the Purânas the 8th creation.

Pratyêka Buddha (S.k). The same as “Pasi-Buddha”. The Pratyêka Buddha is a degree which belongs exclusively to the Yogâchârya school, yet it is only one of high intellectual development with no true spirituality. It is the dead-letter of the Yoga laws, in which intellect and comprehension play the greatest part, added to the strict carrying out of the rules of the inner development. It is one of the three paths to Nirvâna, and the lowest, in which a Yogi—“without teacher and without saving others”—by the mere force of will and technical observances, attains to a kind of nominal Buddhaship individually; doing no good to anyone, but working selfishly for his own salvation and himself alone. The Pratyêkas are respected outwardly but are despised inwardly by those of keen or spiritual appreciation. A Pratyêka is generally compared to a “Khadga” or solitary rhinoceros and called Ekashringa Rishi, a selfish solitary Rishi (or saint). “As crossing Sansâra (‘the ocean of birth and death’ or the series of incarnations), suppressing errors, and yet not attaining to absolute perfection, the Pratyêka Buddha is compared with a horse which crosses a river swimming, without touching the ground.” (Sanskrit-Chinese Dict.) He is far below a true “Buddha of Compassion”. He strives only for the reaching of Nirvâna.

Pre-existence. The term used to denote that we have lived before. The same as reincarnation in the past. The idea is derided by some, rejected by others, called absurd and inconsistent by the third: yet it is the oldest and the most universally accepted belief from an immemorial antiquity. And if this belief was universally accepted by the most subtle philosophical minds of the pre-Christian world, surely it is not amiss that some of our modern intellectual men should also believe in it, or at least give the doctrine the benefit of the doubt. Even the Bible hints at it more than once, St. John the Baptist being regarded as the reincarnation of Elijah, and the Disciples asking whether the blind man was born blind because of his sins, which is equal to saying that he had lived and sinned

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before being born blind. As Mr. Bonwick well says: it was “the work of spiritual progression and soul discipline. The pampered sensualist returned a beggar; the proud oppressor, a slave; the selfish woman of fashion, a seamstress. A turn of the wheel gave a chance for the development of neglected or abused intelligence and feeling, hence the popularity of reincarnation in all climes and times. . . . thus the expurgation of evil was . . . gradually but certainly accomplished.” Verily “an evil act follows a man, passing through one hundred thousand transmigrations” (Panchatantra). “All souls have a subtle vehicle, image of the body, which carries the passive soul from one material dwelling to another” says Kapila; while Basnage explains of the Jews: “By this second death is not considered hell, but that which happens when a soul has a second time animated a body”. Herodotus tells his readers, that the Egyptians “are the earliest who have spoken of this doctrine, according to which the soul of man is immortal, and after the destruction of the body, enters into a newly born being. When, say they, it has passed through all the animals of the earth and sea, and all the birds, it will re-enter the body of a new born man.” This is Pre-existence. Deveria showed that the funeral books of the Egyptians say plainly “that resurrection was, in reality, but a renovation, leading to a new infancy, and a new youth. (See “Reincarnation”.)

Prêtas (Sk.). “Hungry demons in popular folk-lore. “Shells”, of the avaricious and selfish man after death; “Elementaries” reborn as Prêtas, in Kâma-loka, according to the esoteric teachings.

Priestesses. Every ancient religion had its priestesses in the temples. In Egypt they were called the and served the altar of Isis and in the temples of other goddesses. Canephorœ was the name given by the Greeks to those consecrated priestesses who bore the baskets of the gods during the public festivals of the Eleusinian Mysteries. There were female prophets in Israel as in Egypt, diviners of dreams and oracles; and Herodotus mentions the Hierodules, the virgins or nuns dedicated to the Theban Jove, who were generally the Pharaohs’ daughters and other Princesses of the Royal House. Orientalists speak of the wife of Cephrenes, the builder of the so-called second Pyramid, who was a priestess of Thoth. (See “Nuns”.)

Primordial Light. In Occultism, the light which is born in, and through the preternatural darkness of chaos, which contains “the all in all”, the seven rays that become later the seven Principles in Nature.

Principles. The Elements or original essences, the basic differentiations upon and of which all things are built up. We use the term to denote the seven individual and fundamental aspects of the One Universal Reality in Kosmos and in man. Hence also the seven aspects in their

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manifestation in the human being—divine, spiritual, psychic, astral, physiological and simply physical.

Priyavrata (Sk.). The name of the son of Swâyambhûva Manu in exoteric Hinduism. The occult designation of one of the primeval races in Occultism.

Proclus (Gr.). A Greek writer and mystic philosopher, known as a Commentator of Plato, and surnamed the Diadochus. He lived in the fifth century, and died, aged 75, at Athens A.D. 485. His last ardent disciple and follower and the translator of his works was Thomas Taylor of Norwich, who, says Brother Kenneth Mackenzie, “was a modern mystic who adopted the pagan faith as being the only veritable faith, and actually sacrificed doves to Venus, a goat to Bacchus and . . . designed to immolate a bull to Jupiter” but was prevented by his landlady.

Prometheus (Gr.). The Greek logos; he, who by bringing on earth divine fire (intelligence and consciousness) endowed men with reason and mind. Prometheus is the Hellenic type of our Kumâras or Egos, those who, by incarnating in men, made of them latent gods instead of animals. The gods (or Elohim) were averse to men becoming “as one of us (Genesis iii., 22), and knowing “good and evil”. Hence we see these gods in every religious legend punishing man for his desire to know. As the Greek myth has it, for stealing the fire he brought to men from Heaven, Prometheus was chained by the order of Zeus to a crag of the Caucasian Mountains.

Propator (Gr) Gnostic term. The “Depth” of Bythos, or En-Aior, the unfathomable light. The latter is alone the Self-Existent and the Eternal—Propator is only periodical.

Protogonos (Gr.). The “first-born”; used of all the manifested gods and of the Sun in our system.

Proto-îlos (Gr.). The first primordial matter.

Protologoi (Gr.). The primordial seven creative Forces when anthropomorphized into Archangels or Logoi.

Protyle (Gr.). A newly-coined word in chemistry to designate the first homogeneous, primordial substance.

Pschent (Eg.). A symbol in the form of a double crown, meaning the presence of Deity in death as in life, on earth as in heaven. This Pschent is only worn by certain gods.

Psyche (Gr.). The animal, terrestrial Soul; the lower Manas.

Psychism, from the Greek psyche. A term now used to denote very loosely every kind of mental phenomena, e.g., mediumship, and the

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higher sensitiveness, hypnotic receptivity, and inspired prophecy, simple clairvoyance in the astral light, and real divine seership; in short, the word covers every phase and manifestation of the powers and potencies of the human and the divine Souls.

Psychography. A word first used by theosophists; it means writing under the dictation or the influence of one’s “soul-power”, though Spiritualists have now adopted the term to denote writing produced by their mediums under the guidance of returning “Spirits”.

Psychology. The Science of Soul, in days of old: a Science which served as the unavoidable basis for physiology. Whereas in our modern day, it is psychology that is being based (by our great scientists) upon physiology.

Psychometry. Lit., “Soul-measuring”; reading or seeing, not with the physical eyes, but with the soul or inner Sight.

Psychophobia. Lit., “Soul-fear,” applied to materialists and certain atheists, who become struck with madness at the very mention of Soul or Spirit.

Psylli (Gr.). Serpent-charmers of Africa and Egypt.

Ptah, or Pthah (Eg.). The son of Kneph in the Egyptian Pantheon. He is the Principle of Light and Life through which “creation” or rather evolution took place. The Egyptian logos and creator, the Demiurgos. A very old deity, as, according to Herodotus, he had a temple erected to him by Menes, the first king of Egypt. He is “giver of life” and the self-born, and the father of Apis, the sacred bull, conceived through a ray from the Sun. Ptah is thus the prototype of Osiris, a later deity. Herodotus makes him the father of the Kabiri, the mystery-gods; and the Targum of Jerusalem says: “Egyptians called the wisdom of the First Intellect Ptah”; hence he is Mahat the “divine wisdom”; though from another aspect he is Swabhâvat, the self-created substance, as a prayer addressed to him in the Ritual of the Dead says, after calling Ptah “father of fathers and of all gods, generator of all men produced from his substance”: “Thou art without father, being. engendered by thy own will; thou art without mother, being born by the renewal of thine own substance from whom proceeds substance”.

Pûjâ (Sk.). An offering; worship and divine honours offered to an idol or something sacred.

Pulastya (Sk.). One of the seven “mind-born sons” of Brahmâ; the reputed father of the Nâgas (serpents, also Initiates) and other symbolical creatures.

Pums (Sk.). Spirit, supreme Purusha, Man.

Punarjanma (Sk.). The power of evolving objective manifestations; motion of forms; also, re-birth.

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Pundarîk-aksha (Sk.). Lit., “lotus-eyed”, a title of Vishnu. “Supreme and imperishable glory”, as translated by some Orientalists.

Pûraka (Sk.). Inbreathing process; a way of breathing as regulated according to the prescribed rules of Hatha Yoga.

Purânas (Sk.). Lit., “ancient”. A collection of symbolical and allegorical writings—eighteen in number now—supposed to have been composed by Vyâsa, the author of Mahâbhârata.

Purohitas (Sk.). Family priests; Brahmans.

Pururavas (Sk.). The son of Budha the son of Soma (the moon), and of Ila famous for being the first to produce fire by the friction of two pieces of wood, and make it (the fire) triple. An occult character.

Purusha (Sk.). “Man”, heavenly man. Spirit, the same as Nârâyana in another aspect. “The Spiritual Self.”

Purusha Nârâyana (Sk.). Primordial male—Brahmâ.

Purushottama (Sk.). Lit., “best of men”; metaphysically, however, it is spirit, the Supreme Soul of the universe; a title of Vishnu.

Pûrvaja (Sk.). “Pregenetic”, the same as the Orphic Protologos; a title of Vishnu.

Purvashadha (Sk.). An asterism.

Pûshan (Sk.). A Vedic deity, the real meaning of which remains unknown to Orientalists. It is qualified as the “Nourisher”, the feeder of all (helpless) beings. Esoteric philosophy explains the meaning. Speaking of it the Taittirîya Brâhmana says that, “When Prajâpati formed living beings, Pûshan nourished them”. This then is the same mysterious force that nourishes the fœtus and unborn babe, by Osmosis, and which is called the”atmospheric (or akâsic) nurse”, and the “father nourisher”. When the lunar Pitris had evolved men, these remained senseless and helpless, and it is “Pûshan who fed primeval man”. Also a name of the Sun.

Pushkala (Sk) or Puskola. A palm leaf prepared for writing on, used in Ceylon. All the native books are written on such palm leaves, and last for centuries.

Pushkara (Sk.). A blue lotus; the seventh Dwîpa or zone of Bhâratavarsha (India). A famous lake near Ajmere; also the proper name of several persons.

Pûto (Sk.). An island in China where Kwan-Shai-Yin and Kwan-Yin have a number of temples and monasteries.

Putra (Sk.). A son.

Pu-tsi K’iun-ling (Chin.). Lit., “the Universal Saviour of all beings”. A title of Avalokiteswara, and also of Buddha.

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Pygmalion (Gr.). A celebrated sculptor and statuary in the island of Cyprus, who became enamoured of a statue he had made. So the Goddess of beauty, taking pity on him, changed it into a living woman (Ovid, Met.). The above is an allegory of the soul.

Pymander (Gr.). The “Thought divine”. The Egyptian Prometheus and the personified Nous or divine light, which appears to and instructs Hermes Trismegistus, in a hermetic work called “Pymander”.

Pyrrha (Gr.). A daughter of Epimatheos and Pandora, who was married to Deucalion. After a deluge when mankind was almost annihilated, Pyrrha and Deucalion made men and women out of stones which they threw behind them.

Pyrrhonism (Gr). The doctrine of Scepticism as first taught by Pyrrho, though his system was far more philosophical than the blank denial of our modern Pyrrhonists.

Pythagoras (Gr.). The most famous of mystic philosophers, born at Samos, about 586 B.C. He seems to have travelled all over the world, and to have culled his philosophy from the various systems to which he had access. Thus, he studied the esoteric sciences with the Brachmanes of India, and astronomy and astrology in Chaldea and Egypt. He is known to this day in the former country under the name of Yavanâchârya (“Ionian teacher”). After returning he settled in Crotona, in Magna Grecia, where he established a college to which very soon resorted all the best intellects of the civilised centres. His father was one Mnesarchus of Samos, and was a man of noble birth and learning. It was Pythagoras. who was the first to teach the heliocentric system, and who was the greatest proficient in geometry of his century. It was he also who created the word “philosopher”, composed of two words meaning a “lover of wisdom”—philo-sophos. As the greatest mathematician, geometer and astronomer of historical antiquity, and also the highest of the metaphysicians and scholars, Pythagoras has won imperishable fame. He taught reincarnation as it is professed in India and much else of the Secret Wisdom.

Pythagorean Pentacle (Gr.). A Kabbalistic six-pointed star with an eagle at the apex and a bull and a lion under the face of a man; a mystic symbol adopted by the Eastern and Roman Christians, who place these animals beside the four Evangelists.

Pythia or Pythoness (Gr.). Modern dictionaries inform us that the term means one who delivered the oracles at the temple of Delphi, and “any female supposed to have the spirit of divination in her—a witch” (Webster). This is neither true, just nor correct. On the authority of Iamblichus, Plutarch and others, a Pythia was a priestess chosen among the sensitives of the poorer classes, and placed in a temple where oracular

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powers were exercised. There she had a room secluded from all but the chief Hierophant and Seer, and once admitted, was, like a nun, lost to the world. Sitting on a tripod of brass placed over a fissure in the ground, through which arose intoxicating vapours, these subterranean exhalations, penetrating her whole system, produced the prophetic mania, in which abnormal state she delivered oracles. Aristophanes in “Væstas” I., reg. 28, calls the Pythia ventriloqua vates or the “ventriloquial prophetess”, on account of her stomach-voice. The ancients placed the soul of man (the lower Manas) or his personal self-consciousness, in the pit of his stomach. We find in the fourth verse of the second Nâbhânedishta hymn of the Brahmans: “Hear, O sons of the gods, one who speaks through his name (nâbhâ), for he hails you in your dwellings!” This is a modern somnambulic phenomenon. The navel was regarded in antiquity as “the circle of the sun”, the seat of divine internal light. Therefore was the oracle of Apollo at Delphi, the city of Delphus, the womb or abdomen—while the seat of the temple was called the omphalos, navel. As well-known, a number of mesmerized subjects can read letters, hear, smell and see through that part of their body. In India there exists to this day a belief (also among the Parsis) that adepts have flames in their navels, which enlighten for them all darkness and unveil the spiritual world. It is called with the Zoroastrians the lamp of Deshtur or the “High Priest”; and the light or radiance of the Dikshita (the initiate) with the Hindus.

Pytho (Gr.). The same as Ob—a fiendish, devilish influence; the ob through which the sorcerers are said to work.

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Q.—The seventeenth letter of the English Alphabet. It is the obsolete Æolian Qoppa and the Hebrew Koph. As a numeral it is 100, and its symbol is the back of the head from the ears to the neck. With the Æolian Occultists it stood for the symbol of differentiation.

Qabbalah (Heb.). The ancient Chaldean Secret Doctrine, abbreviated into Kabala. An occult system handed clown by oral transmission; but which, though accepting tradition, is not in itself composed of merely traditional teachings, as it was once a fundamental science, now disfigured by the additions of centuries, and by interpolation by the Western Occultists, especially by Christian Mystics. It treats of hitherto esoteric interpretations of the Jewish Scriptures, and teaches several methods of interpreting Biblical allegories. Originally the doctrines were transmitted “from mouth to ear” only, says Dr. W. Wynn Westcott, “in an oral manner from teacher to pupil who received them; hence the name Kabbalah, Qabalah, or Cabbala from the Hebrew root QBL, to receive. Besides this Theoretic Kabbalah, there was created a Practical branch, which is concerned with the Hebrew letters, as types a like of Sounds, Numbers, and Ideas.” (See “Gematria”, “Notaricon”, “Temura”.) For the original book of the Qabbalah—the Zohar—see further on. But the Zohar we have now is not the Zohar left by Simeon Ben Jochai to his son and secretary as an heirloom. The author of the present approximation was one Moses de Leon, a Jew of the XIIIth century. (See “Kabalah” and “Zohar”.)

Qadmon, Adam, or Adam Kadmon (Heb.). The Heavenly or Celestial Man, the Microcosm (q.v.), He is the manifested Logos; the third Logos according to Occultism, or the Paradigm of Humanity.

Qai-yin (Heb.). The same as Cain.

Qaniratha (Mazd.). Our earth, in the Zoroastrian Scriptures, which is placed, as taught in the Secret Doctrine, in the midst of the other six Karshwars, or globes of the terrestrial chain. (See Secret Doctrine, II. p. 759.)

Q’lippoth (Heb.), or Klippoth. The world of Demons or Shells; the same as the Aseeyatic World, called also Olam Klippoth. It is the residence of Samâel, the Prince of Darkness in the Kabbalistic allegories.

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But note what we read in the Zohar (ii.43a) “For the service of the Angelic World, the Holy. . . . made Samâel and his legions, i.e., the world of action, who are as it were the clouds to be used (by the higher or upper Spirits, our Egos) to ride upon in their descent to the earth, and serve, as it were, for their horses”. This, in conjunction with the fact that Q’lippoth contains the matter of which stars, planets, and even men are made, shows that Samâel with his legions is simply chaotic, turbulent matter, which is used in its finer state by spirits to robe themselves in. For speaking of the “vesture” or form (rupa) of the incarnating Egos, it is said in the Occult Catechism that they, the Manasaputras or Sons of Wisdom, use for the consolidation of their forms, in order to descend into lower spheres, the dregs of Swabhâvat, or that plastic matter which is throughout Space, in other words, primordial ilus. And these dregs are what the Egyptians have called Typhon and modern Europeans Satan, Samâel, etc., etc. Deus est Demon inversus—the Demon is the lining of God.

Quadrivium (Lat.). A term used by the Scholastics during the Middle Ages to designate the last four paths of learning—of which there were originally seven. Thus grammar, rhetoric and logic were called the trivium, and arithmetic, geometry, music and astronomy (the Pythagorean obligatory sciences) went under the name of quadrivium.

Quetzo-Cohuatl (Mex.). The serpent-god in the Mexican Scriptures and legends. His wand and other “land-marks” show him to be some great Initiate of antiquity, who received the name of “Serpent” on account of his wisdom, long life and powers. To this day the aboriginal tribes of Mexico call themselves by the names of various reptiles, animals and birds.

Quiche Cosmogony. Called Popol Vuh; discovered by the Abbé Brasseur de Bourbourg. (See “Popol Vuh”.)

Quietists. A religious sect founded by a Spanish monk named Molinos. Their chief doctrine was that contemplation (an internal state of complete rest and passivity) was the only religious practice possible, and constituted the whole of religious observances. They were the Western Hatha Yogis and passed their time in trying to separate their minds from the objects of sense. The practice became a fashion in France and also in Russia during the early portion of this century.

Quinanes. A very ancient race of giants, of whom there are many traditions, not only in the folk-lore but in the history of Central America. Occult science teaches that the race which preceded our own human race was one of giants, which gradually decreased, after the Atlantean deluge had almost swept them off the face of the earth, to the present size of man.

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Quindecemvir (Lat.). The Roman priest who had charge of the Sibylline books.

Qû-tamy (Chald.). The name of the mystic who receives the revelations of the moon-goddess in the ancient Chaldean work, translated into Arabic, and retranslated by Chwolsohn into German, under the name of Nabathean Agriculture.

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R.—The eighteenth letter of the alphabet; “the canine”, as its sound reminds one of a snarl. In the Hebrew alphabet it is the twentieth, and its numeral is 200. It is equivalent as Resh to the divine name Rahim (clemency); and its symbols are, a sphere, a head, or a circle.

Ra (Eg.). The divine Universal Soul in its manifested aspect—the ever-burning light; also the personified Sun.

Rabbis (Heb.). Originally teachers of the Secret Mysteries, the Qabbalah; later, every Levite of the priestly caste became a teacher and a Rabbin. (See the series of Kabbalistic Rabbis by w.w.w.)

1 Rabbi Abulafia of Saragossa born in 1240, formed a school of Kabbalah named after him; his chief works were The Seven Paths of the Law and The Epistle to Rabbi Solomon.

2 Rabbi Akiba. Author of a famous Kabbalistic work, the “Alphabet of R.A.”, which treats every letter as a symbol of an idea and an emblem of some sentiment; the Book of Enoch was originally a portion of this work, which appeared at the close of the eighth century. It was not purely a Kabbalistic treatise.

3 Rabbi Azariel ben Menachem (A.D. 1160). The author of the Commentary on the Ten Sephiroth, which is the oldest purely Kabbalistic work extant, setting aside the Sepher Yetzirah, which although older, is not concerned with the Kabbalistic Sephiroth. He was the pupil of Isaac the Blind, who is the reputed father of the European Kabbalah, and he was the teacher of the equally famous R. Moses Nachmanides.

4 Rabbi Moses Botarel (1480). Author of a famous commentary on the Sepher Yetzirah; he taught that by ascetic life and the use of invocations, a man’s dreams might be made prophetic.

5 Rabbi Chajim Vital (1600) (The great exponent of the Kabbalah as taught R. Isaac Loria: author of one of the most famous works, Otz Chiim, or Tree of Life; from this Knorr von Rosenroth has taken the Book on the Rashith ha Gilgalim, revolutions of souls, or scheme of reincarnations.

6 Rabbi Ibn Gebirol. A famous Hebrew Rabbi, author of the hymn Kether Malchuth, or Royal Diadem, which appeared about 1050; it is a beautiful poem, embodying the cosmic doctrines of Aristotle, and it even

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now forms part of the Jewish special service for the evening preceding the great annual Day of Atonement (See Ginsburg and Sachs on the Religious Poetry of the Spanish Jews). This author is also known as Avicebron.

7 Rabbi Gikatilla. A distinguished Kabbalist who flourished about 1300: he wrote the famous books, The Garden of Nuts, The Gate to the Vowel Points, The mystery of the shining Metal, and The Gates of Righteousness. He laid especial stress on the use of Gematria, Notaricon and Temura.

8 Rabbi Isaac the Blind of Posquiero. The first who publicly taught in Europe, about A.D. 1200, the Theosophic doctrines of the Kabbalah.

9 Rabbi Loria (also written Luria, and also named Ari from his initials). Founded a school of the Kabbalah circa 1560. He did not write any works, but his disciples treasured up his teachings, and R. Chajim Vital published them.

10 Rabbi Moses Cordovero (A.D. 1550). The author of several Kabbalistic works of a wide reputation, viz., A Sweet Light, The Book of Retirement, and The Garden of Pomegranates; this latter can be read in Latin in Knorr von Rosenroth’s Kabbalah Denudata, entitled Tractatus de Animo, ex libro Pardes Rimmonim. Cordovero is notable for an adherence to the strictly metaphysical part, ignoring the wonder-working branch which Rabbi Sabbatai Zevi practised, and almost perished in the pursuit of.

11 Rabbi Moses de Leon (circa 1290 A.D.). The editor and first publisher of the Zohar, or “Splendour”, the most famous of all the Kabbalistic volumes, and almost the only one of which any large part has been translated into English. This Zohar is asserted to be in the main the production of the still more famous Rabbi Simon ben Jochai, who lived in the reign of the Emperor Titus.

12 Rabbi Moses Maimonides (died 1304). A famous Hebrew Rabbi and author, who condemned the use of charms and amulets, and objected to the Kabbalistic use of the divine names.

13 Rabbi Sabbatai Zevi (born 1641). A very famous Kabbalist, who passing beyond the dogma became of great reputation as a thaumaturgist, working wonders by the divine names. Later in life he claimed Messiahship and fell into the hands of the Sultan Mohammed IV. of Turkey, and would have been murdered, but saved his life by adopting the Mohammedan religion. (See Jost on Judaism and its Sects.)

14 Rabbi Simon ben Jochai (circa A.D. 70-80). It is round this name that cluster the mystery and poetry of the origin of the Kabbalah as a gift of the deity to mankind. Tradition has it that the Kabbalah was a

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divine theosophy first taught by God to a company of angels, and that some glimpses of its perfection were conferred upon Adam; that the wisdom passed from him unto Noah; thence to Abraham, from whom the Egyptians of his era learned a portion of the doctrine. Moses derived a partial initiation from the land of his birth, and this was perfected by direct communications with the deity. From Moses it passed to the seventy elders of the Jewish nation, and from them the theosophic scheme was handed from generation to generation; David and Solomon especially became masters of this concealed doctrine. No attempt, the legends tell us, was made to commit the sacred knowledge to writing until the time of the destruction of the second Temple by Titus, when Rabbi Simon ben Jochai, escaping from the besieged Jerusalem, concealed himself in a cave, where he remained for twelve years. Here he, a Kabbalist already, was further instructed by the prophet Elias. Here Simon taught his disciples, and his chief pupils, Rabbi Eliezer and Rabbi Abba, committed to writing those teachings which in later ages became known as the Zohar, and were certainly published afresh in Spain by Rabbi Moses de Leon, about 1280. A fierce contest has raged for centuries between the learned Rabbis of Europe around the origin of the legend, and it seems quite hopeless to expect ever to arrive at an accurate decision as to what portion of the Zohar, if any, is as old as Simon ben Jochai. (See “Zohar”.) [w.w.w.]

Râdhâ (Sk.). The shepherdess among the Gopis (shepherdesses) of Krishna, who was the wife of the god.

Râga (Sk). One of the five Kleshas (afflictions) in Patânjali’s Yoga philosophy. In Sânkhya Kârikâ, it is the “obstruction” called love and desire in the physical or terrestrial sense. The five Kleshas are: Avidyâ, or ignorance; Asmitâ, selfishness, or “I-am-ness”; Râga, love; Dwesha, hatred; and Abhinivesa, dread of suffering.

Ragnarök (Scand.). A kind of metaphysical entity called the “Destroyer” and the “Twilight of the Gods”, the two-thirds of whom are destroyed at the “Last Battle” in the Edda. Ragnarök lies in chains on the ledge of a rock so long as there are some good men in the world; but when all laws are broken and all virtue and good vanish from it, then Ragnarök will he unbound and allowed to bring every imaginable evil and disaster on the doomed world.

Ragon, J. M. A French Mason, a distinguished writer and great symbologist, who tried to bring Masonry back to its pristine purity. He was born at Bruges in 1789, was received when quite a boy into the Lodge and Chapter of the “Vrais Amis”, and upon removing to Paris founded the Society of the Trinosophes. it is rumoured that he was the possessor of a number of papers given to him by the famous Count de

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St. Germain, from which he had all his remarkable knowledge upon early Masonry. He died at Paris in 1866, leaving a quantity of books written by himself and masses of MSS., which were bequeathed by him to the “Grand Orient”. Of the mass of his published works very few are obtainable, while others have entirely disappeared. This is due to mysterious persons (Jesuits, it is believed) who hastened to buy up every edition they could find after his death. In short, his works are now extremely rare.

Rahasya (Sk.). A name of the Upanishads. Lit., secret essence of knowledge.

Rahat. The same as “Arhat”; the adept who becomes entirely free from any desires on this plane, by acquiring divine knowledge and powers.

Ra’hmin Seth (Heb.). According to the Kabala (or Qabbalah), the “soul-sparks”, contained in Adam (Kadmon), went into three sources, the heads of which were his three sons. Thus, while the “soul spark” (or Ego) called Chesed went into Habel, and Geboor-ah into Qai-yin (Cain)—Ra’hmin went into Seth, and these three sons were divided into seventy human species, called “the principal roots of the human race”.

Râhu (Sk.). A Daitya (demon) whose lower parts were like a dragon’s tail. He made himself immortal by robbing the gods of some Amrita—the elixir of divine life—for which they were churning the ocean of milk. Unable to deprive him of his immortality, Vishnu exiled him from the earth and made of him the constellation Draco, his head being called Rahu and his tail Ketu—astronomically, the ascending and descending nodes. With the latter appendage he has ever since waged a destructive war on the denouncers of his robbery, the sun and the moon, and (during the eclipses) is said to swallow them. Of course the fable has a mystic and occult meaning.

Rahula (Sk.). The name of Gautama Buddha’s son.

Raibhyas (Sk.). A class of gods in the 5th Manvantara.

Raivata Manvantara (Sk.). The life-cycle presided over by Raivata Manu. As he is the fifth of the fourteen Manus (in Esotercism, Dhyan Chohans), there being seven root-Manus and seven seed-Manus for the seven Rounds of our terrestrial chain of globes (See Esot. Buddhism by A. P. Sinnett, and the Secret Doctrine, Vol. I., “Brahminical Chronology”), Raivata presided over the third Round and was its root-Manu.

Râjâ (Sk.). A Prince or King in India.

Râjagriha (Sk.). A city in Magadha famous for its conversion to Buddhism in the days of the Buddhist kings. It was their residence from Bimbisara to Asoka, and was the seat of the first Synod, or Buddhist Council, held 510 B.C.

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Râjârshis (Sk.). The King-Rishis or King-Adepts, one of the three classes of Rishis in India; the same as the King-Hierophants of ancient Egypt.

Râjas (Sk.). The “quality of foulness” (i.e., differentiation), and activity in the Purânas. One of the three Gunas or divisions in the correlations of matter and nature, representing form and change.

Rajasâs (Sk.). The elder Agnishwattas — the Fire-Pitris, “fire” standing as a symbol of enlightenment and intellect.

Râja-Yoga (Sk.). The true system of developing psychic and spiritual powers and union with one’s Higher Self—or the Supreme Spirit, as the profane express it. The exercise, regulation and concentration of thought. Râja-Yoga is opposed to Hatha-Yoga, the physical or psycho physiological training in asceticism.

Râkâ (Sk.). The day of the full moon: a day for occult practices.

Râkshâ (Sk.). An amulet prepared during the full or new moon.

Râkshasas (Sk.). Lit., “raw eaters”, and in the popular superstition evil spirits, demons. Esoterically, however, they are the Gibborim (giants) of the Bible, the Fourth Race or the Atlanteans. (See Secret Doctrine, II., 165.)

Râkshasi-Bhâshâ (Sk.). Lit., the language of the Râkshasas. In reality, the speech of the Atlanteans, our gigantic forefathers of the fourth Root-race.

Ram Mohum Roy (Sk.). The well-known Indian reformer who came to England in 1833 and died there.

Râma (Sk.). The seventh avatar or incarnation of Vishnu; the eldest son of King Dasaratha, of the Solar Race. His full name is Rama-Chandra, and he is the hero of the Râmâyana. He married Sita, who was the female avatar of Lakshmi, Vishnu’s wife, and was carried away by Râvana the Demon-King of Lanka, which act led to the famous war.

Râmâyana (Sk.). The famous epic poem collated with the Mahâbhârata. It looks as if this poem was either the original of the Iliad or vice versâ, except that in Râmâyana the allies of Râma are monkeys, led by Hanuman, and monster birds and other animals, all of whom fight against the Râkshasas, or demons and giants of Lankâ.

Râsa (Sk.). The mystery-dance performed by Krishna and his Gopis, the shepherdesses, represented in a yearly festival to this day, especially in Rajastan. Astronomically it is Krishna—the Sun—around whom circle the planets and the signs of the Zodiac symbolised by the Gopis. The same as the “circle-dance” of the Amazons around the priapic image, and the dance of the daughters of Shiloh (Judges xxi.), and that of

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King David around the ark. (See Isis Unveiled, II., pp. 45, 331 and 332.)

Râshi (Sk.). An astrological division, the sixth, relating to Kanya (Virgo) the sixth sign in the Zodiac.

Rashi-Chakra (Sk.). The Zodiac.

Rasit (Heb.). Wisdom.

Rasollâsâ (Sk.). The first of the eight physical perfections, or Siddhis (phenomena), of the Hatha Yogis. Rasollâsâ is the prompt evolution at will of the juices of the body independently of any nutriment from without.

Rasshoo (Eg.). The solar fires formed in and out of the primordial “waters”, or substance, of Space.

Ratnâvabhâsa Kalpa (Sk.). The age in which all sexual difference will have ceased to exist, and birth will take place in the Anupâdaka mode, as in the second and third Root-races. Esoteric philosophy teaches that it will take place at the end of the sixth and during the seventh and last Root-race in this Round.

Râtri (Sk.). Night; the body Brahmâ assumed for purposes of creating the Râkshasas or alleged giant-demons.

Raumasa (Sk.). A class of devas (gods) said to have originated from the pores of Verabhadra’s skin. An allusion to the pre-Adamic race called the “sweat-born”. (Secret Doctrine, Vol. II.)

Ravail. The true name of the Founder of modern Spiritism in France, who is better known under the pseudonym of Allan Kardec.

Râvana (Sk.). The King-Demon (the Râkshasas), the Sovereign of Lankâ (Ceylon), who carried away Sita, Râma’s wife, which led to the great war described in the Râmâyana.

Ravi (Sk.). A name of the Sun.

Rechaka (Sk.). A practice in Hatha Yoga, during the performance of Pranayama or the regulation of breath: namely, that of opening one nostril and emitting breath therefrom, and keeping the other closed; one of the three operations respectively called Pûraka, Kumbhaka and Rechaka—operations very pernicious to health.

Red Colour. This has always been associated with male characteristics, especially by the Etruscans and Hindoos. In Hebrew it is Adam, the same as the word for “earth” and “the first man”. It seems that nearly all myths represent the first perfect man as white. The same word without the initial A is Dam or Dem, which means Blood, also of red colour. [w.w.w.]

The colour of the fourth Principle in man—Kâma, the seat of desires is represented red.

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Reincarnation. The doctrine of rebirth, believed in by Jesus and the Apostles, as by all men in those days, but denied now by the Christians. All the Egyptian converts to Christianity, Church Fathers and others, believed in this doctrine, as shown by the writings of several. In the still existing symbols, the human-headed bird flying towards a mummy, a body, or “the soul uniting itself with its sahou (glorified body of the Ego, and also the kâmalokic shell) proves this belief. “The song of the Resurrection” chanted by Isis to recall her dead husband to life, might be translated “Song of Rebirth”, as Osiris is collective Humanity. “Oh! Osiris [here follows the name of the Osirified mummy, or the departed], rise again in holy earth (matter), august mummy in the coffin, under thy corporeal substances”, was the funeral prayer of the priest over the deceased. “Resurrection” with the Egyptians never meant the resurrection of the mutilated mummy, but of the Soul that informed it, the Ego in a new body. The putting on of flesh periodically by the Soul or the Ego, was a universal belief; nor can anything be more consonant with justice and Karmic law. (See “Pre-existence”.)

Rekh-get-Amen (Eg.). The name of the priests, hierophants, and teachers of Magic, who, according to Lenormant, Maspero, the Champollions, etc., etc., “could levitate, walk the air, live under water, sustain great pressure, harmlessly suffer mutilation, read the past, foretell the future, make themselves invisible, and cure diseases” (Bonwick, Religion of Magic). And the same author adds: “Admission to the mysteries did not confer magical powers. These depended upon two things: the possession of innate capacities, and the knowledge of certain formulæ employed under suitable circumstances”. Just the same as it is now.

Rephaim (Heb.). Spectres, phantoms. (Secret Doctrine, II., 279.)

Resha-havurah (Heb., Kab.). Lit., the “White Head”, from which flows the fiery fluid of life and intelligence in three hundred and seventy streams, in all the directions of the Universe. The “White Head” is the first Sephira, the Crown, or first active light.

Reuchlin, John. Nicknamed the “Father of the Reformation”; the friend of Pico di Mirandola, the teacher and instructor of Erasmus, of Luther and Melancthon. He was a great Kabbalist and Occultist.

Rig Veda (Sk.). The first and most important of the four Vedas. Fabled to have been “created” from the Eastern mouth of Brahmâ; recorded in Occultism as having been delivered by great sages on Lake Man(a)saravara beyond the Himalayas, dozens of thousands of years ago.

Rik (Sk.). A verse of Rig-Veda.

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Riksha (Sk.). Each of the twenty-seven constellations forming the Zodiac. Any fixed star, or constellation of stars.

Rimmon (Heb.). A Pomegranate, the type of abundant fertility; occurs in the Old Testament; it figures in Syrian temples and was deified there, as an emblem of the celestial prolific mother of all; also a type of the full womb. [w.w.w.]

Rings, Magic. These existed as talismans in every folk-lore. In Scandinavia such rings are always connected with the elves and dwarfs who were alleged to be the possessors of talismans and who gave them occasionally to human beings whom they wished to protect. In the words of the chronicler: “These magic rings brought good luck to the owner so long as they were carefully preserved; but their loss was attended with terrible misfortunes and unspeakable misery”.

Rings and Rounds. Terms employed by Theosophists in explanation of Eastern cosmogony. They are used to denote the various evolutionary cycles in the Elemental, Mineral, &c., Kingdoms, through which the Monad passes on any one globe, the term Round being used only to denote the cyclic passage of the Monad round the complete chain of seven globes. Generally speaking, Theosophists use the term ring as a synonym of cycles, whether cosmic, geological, metaphysical or any other.

Riphæus (Gr.). In mythology a mountain chain upon which slept the frozen-hearted god of snows and hurricanes. In Esoteric philosophy a real prehistoric continent which from a tropical ever sunlit land has now become a desolate region beyond the Arctic Circle.

Rishabha (Sk.). A sage supposed to have been the first teacher of the Jain doctrines in India.

Rishabham (Sk). The Zodiacal sign Taurus.

Rishi-Prajâpati (Sk.). Lit., “revealers”, holy sages in the religious history of Âryavarta. Esoterically the highest of them are the Hierarchies of “Builders” and Architects of the Universe and of living things on earth; they are generally called Dhyan Chohans, Devas and gods.

Rishis (Sk.). Adepts; the inspired ones. In Vedic literature the term is employed to denote those persons through whom the various Mantras were revealed.

Ri-thlen. Lit., “snake-keeping”. It is a terrible kind of sorcery practised at Cherrapoonjee in the Khasi-Hills. The former is the ancient capital of the latter. As the legend tells us: ages ago a thlen (serpent-dragon) which inhabited a cavern and devoured men and cattle was put to death by a local St. George, and cut to pieces, every piece being sent out to a different district to be burnt. But the piece received

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by the Khasis was preserved by them and became a kind of household god, and their descendants developed into Ri-thlens or “snake keepers”, for the piece they preserved grew into a dragon (thlen) and ever since has obsessed certain Brahmin families of that district. To acquire the good grace of their thlen and save their own lives, these “keepers” have often to commit murders of women and children, from whose bodies they cut out the toe and finger nails, which they bring to their thlen, and thus indulge in a number of black magic practices connected with sorcery and necromancy.

Roger Bacon. A very famous Franciscan monk who lived in England in the thirteenth century. He was an Alchemist who firmly believed in the existence of the Philosopher’s Stone, and was a great mechanician, chemist, physicist and astrologer. In his treatise on the Admirable Force of Art and Nature, he gives hints about gunpowder and predicts the use of steam as a propelling power, describing besides the hydraulic press, the diving-bell and the kaleidoscope. He also made a famous brazen head fitted with an acoustic apparatus which gave out oracles.

Ro and Ru (Eg.). The gate or outlet, the spot in the heavens whence proceeded or was born primeval light; synonymous with “cosmic womb”.

Rohinilâ (Sk.). The ancient name of a monastery visited by Buddha Sâkyamuni, now called Roynallah, near Balgada, in Eastern Behar.

Rohit (Sk.). A female deer, a hind; the form assumed by Vâch (the female Logos and female aspect of Brahmâ who created her out of one half of his body) to escape the amorous pursuits of her “father”, who transformed himself for that purpose into a buck or red deer (the colour of Brahmâ being red).

Rohitaka Stupa (Sk.). The “red stupa”, or dagoba, built by King Asoka, and on which Maitribala-râjâ fed starving Yakshas with his blood. The Yakshas are inoffensive demons (Elementaries) called pynya-janas or “good people”.

Rosicrucians (Mys.). The name was first given to the disciples of a learned Adept named Christian Rosenkreuz, who flourished in Germany, circa 1460. He founded an Order of mystical students whose early history is to be found in the German work, Fama Fraternitatis (1614), which has been published in several languages. The members of the Order maintained their secrecy, but traces of them have been found in various places every half century since these dates. The Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia is a Masonic Order, which has adopted membership in the “outer”; the Chabrath Zereh Aur Bokher, or Order of the G. D., which has a very complete scheme of initiation into the Kabbalah and the Higher Magic of the Western or Hermetic type, and admits both

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sexes, is a direct descendant from mediæval sodalities of Rosicrucians, themselves descended from the Egyptian Mysteries. [w.w.w.]

Rostan. Book of the Mysteries of Rostan; an occult work in manuscript.

Rowhanee (Eg.) or Er-Roohanee. is the Magic of modern Egypt, supposed to proceed from Angels and Spirits, that is Genii, and by the use of the mystery names of Allah; they distinguish two forms—Ilwee, that is the Higher or White Magic; and Suflee and Sheytanee, the Lower or Black Demoniac Magic. There is also Es-Seemuja, which is deception or conjuring. Opinions differ as to the importance of a branch of Magic called Darb el Mendel, or as Barker calls it in English, the Mendal: by this is meant a form of artificial clairvoyance, exhibited by a young boy before puberty, or a virgin, who, as the result of self-fascination by gazing on a pool of ink in the hand, with coincident use of incense and incantation, sees certain scenes of real life passing over its surface. Many Eastern travellers have narrated instances, as E. W. Lane in his Modern Egyptians and his Thousand and One Nights, and E. B. Barker; the incidents have been introduced also into many works of fiction, such as Marryat’s Phantom Ship, and a similar idea is interwoven with the story of Rose Mary and the Beryl stone, a poem by Rossetti. For a superficial attempt at explanation, see the Quarterly Review, No. 117. [w.w.w.]

Ruach (Heb.). Air, also Spirit; the Spirit, one of the “human principles” (Buddhi-Manas).

Ruach Elohim (Heb.). The Spirit of the gods; corresponds to the Holy Ghost of the Christians. Also the wind, breath and rushing water. [w.w.w.]

Rudra (Sk.). A title of Siva, the Destroyer.

Rudras (Sk.). The mighty ones; the lords of the three upper worlds. One of the classes of the “fallen” or incarnating spirits; they are all born of Brahmâ.

Runes (Scand.). The Runic language and characters are the mystery or sacerdotal tongue and alphabet of the ancient Scandinavians. Runes are derived from the word rûna (secret). Therefore both language and character could neither be understood nor interpreted without having the key to it. Hence while the written runes consisting of sixteen letters are known, the ancient ones composed of marks and signs are indecipherable. They are called the magic characters. “It is clear”, says E. W. Anson, an authority on the folk-lore of the Norsemen, “that the runes were from various causes regarded even in Germany proper as full of mystery and endowed with supernatural power”. They are said to have been invented by Odin.

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Rûpa (Sk.). Body; any form, applied even to the forms of the gods, which are subjective to us.

Ruta (Sk.). The name of one of the last islands of Atlantis, which perished ages before Poseidonis, the “Atlantis” of Plato.

Rutas (Sk.). An ancient people that inhabited the above island or continent in the Pacific Ocean.

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S.—The nineteenth letter; numerically, sixty. In Hebrew it is the fifteenth letter, Samech, held as holy because “the sacred name of god is Samech”. Its symbol is a prop, or a pillar, and a phallic egg. In occult geometry it is represented as a circle quadrated by a cross, . In the Kabbalah the “divisions of Gan-Eden or paradise” are similarly divided.

Sa or Hea (Chald.). The synthesis of the seven Gods in Babylonian mythology.

Sabalâswâs (Sk.). Sons of Daksha (Secret Doctrine, II., 275).

Sabao (Gr.). The Gnostic name of the genius of Mars.

Sabaoth (Heb.). An army or host, from Sâbâ—to go to war; hence the name of the fighting god—the “Lord of Sabaoth”.

Sabda (Sk.). The Word, or Logos.

Sabda Brahmam (Sk.). “The Unmanifested Logos.” The Vedas; “Ethereal Vibrations diffused throughout Space”.

Sabhâ (Sk.). An assembly; a place for meetings, social or political. Also Mahâsabhâ, “the bundle of wonderful (mayavic or illusionary) things” the gift of Mayâsur to the Pândavas (Mahâbhârata.)

Sabianism. The religion of the ancient Chaldees. The latter believing in one impersonal, universal, deific Principle, never mentioned It, but offered worship to the solar, lunar, and planetary gods and rulers, regarding the stars and other celestial bodies as their respective symbols.

Sabians. Astrolaters, so called; those who worshipped the stars, or rather their “regents”. (See “Sabianism”.)

Sacha Kiriya (Sk.). A power with the Buddhists akin to a magic mantram with the Brahmans. It is a miraculous energy which can be exercised by any adept, whether priest or layman, and “most efficient when accompanied by bhâwanâ” (meditation). It consists in a recitation of one’s “acts of merit done either in this or some former birth”—as the Rev. Mr. Hardy thinks and puts it, but in reality it depends on the intensity of one’s will, added to an absolute faith in one’s own powers, whether of yoga—willing—or of prayer, as in the case of Mussulmans and Christians. Sacha means “true”, and Kiriyang, “action”. It is the power of merit, or of a saintly life.

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Sacrarium (Lat.). The name of the room in the houses of the ancient Romans, which contained the particular deity worshipped by the family; also the adytum of a temple.

Sacred Heart. In Egypt, of Horus; in Babylon, of the god Bel; and the lacerated heart of Bacchusin Greece and elsewhere. Its symbol was the persea. The pear-like shape of its fruit, and of its kernel especially, resembles the heart in form. It is sometimes seen on the head of Isis, the mother of Horus, the fruit being cut open and the heart-like kernel exposed to full view. The Roman Catholics have since adopted the worship of the “sacred heart” of Jesus and of the Virgin Mary.

Sacred Science. The name given to the inner esoteric philosophy, the secrets taught in days of old to the initiated candidates, and divulged during the last and supreme Initiation by the Hierophants.

Sadaikarûpa (Sk.). The essence of the immutable nature.

Sadducees. A sect, the followers of one Zadok, a disciple of Anti-gonus Saccho. They are accused of having denied the immortality of the (personal) soul and that of the resurrection of the (physical and personal) body. Even so do the Theosophists; though they deny neither the immortality of the Ego nor the resurrection of all its numerous and successive lives, which survive in the memory of the Ego. But together with the Sadducees—a sect of learned philosophers who were to all the other Jews that which the polished and learned Gnostics were to the rest of the Greeks during the early centuries of our era—we certainly deny the immortality of the animal soul and the resurrection of the physical body. The Sadducees were the scientists and the learned men of Jerusalem, and held the highest offices, such as of high priests and judges, while the Pharisees were almost from first to last the Pecksniffs of Judæa.

Sâdhyas (Sk.). One of the names of the “twelve great gods” created by Brahmâ. Kosmic gods; lit., “divine sacrificers”. The Sâdhyas are important in Occultism.

Sadik. The same as the Biblical Melchizedec, identified by the mystic Bible-worshippers with Jehovah, and Jesus Christ. But Father Sadik’s identity with Noah being proven, he can be further identified with Kronos-Saturn.

Safekh (Eg.). Written also Sebek and Sebakh, god of darkness and night, with the crocodile for his emblem. In the Typhonic legend and transformation he is the same as Typhon. He is connected with both Osiris and Horus, and is their great enemy on earth. We find him often called the “triple crocodile”. In astronomy he is the same as Mâkâra or Capricorn, the most mystical of the signs of the Zodiac.

Saga (Scand.). The goddess “who sings of the deeds of gods and

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heroes”, and to whom the black ravens of Odin reveal the history of the Past and of the Future in the Norsemen’s Edda.

Sâgara (Sk.). Lit., “the Ocean”; a king, the father of 6o,ooo sons, who, for disrespect shown to the sage Kapila, were reduced to ashes by a single glance of his eye.

Sagardagan. One of the four paths to Nirvâna.

Saha (Sk.). “The world of suffering”; any inhabited world in the chilio-cosmos.

Sahampati (Sk.). Maha or Parabrahm.

Saharaksha (Sk.). The fire of the Asuras; the name of a son of Pavamâna, one of the three chief occult fires.

Saint Martin, Louis Claude de. Born in France (Amboise), in 1743. A great mystic and writer, who pursued his philosophical and theosophical studies at Paris, during the Revolution. He was an ardent disciple of Jacob Boehme, and studied under Martinez Paschalis, finally founding a mystical semi-Masonic Lodge, “the Rectified Rite of St. Martin”, with seven degrees. He was a true Theosophist. At the present moment some ambitious charlatans in Paris are caricaturing him and passing themselves off as initiated Martinists, and thus dishonouring the name of the late Adept.

Sais (Eg.). The place where the celebrated temple of Isis-Neith was found, wherein was the ever-veiled statue of Neith (Neith and Isis being interchangeable), with the famous inscription, “I am all that has been, and is, and shall be, and my peplum no mortal has withdrawn”. (See “Sirius”.)

Saka (Sk.). Lit., “the One”, or the Eka; used of the “Dragon of Wisdom” or the manifesting deities, taken collectively.

Saka (Sk.). According to the Orientalists the same as the classical Sacæ. It is during the reign of their King Yudishtira that the Kali Yuga began.

Sâka Dwîpa (Sk.). One of the seven islands or continents mentioned in the Purânas (ancient works).

Sakkayaditthi. Delusion of personality; the erroneous idea that “I am I”, a man or a woman with a special name, instead of being an inseparable part of the whole.

Sakradagamin (Sk.). Lit., “he who will receive birth (only) once more” before Nirvâna is reached by him; he who has entered the second of the four paths which lead to Nirvâna and has almost reached perfection.

Sakshi (Sk.). The name of the hare, who in the legend of the “moon

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and the hare” threw himself into the fire to save some starving pilgrims who would not kill him. For this sacrifice Indra is said to have transferred him to the centre of the moon.

Sakti (Sk.). The active female energy of the gods; in popular Hinduism, their wives and goddesses; in Occultism, the crown of the astral light. Force and the six forces of nature synthesized. Universal Energy.

Sakti-Dhara (Sk.). Lit., the “Spear-holder”, a title given to Kartikeya for killing Târaka, a Daitya or giant-demon. The latter, demon though he was, seems to have been such a great Yogin, owing to his religious austerities and holiness, that he made all the gods tremble before him. This makes of Kartikeya, the war god, a kind of St. Michael.

Sakwala. This is a bana or “word” uttered by Gautama Buddha in his oral instructions. Sakwala is a mundane, or rather a solar system, of which there is an infinite number in the universe, and which denotes that space to which the light of every sun extends. Each Sakwala contains earths, hells and heavens (meaning good and bad spheres, our earth being considered as hell, in Occultism); attains its prime, then falls into decay and is finally destroyed at regularly recurring periods, in virtue of one immutable law. Upon the earth, the Master taught that there have been already four great “continents” (the Land of the Gods, Lemuria, Atlantis, and the present “continent” divided into five parts of the Secret Doctrine), and that three more have to appear. The former did not communicate with each other”, a sentence showing that Buddha was not speaking of the actual continents known in his day (for Pâtâla or America was perfectly familiar to the ancient Hindus), but of the four geological formations of the earth, with their four distinct root-races which had already disappeared.

Sâkya (Sk.). A patronymic of Gautama Buddha.

Sâkyamuni Buddha (Sk.). A name of the founder of Buddhism, the great Sage, the Lord Gautama.

Salamanders. The Rosicrucian name for the Elementals of Fire. The animal, as well as its name, is of most occult significance, and is widely used in poetry. The name is almost identical in all languages. Thus, in Greek, Latin, French, Spanish, Italian, etc., it is Salamandra, in Persian Samandel, and in Sanskrit Salamandala.

Salmalî (Sk.). One of the seven zones; also a kind of tree.

Sama (Sk.). One of the bhâva pushpas, or “flowers of sanctity”. Sama is the fifth, or “resignation”. There are eight such flowers, namely: clemency or charity, self-restraint, affection (or love for others), patience, resignation, devotion, meditation and veracity. Sama is also the repression of any mental perturbation.

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Sâma Veda (Sk.). Lit., “the Scripture, or Shâstra, of peace”. One of the four Vedas.

Samâdhâna (Sk.). That state in which a Yogi can no longer diverge from the path of spiritual progress; when everything terrestrial, except the visible body, has ceased to exist for him.

Samâdhi (Sk.). A state of ecstatic and complete trance. The term comes from the words Sam-âdha, “self-possession”. He who possesses this power is able to exercise an absolute control over all his faculties, physical or mental; it is the highest state of Yoga.

Samâdhindriya (Sk.). Lit., “the root of concentration”; the fourth of the five roots called Pancha Indriyâni, which are said in esoteric philosophy to be the agents in producing a highly moral life, leading to sanctity and liberation; when these are reached, the two spiritual roots lying latent in the body (Atmâ and Buddhi) will send out shoots and blossom. Samâdhindriya is the organ of ecstatic meditation in Râj-yoga practices.

Samael (Heb.). The Kabbalistic title of the Prince of those evil spirits who represent incarnations of human vices; the angel of Death. From this the idea of Satan has been evolved. [w.w.w.]

Samajna (Sk.). Lit., “an enlightened (or luminous) Sage”. Translated verbally, Samgharana Samajna, the famous Vihâra near Kustana (China), means “the monastery of the luminous Sage”.

Samâna (Sk.). One of the five breaths (Prânas) which carry on the chemical action in the animal body.

Sâmanêra. A novice; a postulant for the Buddhist priesthood.

Samanta Bhadra (Sk.). Lit., “Universal Sage”. The name of one of the four Bodhisattvas of the Yogâchârya School, of the Mâhâyana (the Great Vehicle) of Wisdom of that system. There are four terrestrial and three celestial Bodhisattvas: the first four only act in the present races, but in the middle of the fifth Root-race appeared the fifth Bodhisattva, who, according to an esoteric legend, was Gautama Buddha, but who, having appeared too early, had to disappear bodily from the world for a while.

Sâmanta Prabhâsa (Sk.). Lit., “universal brightness” or dazzling light. The name under which each of the 500 perfected Arhats reappears on earth as Buddha.

Sâmânya (Sk.). Community, or commingling of qualities, an abstract notion of genus, such as humanity.

Samâpatti (Sk.). Absolute concentration in Râja-Yoga; the process of development by which perfect indifference (Sams) is reached (apatti).

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This state is the last stage of development before the possibility of entering into Samâdhi is reached.

Samaya (Sk.). A religious precept.

S’ambhala (Sk). A very mysterious locality on account of its future associations. A town or village mentioned in the Purânas, whence, it is prophesied, the Kalki Avatar will appear. The “Kalki” is Vishnu, the Messiah on the White Horse of the Brahmins; Maitreya Buddha of the Buddhists, Sosiosh of the Parsis, and Jesus of the Christians (See Revelations). All these “messengers” are to appear “before the destruction of the world”, says the one; before the end of Kali Yuga say the others. It is in S’ambhala that the future Messiah will be born. Some Orientalists make modern Murâdâbâd in Rohilkhand (N.W.P.) identical with S’ambhala, while Occultism places it in the Himalayas. It is pronounced Shambhala.

Sambhogakâya (Sk.). One of the three “Vestures” of glory, or bodies, obtained by ascetics on the “Path”. Some sects hold it as the second, while others as the third of the Buddhahshêtras; or forms of Buddha. Lit., the “Body of Compensation” (See Voice of the Silence, Glossary iii). Of such Buddhakshêtras there are seven, those of Nirmânakâya, Sambhogakâya and Dharmakâya, belonging to the Trikâya, or three-fold quality.

Samgha (Sk.). The corporate assembly, or a quorum of priests; called also Bhikshu Samgha; the word “church” used in translation does not at all express the real meaning.

Samkhara (Pali). One of the five Shandhas or attributes in Buddhism.

Samkhara (Pali). “Tendencies of mind” (See “Skandhas”).

Samma Sambuddha (Pali). The recollection of all of one’s past incarnations; a yoga phenomenon.

Samma Sambuddha (Pali). A title of the Lord Buddha, the “Lord of meekness and resignation”; it means “perfect illumination”.

Samothrace (Gr.). An island famous for its Mysteries, perhaps the oldest ever established in our present race. The Samothracian Mysteries were renowned all over the world.

Samothraces (Gr.). A designation of the Five gods worshipped at the island of that name during the Mysteries. They are considered as identical with the Cabeiri, Dioscuri and Corybantes. Their names were mystical, denoting Pluto, Ceres or Proserpine, Bacchus and Æsculapius, or Hermes.

Sampajnâna (Sk.). A power of internal illumination.

Samskâra (Sk.). Lit., from Sam and Krî, to improve, refine, impress. In Hindu philosophy the term is used to denote the impressions left upon

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the mind by individual actions or external circumstances, and capable of being developed on any future favourable occasion—even in a future birth. The Samskâra denotes, therefore, the germs of propensities and impulses from previous births to be developed in this, or the coming janmâs or reincarnations. In Tibet, Samskâra is called Doodyed, and in China is defined as, or at least connected with, action or Karma. It is, strictly speaking, a metaphysical term, which in exoteric philosophies is variously defined; e.g., in Nepaul as illusion, in Tibet as notion, and in Ceylon as discrimination. The true meaning is as given above, and as such is connected with Karma and its working.

Samtan (Tib.). The same as Dhyâna or meditation.

Samvara (Sk.). A deity worshipped by the Tantrikas.

Samvarta (Sk.). A minor Kalpa. A period in creation after which a partial annihilation of the world occurs.

Samvartta Kalpa (Sk.). The Kalpa or period of destruction, the same as Pralaya. Every root-race and sub-race is subject to such Kalpas of destruction; the fifth root-race having sixty-four such Cataclysms periodically; namely: fifty-six by fire, seven by water, and one small Kalpa by winds or cyclones.

Samvat (Sk.). The name of an Indian chronological era, supposed to have commenced fifty-seven years B.C.

Samvriti (Sk.). False conception—the origin of illusion.

Samvritisatya (Sk.). Truth mixed with false conceptions (Samvriti); the reverse of absolute truth—or Paramârthasatya, self-consciousness in absolute truth or reality.

Samyagâjiva (Sk.). Mendicancy for religious purposes: the correct profession. It is the fourth Mârga (path), the vow of poverty, obligatory on every Arhat and monk.

Samyagdrishti (Sk.). The ability to discuss truth. The first of the eight Mârgas (paths) of the ascetic.

Samyakkarmânta (Sk.). The last of the eight Mârgas. Strict purity and observance of honesty, disinterestedness and unselfishness, the characteristic of every Arhat.

Samyaksamâdhi (Sk.). Absolute mental coma. The sixth of the eight Mârgas; the full attainment of Samâdhi.

Samyaksambuddha (Sk.). or Sammâsambuddha as pronounced in Ceylon. Lit., the Buddha of correct and harmonious knowledge, and the third of the ten titles of Sâkyamuni.

Samyattaka Nikaya (Pali). A Buddhist work composed mostly of dialogues between Buddha and his disciples.

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Sana (Sk.). One of the three esoteric Kumâras, whose names are Sana, Kapila and Sanatsujâta, the mysterious triad which contains the mystery of generation and reincarnation.

Sana or Sanaischara (Sk.). The same as Sani or Saturn the planet. In the Hindu Pantheon he is the son of Surya, the Sun, and of Sanjna, Spiritual Consciousness, who is the daughter of Visva-Karman, or rather of Chhâyâ the shadow left behind by Sanjna. Sanaischara, the “slow-moving”.

Sanaka (Sk.). A sacred plant, the fibres of which are woven into yellow robes for Buddhist priests.

Sanat Kumâra (Sk.). The most prominent of the seven Kumâras, the Vaidhâtra the first of which are called Sanaka, Sananda, Sanâtana and Sanat Kumâra; which names are all significant qualifications of the degrees of human intellect.

Sanat Sujâtîya (Sk.). A work treating of Krishna’s teachings, such as in Bhagavad Gîtâ and Anugîtâ.

Sancha-Dwîpa (Sk.). One of the seven great islands Sapta-Dwîpa.

Sanchoniathon (Gr.). A pre-christian writer on Phœnician Cosmogony, whose works are no longer extant. Philo Byblus gives only the so-called fragments of Sanchoniathon.

Sandalphon (Heb.). The Kabbalistic Prince of Angels, emblematically represented by one of the Cherubim of the Ark.

Sandhyâ (Sk.). A period between two Yugas, morning-evening; anything coming between and joining two others. Lit., “twilight”; the period between a full Manvantara, or a “Day”, and a full Pralaya or a “Night of Brahmâ”.

Sandhyâmsa (Sk.). A period following a Yuga.

Sanghai Dag-po (Tib.). The “concealed Lord”; a title of those who have merged into, and identified themselves with, the Absolute. Used of the “Nirvânees” and the “Jîvanmuktas

Sangye Khado (Sk.). The Queen of the Khado or female genii; the Dâkini of the Hindus and the Lilith of the Hebrews.

Sanjnâ (Sk.). Spiritual Consciousness. The wife of Surya, the Sun.

Sankara (Sk.). The name of Siva. Also a great Vedantic philosopher.

Sânkhya (Sk.). The system of philosophy founded by Kapila Rishi, a system of analytical metaphysics, and one of the six Darshanas or schools of philosophy. It discourses on numerical categories and the meaning of the twenty-five tatwas (the forces of nature in various degrees). This “atomistic school”, as some call it, explains nature by the inter-

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action of twenty-four elements with purusha (spirit) modified by the three gunas (qualities), teaching the eternity of pradhâna (primordial, homogeneous matter), or the self-transformation of nature and the eternity of the human Egos.

Sânkhya Kârikâ (Sk.). A work by Kapila, containing his aphorisms.

Sânkhya Yoga (Sk.). The system of Yoga as set forth by the above school.

Sanna (Pali). One of the five Skandhas, namely the attribute of abstract ideas.

Sannyâsi (Sk.). A Hindu ascetic who has reached the highest mystic knowledge; whose mind is fixed only upon the supreme truth, and who has entirely renounced everything terrestrial and worldly.

Sansâra (Sk.). Lit., “rotation”; the ocean of births and deaths. Human rebirths represented as a continuous circle, a wheel ever in motion.

Sanskrit (Sk.). The classical language of the Brahmans, never known nor spoken in its true systematized form (given later approximately by Pânini), except by the initiated Brahmans, as it was pre-eminently “a mystery language”. It has now degenerated into the so-called Prâkrita.

Santa (Sk.). Lit., “placidity”. The primeval quality of the latent, undifferentiated state of elementary matter.

Santatih (Sk.). The “offspring.”

Saphar (Heb.). Sepharim; one of those called in the Kabbalah—Sepher, Saphar and Sipur, or “Number, Numbers and Numbered”, by whose agency the world was formed.

Sapta (Sk.). Seven.

Sapta Buddhaka (Sk.). An account in Mahânidâna Sûtra of Sapta Buddha, the seven Buddhas of our Round, of which Gautama Sâkyamuni is esoterically the fifth, and exoterically, as a blind, the seventh.

Sapta Samudra (Sk.). The “seven oceans”. These have an occult significance on a higher plane.

Sapta Sindhava (Sk.). The “seven sacred rivers”. A Vedic term. In Zend works they are called Hapta Heando. These rivers are closely united with the esoteric teachings of the Eastern schools, having a very occult significance.

Sapta Tathâgata (Sk.). The chief seven Nirmânakâyas among the numberless ancient world-guardians. Their names are inscribed on a heptagonal pillar kept in a secret chamber in almost all Buddhist temples in China and Tibet. The Orientalists are wrong in thinking that these are “the seven Buddhist substitutes for the Rishis of the Brahmans.” (See “Tathâgata-gupta”).

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Saptadwîpa (Sk.). The seven sacred islands or “continents” in the Purânas.

Saptaloka (Sk.). The seven higher regions, beginning from the earth upwards.

Saptaparna (Sk.). The “sevenfold”. A plant which gave its name to a famous cave, a Vihâra, in Râjâgriha, now near Buddhagaya, where the Lord Buddha used to meditate and teach his Arhats, and where after his death the first Synod was held. This cave had seven chambers, whence the name. In Esotericism Saptaparna is the symbol of the “seven fold Man-Plant”.

Saptarshi (Sk.). The seven Rishis. As stars they are the constellation of ‘the Great Bear, and called as such the Riksha and Chitrasikhandinas, bright-crested.

Sar or Saros (Chald.). A Chaldean god from whose name, represented by a circular horizon, the Greeks borrowed their word Saros, the cycle.

Saramâ (Sk.). In the Vedas, the dog of Indra and mother of the two dogs called Sârameyas. Saramâ is the “divine watchman” of the god and the same as he who watched “over the golden flock of stars and solar rays”; the same as Mercury, the planet, and the Greek Hermes, called Sârameyas.

Saraph (Heb.). A flying serpent.

Sarasvati (Sk.). The same as Vâch, wife and daughter of Brahmâ produced from one of the two halves of his body. She is the goddess of speech and of sacred or esoteric knowledge and wisdom. Also called Sri.

Sarcophagus (Gr.). A stone tomb, a receptacle for the dead; sarc = flesh, and phagein = to eat. Lapis assius, the stone of which the sarcophagi were made, is found in Lycia, and has the property of consuming the bodies in a very few weeks. In Egypt sarcophagi were made of various other stones, of black basalt, red granite, alabaster and other materials, as they served only as outward receptacles for the wooden coffins containing the mummies. The epitaphs on some of them are as remarkable as they are highly ethical, and no Christian could wish for anything better. One epitaph, dating thousands of years before the year one of our modern era, reads:—“I have given water to him who was thirsty, and clothing to him who was naked. I have done harm to no man.” Another: “I have done actions desired by men and those which are commanded by the gods”. The beauty of some of these tombs may be judged by the alabaster sarcophagus of Oimenephthah I., at Sir John Soane’s Museum, Lincoln’s Inn. “It was cut out of a single block of fine alabaster stone, and is 9 ft. 4 in. long, by 22 to 24 in. in width, and 27 to 32 in. in height. . . . Engraved dots, etc., outside were once

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filled with blue copper to represent the heavens. To attempt a description of the wonderful figures inside and out is beyond the scope of this work. Much of our knowledge of the mythology of the people is derived from this precious monument, with its hundreds of figures to illustrate the last judgment, and the life beyond the grave. Gods, men, serpents, symbolical animals and plants are there most beautifully carved.” (Funeral Rites of the Egyptians.)

Sargon (Chald.). A Babylonian king. The story is now found to have been the original of Moses and the ark of bulrushes in the Nile.

Sarîra (Sk.). Envelope or body.

Sarisripa (Sk.). Serpents, crawling insects, reptiles, “the infinitesimally small”.

Sarku (Chald.). Lit., the light race; that of the gods in contradistinction to the dark race called zahmat gagnadi, or the race that fell, i.e., mortal men.

Sarpas (Sk.). Serpents, whose king was Sesha, the serpent, or rather an aspect of Vishnu, who reigned in Pâtâla.

Sârpa-rajnî (Sk.). The queen of the serpents in the Brâhmanas.

Sarva Mandala (Sk.). A name for the “Egg of Brahmâ”.

Sarvada (Sk.). Lit., “all-sacrificing “A title of Buddha, who in a former Jâtaha (birth) sacrificed his kingdom, liberty, and even life, to save others.

Sarvaga (Sk.). The supreme “World-Substance”.

Sarvâtmâ (Sk.). The supreme Soul; the all-pervading Spirit.

Sarvêsha (Sk.). Supreme Being. Controller of every action and force in the universe.

Sat (Sk.). The one ever-present Reality in the infinite world; the divine essence which is, but cannot be said to exist, as it is Absoluteness, Be-ness itself.

Sata rûpa (Sk.). The “hundred-formed one”; applied to Vâch, who to be the female Brahmâ assumes a hundred forms, i.e., Nature.

Sati (Eg.). The triadic goddess, with Anouki of the Egyptian god Khnoum.

Sattâ (Sk.). The “one and sole Existence”—Brahma (neut.).

Satti or Suttee, (Sk.). The burning of living widows together with their dead husbands—a custom now happily abolished in India; lit., “a chaste and devoted wife”.

Sattva (Sk.). Understanding; quiescence in divine knowledge. It follows generally the word Bodhi when used as a compound word, e.g., “Bodhisattva”.

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Sattva or Satwa, (Sk.). Goodness; the same as Sattva, or purity, one of the trigunas or three divisions of nature.

Satya (Sk.). Supreme truth.

Satya Loka (Sk.). The world of infinite purity and wisdom, the celestial abode of Brahmâ and the gods.

Satya Yuga (Sk.). The golden age, or the age of truth and purity; the first of the four Yugas, also called Krita Yuga.

Satyas (Sk.). One of the names of the twelve great gods.

Scarabæus, In Egypt, the symbol of resurrection, and also of rebirth; of resurrection for the mummy or rather of the highest aspects of the personality which animated it, and of rebirth for the Ego, the “spiritual body” of the lower, human Soul. Egyptologists give us but half of the truth, when in speculating upon the meaning of certain inscriptions, they say, “the justified soul, once arrived at a certain period of its peregrinations (simply at the death of the physical body) should be united to its body (i.e., the Ego) never more to be separated from it”. (Rougé.) What is this so-called body? Can it be the mummy? Certainly not, for the emptied mummified corpse can never resurrect. It can only be the eternal, spiritual vestment, the EGO that never dies but gives immortality to whatsoever becomes united with it. “The delivered Intelligence (which) retakes its luminous envelope and (re)becomes Daïmon”, as Prof. Maspero says, is the spiritual Ego; the personal Ego or Kâma Manas, its direct ray, or the lower soul, is that which aspires to become Osirified, i.e., to unite itself with its “god”; and that portion of it which will succeed in so doing, will never more be separated from it (the god), not even when the latter incarnates again and again, descending periodically on earth in its pilgrimage, in search of further experiences and following the decrees of Karma. Khem, “the sower of seed”, is shown on a stele in a picture of Resurrection after physical death, as the creator and the sower of the grain of corn, which, after corruption, springs up afresh each time into a new ear, on which a scarab beetle is seen poised; and Deveria shows very justly that “Ptah is the inert, material form of Osiris, who will become Sokari (the eternal Ego) to be reborn, and afterwards be Harmachus”, or Horus in his transformation, the risen god. The prayer so often found in the tumular inscriptions, “the wish for the resurrection in one’s living soul” or the Higher Ego, has ever a scarabæus at the end, standing for the personal soul. The scarabæus is the most honoured, as the most frequent and familiar, of all Egyptian symbols. No mummy is without several of them; the favourite ornament on engravings, house hold furniture and utensils is this sacred beetle, and Pierret pertinently

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shows in his Livre des Morts that the secret meaning of this hieroglyph is sufficiently explained in that the Egyptian name for the scarabæus Kheper signifies to be, to become, to build again.

Scheo (Eg.). The god who, conjointly with Tefnant and Seb, inhabits Aanroo, the region called “the land of the rebirth of the gods”.

Schesoo-Hor (Eg.). Lit., the servants of Horus; the early people who settled in Egypt and who were Aryans.

Schools of the Prophets. Schools established by Samuel for the training of the Nabiim (prophets). Their method was pursued on the same lines as that of a Chela or candidate for initiation into the occult sciences, i.e., the development of abnormal faculties or clairvoyance leading to Seership. Of such schools there were many in days of old in Palestine and Asia Minor. That the Hebrews worshipped Nebo, the Chaldean god of secret learning, is quite certain, since they adopted his name as an equivalent of Wisdom.

Séance. A word which has come to mean with Theosophists and Spiritualists a sitting with a medium for phenomena, the materialisation of “spirits” and other manifestations.

Seb (Eg.). The Egyptian Saturn; the father of Osiris and Isis. Esoterically, the sole principle before creation, nearer in meaning to Parabrahm than Brahmâ. From as early as the second Dynasty, there were records of him, and statues of Seb are to be seen in the museums represented with the goose or black swan that laid the egg of the world on his head. Nout or Neith, the “Great Mother” and yet the “Immaculate Virgin”, is Seb’s wife; she is the oldest goddess on record, and is to be found on monuments of the first dynasty, to which Mariette Bey assigns the date of almost 7000 years B.C.

Secret Doctrine. The general name given to the esoteric teachings of antiquity.

Sedecla (Heb.). The Obeah woman of Endor.

Seer. One who is a clairvoyant; who can see things visible, and invisible—for others—at any distance and time with his spiritual or inner sight or perceptions.

Seir Anpin, or Zauir Anpin (Heb.). In the Kabbalah, “the Son of the concealed Father”, he who unites in himself all the Sephiroth. Adam Kadmon, or the first manifested “Heavenly Man”, the Logos.

Sekhem (Eg.). The same as Sekten.

Sekhet (Eg.). See “Pasht”.

Sekten (Eg.). Dêvâchân; the place of post mortem reward, a state of bliss, not a locality.

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Senâ (Sk.). The female aspect or Sakti of Kârttikeya; also called Kaumâra.

Senses. The ten organs of man. In the exoteric Pantheon and the allegories of the. East, these are the emanations of ten minor gods, the terrestrial Prajâpati or “progenitors”. They are called in contradistinction to the five physical and the seven superphysical, the “elementary senses”. In Occultism they are closely allied with various forces of nature, and with our inner organisms, called cells in physiology.

Senzar. The mystic name for the secret sacerdotal language or the “Mystery-speech” of the initiated Adepts, all over the world.

Sepher Sephiroth (Heb.). A Kabbalistic treatise concerning the gradual evolution of Deity from negative repose to active emanation and creation. [w.w.w.]

Sepher Yetzirah (Heb.). “The Book of Formation”. A very ancient Kabbalistic work ascribed to the patriarch Abraham. It illustrates the creation of the universe by analogy with the twenty-two letters of the Hebrew alphabet, distributed into a triad,, a heptad, and a dodecad, corresponding with the-three mother letters, A, M, S, the seven planets, and the twelve signs of the Zodiac. It is written in the Neo-Hebraic of the Mishnah. [w.w.w.]

Sephira (Heb.) An emanation of Deity; the parent and synthesis of the ten Sephiroth when she stands at the head of the Sephirothal Tree; in the Kabbalah, Sephira, or the “Sacred Aged”, is the divine Intelligence (the same as Sophia or Metis), the first emanation from the “Endless” or Ain-Suph.

Sephiroth (Heb.). The ten emanations of Deity; the highest is formed by the concentration of the Ain Soph Aur, or the Limitless Light, and each: Sephira produces by emanation another Sephira. The names of the Ten Sephiroth are—1. Kether—The Crown; 2. Chokmah—Wisdom; 3. Binah—Understanding; 4. Chesed-—Mercy; Geburah—Power; 6. Tiphereth—Beauty; 7. Netzach—Victory; 8. Hod—Splendour; 9. Jesod—Foundation; and 10. Malkuth—The Kingdom. The conception of Deity embodied in the Ten Sephiroth is a very sublime one, and each Sephira is a picture to the Kabbalist of a group of exalted ideas, titles and attributes, which the name but faintly represents. Each Sephira is called either active or passive, though this attribution may lead to error; passive does not mean a return to negative existence; and the two words only express the relation between individual Sephiroth, and not any absolute quality. [w.w.w.]

Septerium (Lat.) A great religious festival held in days of old every ninth year at Delphi, in honour of Helios, the Sun, or Apollo, to com-

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memorate his triumph over darkness, or Python; Apollo-Python being the same as Osiris-Typhon in Egypt.

Seraphim (Heb.). Celestial beings described by Isaiah (vi., 2,) as of human form with the addition of three pair of wings. The Hebrew word is ShRPIM, and apart from the above instance, is translated serpents, and is related to the verbal root ShRP, to burn up. The word is used for serpents in Numbers and Deuteronomy. Moses is said to have raised in the wilderness a ShRP or Seraph of Brass as a type. This bright serpent is also used as an emblem of Light.

Compare the myth of Æsculapius, the healing deity, who is said to have been brought to Rome from Epidaurus as a serpent, and whose statues show him holding a wand on which a snake is twisted. (See Ovid, Metam., lib. xv.). The Seraphim of the Old Testament seem to be related to the Cherubim (q.v.). In the Kabbalah the Seraphim are a group of angelic powers allotted to the Sephira Geburah—Severity. [w.w.w.]

Serapis (Eg.). A great solar god who replaced Osiris in the popular worship, and in whose honour the seven vowels were sung. He was often made to appear in his representations as a serpent, a “Dragon of Wisdom”. The greatest god of Egypt during the first centuries of Christianity.

Sesha (Sk.). Ananta, the great Serpent of Eternity, the couch of Vishnu; the symbol of infinite Time in Space. In the exoteric beliefs Sesha is represented as a thousand-headed and seven-headed cobra; the former the king of the nether world, called Pâtâla, the latter the carrier or support of Vishnu on the Ocean of Space.

Set or Seth (Eg.). The same as the Son of Noah and Typhon—who is the dark side of Osiris. The same as Thoth and Satan, the adversary, not the devil represented by Christians.

Sevekh (Eg.). The god of time; Chronos; the same as Sefekh. Some Orientalists translate it as the “Seventh”.

Shaberon (Tib.). The Mongolian Shaberon or Khubilgan (or Khubilkhans) are the reincarnations of Buddha, according to the Lamaïsts; great Saints and Avatars, so to say.

Shaddai, El (Heb.). A name of the Hebrew Deity, usually translated God Almighty, found in Genesis, Exodus, Numbers, Ruth and Job. Its Greek equivalent is Kurios Pantokrator; but by Hebrew derivation it means rather “the pourer forth”, shad meaning a breast, and indeed shdi is also used for “a nursing mother”. [w.w.w.]

Shamans. An order of Tartar or Mongolian priest-magicians, or as some say, priest-sorcerers. They are not Buddhists, but a sect of the

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old Bhon religion of Tibet. They live mostly in Siberia and its borderlands. Both men and women may be Shamans. They are all magicians, or rather sensitives or mediums artificially developed. At present those who act as priests among the Tartars are generally very ignorant, and far below the fakirs in knowledge and education.

Shânâh (Heb). The Lunar Year.

Shangna (Sk.). A mysterious epithet given to a robe or “vesture in a metaphorical sense”. To put on the “Shangna robe” means the acquirement of Secret Wisdom, and Initiation. (See Voice of the Silence, pp. 84 and 85, Glossary.)

Shâstra or S’âstra (Sk.). A treatise or book; any work of divine or accepted authority, including law books. A Shâstrî means to this day, in India, a man learned in divine and human law.

Shedim (Heb.). See “Siddim”.

Shekinah (Heb.). A title applied to Malkuth, the tenth Sephira, by the Kabbalists; but by the Jews to the cloud of glory which rested on the Mercy-seat in the Holy of Holies. As taught, however, by all the Rabbins of Asia Minor, its nature is of a more exalted kind, Shekinah being the veil of Ain-Soph, the Endless and the Absolute; hence a kind of Kabbalistic Mûlaprakriti. [w.w.w.]

Shells. A Kabbalistic name for the phantoms of the dead, the “spirits” of the Spiritualists, figuring in physical phenomena; so named on account of their being simply illusive forms, empty of their higher principles.

Shemal (Chald.). Samael, the spirit of the earth, its presiding ruler and genius.

Shemhamphorash (Heb.). The separated name. The mirific name derived from the substance of deity and showing its self-existent essence. Jesus was accused by the Jews of having stolen this name from the Temple by magic arts, and of using it in the production of his miracles.

Sheol (Heb.). The hell of the Hebrew Pantheon; a region of stillness and inactivity as distinguished from Gehenna, (q.v.).

Shien-Sien (Chin.). A state of bliss and soul-freedom, during which a man can travel in spirit where he likes.

Shiites (Pers.). A sect of Mussulmen who place the prophet Ali higher than Mohammed, rejecting Sunnah or tradition.

Shîla (Pali). The second virtue of the ten Pâramitâs of perfection. Perfect harmony in words and acts.

Shinto (Jap.). The ancient religion of Japan before Buddhism, based upon the worship of spirits and ancestors.

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Shoel-ob (Heb.). A consulter with familiar “spirits”; a necromancer, a raiser of the dead, or of their phantoms.

Shoo (Eg.). A personification of the god Ra; represented as the “great cat of the Basin of Persea in Anu”.

Shûdâla Mâdan (Tam.) The vampire, the ghoul, or graveyard spook.

Shûle Mâdan (Tam.). The elemental which is said to help the “jugglers” to grow mango trees and do other wonders.

Shutukt (Tib.). A collegiate monastery in Tibet of great fame, containing over 30,000 monks and students.

Sibac (Quiché). The reed from the pith of which the third race of men was created, according to the scripture of the Guatemalians, called the Popol Vuh.

Sibikâ (Sk.). The weapon of Kuvera, god of wealth (a Vedic deity living in Hades, hence a kind of Pluto), made out of the parts of the divine splendour of Vishnu, residing in the Sun, and filed off by Visvarkarman, the god Initiate.

Siddhânta (Sk.). Any learned work on astronomy or mathematics, in India.

Siddhârtha (Sk.). A name given to Gautama Buddha.

Siddhas (Sk.). Saints and sages who have become almost divine also a hierarchy of Dhyan Chohans.

Siddhâsana (Sk.). A posture in Hatha-yoga practices.

Siddha-Sena (Sk.). Lit., “the leader of Siddhas”; a title of Kârttikeya, the “mysterious youth” (kumara guha).

Siddhis (Sk.). Lit., “attributes of perfection”; phenomenal powers acquired through holiness by Yogis.

Siddim (Heb.). The Canaanites, we are told, worshipped these evil powers as deities, the name meaning the “pourers forth”; a valley was named after them. There seems to be a connection between these, as types of Fertile Nature, and the many-bosomed Isis and Diana of Ephesus. In Psalm cvi., 37, the word is translated “devils”, and we are told that the Canaanites shed the blood of their sons and daughters to them. Their title seems to come from the same root ShD, from which the god name El Shaddai is derived. [w.w.w.]

The Arabic Shedim means “Nature Spirits”, Elementals; they are the afrits of modern Egypt and djins of Persia, India, etc.

Sidereal. Anything relating to the stars, but also, in Occultism, to various influences emanating from such regions, such as “sidereal force”, as taught by Paracelsus, and sidereal (luminous), ethereal body, etc.

Si-dzang (Chin.). The Chinese name for Tibet; mentioned in the

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Imperial Library of the capital of Fo Kien, as the “great seat of Occult learning”, 2,207 years B.C. (Secret Doctrine, I., p. 271.)

Sige (Gr.). “Silence”; a name adopted by the Gnostics to signify the root whence proceed the Æons of the second series.

Sighra or Sighraga (Sk.). The father of Moru, “who is still living through the power of Yoga, and will manifest himself in the beginning of the Krita age in order to re-establish the Kshattriyas in the nineteenth Yuga” say the Purânic prophecies. “Moru” stands here for “Morya”, the dynasty of the Buddhist sovereigns of Pataliputra which began with the great King Chandragupta, the grandsire of King Asoka. It is the first Buddhist Dynasty. (Secret Doctrine, I., 378.)

Sigurd (Scand.). The hero who slew Fafnir, the “Dragon”, roasted his heart and ate it, after which he became the wisest of men. An allegory referring to Occult study and initiation.

Simeon-ben-Jochai. An Adept-Rabbin, who was the author of the Zohar, (q.v.).

Simon Magus. A very great Samaritan Gnostic and Thaumaturgist, called “the great Power of God”.

Simorgh (Pers.). The same as the winged Siorgh, a kind of gigantic griffin, half phœnix, half lion, endowed in the Iranian legends with oracular powers. Simorgh was the guardian of the ancient Persian Mysteries. It is expected to reappear at the end of the cycle as a gigantic bird-lion. Esoterically, it stands as the symbol of the Manvantaric cycle. Its Arabic name is Rahshi.

Sinaï (Heb.). Mount Sinaï, the Nissi of Exodus (xvii., ii), the birth place of almost all the solar gods of antiquity, such as Dionysus, born at Nissa or Nysa, Zeus of Nysa, Bacchus and Osiris, (q.v.). Some ancient people believed the Sun to be the progeny of the Moon, who was herself a Sun once upon a time. Sin-aï is the “Moon Mountain”, hence the connexion.

Sing Bonga. The Sun-spirit with the Kollarian tribes.

Singha (Sk.). The constellation of Leo; Singh meaning “lion”.

Sinika (Sk.). Also Sinita and Sanika, etc., as variants. The Vishnu Purâna gives it as the name of a future sage who will be taught by him who will become Maitreya, at the end of Kali Yuga, and adds that this is a great mystery.

Sinîvâlî (Sk.). The first day of the new moon, which is greatly connected with Occult practices in India.

Siphra Dtzeniouta (Chald.). The Book of Concealed Mystery; one division of the Zohar. (See Mathers’ Kabbalah Unveiled.)

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Sirius (Gr.). In Egyptian, Sothis. The dog-star: the star worshipped in Egypt and reverenced by the Occultists; by the former because its heliacal rising with the Sun was a sign of the beneficent inundation of the Nile, and by the latter because it is mysteriously associated with Thoth-Hermes, god of wisdom, and Mercury, in another form. Thus Sothis-Sirius had, and still has, a mystic and direct influence over the whole living heaven, and is connected with almost every god and goddess. It was “Isis in the heaven” and called Isis-Sothis, for Isis was “in the constellation of the dog”, as is declared on her monuments. “The soul of Osiris was believed to reside in a personage who walks with great steps in front of Sothis, sceptre in hand and a whip upon his shoulder.” Sirius is also Anuhis, and is directly connected with the ring “Pass me not”; it is, moreover, identical with Mithra, the Persian Mystery god, and with Horus and even Hathor, called sometimes the goddess Sothis. Being connected with the Pyramid, Sirius was, therefore, connected with the initiations which took place in it. A temple to Sirius-Sothis once existed within the great temple of Denderah. To sum up, all religions are not, as Dufeu, the French Egyptologist, sought to prove, derived from Sirius, the dog-star, but Sirius-Sothis is certainly found in connection with every religion of antiquity.

Sishta (Sk.). The great elect or Sages, left after every minor Pralaya (that which is called “obscuration” in Mr. Sinnett’s Esoteric Buddhism), when the globe goes into its night or rest, to become, on its re-awakening, the seed of the next humanity. Lit. “remnant.”

Sisthrus (Chald.). According to Berosus, the last of the ten kings of the dynasty of the divine kings, and the “Noah” of Chaldea. Thus, as Vishnu foretells the coming deluge to Vaivasvata-Manu, and, fore warning, commands him to build an ark, wherein he and seven Rishis are saved; so the god Hea foretells the same to Sisithrus (or Xisuthrus) commanding him to prepare a vessel and save himself with a few elect. Following suit, almost 800,000 years later, the Lord God of Israel repeats the warning to Noah. Which is prior, therefore? The story of Xisuthrus, now deciphered from the Assyrian tablets, corroborates that which was said of the Chaldean deluge by Berosus, Apollodorus, Abydenus, etc., etc. (See eleventh tablet in G. Smith’s Chaldean Account of Genesis, page 263, et seq.). This tablet xi. covers every point treated of in chapters six and seven of Genesis—the gods, the sins of men, the command to build an ark, the Flood, the destruction of men, the dove and the raven sent out of the ark, and finally the Mount of Salvation in Armenia (Nizi r-Ararat); all is there. The words “the god Hea heard, and his liver was angry, because his men had corrupted his

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purity”, and the story of his destroying all his seed, were engraved on stone tablets many thousand years before the Assyrians reproduced them on their baked tiles, and even these most assuredly antedate the Pentateuch, “written from memory” by Ezra, hardly four centuries B.C.

Sistrum (Gr.). Egyptian ssesh or kemken. An instrument, usually made of bronze but sometimes of gold or silver, of an open circular form, with a handle, and four wires passed through holes, to the end of which jingling pieces of metal were attached; its top was ornamented with a figure of Isis, or of Hathor. It was a sacred instrument, used in temples for the purpose of producing, by means of its combination of metals, magnetic currents, and sounds. To this day it has survived in Christian Abyssinia, under the name of sanasel, and the good priests use it to “drive devils from the premises”, an act quite comprehensible to the Occultist, even though it does provoke laughter in the sceptical Orientalist. The priestess usually held it in her right hand during the ceremony of purification of the air, or the “conjuration of the elements”, as E. Lévi would call it, while the priests held the Sistrurn in their left hand, using the right to manipulate the “key of life”—the handled cross or Tau.

Sisumara (Sk.). An imaginary rotating belt, upon which all the celestial bodies move. This host of stars and constellations is represented under the figure of Sisumara, a tortoise (some say a porpoise!), dragon, crocodile, and what not. But as it is a symbol of the Yoga-meditation of holy Vasudeva or Krishna, it must be a crocodile, or rather, a dolphin, since it is identical with the zodiacal Makara. Dhruva, the ancient pole-star, is placed at the tip of the tail of this sidereal monster, whose head points southward and whose body bends in a ring. Higher along the tail are the Prajâpati Agni, etc., and at its root are placed Indra, Dharma, and the seven Rishis (the Great Bear), etc., etc. The meaning is of course mystical.

Siva (Sk.). The third person of the Hindu Trinity (the Trimûrti). He is a god of the first order, and in his character of Destroyer higher than Vishnu, the Preserver, as he destroys only to regenerate on a higher plane. He is born as Rudra, the Kumâra, and is the patron of all the Yogis, being called, as such, Mahâ-Yogi, the great ascetic. His titles are significant: Trilochana, “the three-eyed”, Mahâdeva, “the great god”, Sankara, etc., etc., etc.

Siva-Rudra (Sk.). Rudra is the Vedic name of Siva, the latter being absent from the Veda.

Skandha or Skhanda (Sk.). Lit., “bundles”, or groups of attributes; everything finite, inapplicable to the eternal and the absolute. There are five—esoterically, seven—attributes in every human living being,

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which are known as the Pancha Shandhas. These are (1) form, rûpa; (2) perception, vidâna; (3) consciousness, sanjnâ; (4) action, sanskâra; (5) knowledge, vidyâna. These unite at the birth of man and constitute his personality. After the maturity of these Skandhas, they begin to separate and weaken, and this is followed by jarâmarana, or decrepitude and death.

Skrymir (Scand.). One of the famous giants in the Eddas.

Sloka, (Sk.). The Sanskrit epic metre formed of thirty-two syllables: verses in four half-lines of eight, or in two lines of sixteen syllables each.

Smaragdine Tablet of Hermes. As expressed by Eliphas Lévi, “this Tablet of Emerald is the whole of magic in a single page”; but India has a single word which, when understood, contains “the whole of magic”. This is a tablet, however, alleged to have been found by Sarai, Abraham’s wife (!) on the dead body of Hermes. So say the Masons and Christian Kabbalists. But in Theosophy we call it an allegory. May it not mean that Sarai-swati, the wife of Brahmâ, or the goddess of secret wisdom and learning, finding still much of the ancient wisdom latent in the dead body of Humanity, revivified that wisdom? This led to the rebirth of the Occult Sciences, so long forgotten and neglected, the world over. The tablet itself, however, although containing the “whole of magic”, is too long to be reproduced here.

Smârtava (Sk.). The Smârta Brahmans; a sect founded by Sankarâchârya.

Smriti (Sk.). Traditional accounts imparted orally, from the word Smriti, “Memory” a daughter of Daksha. They are now the legal and ceremonial writings of the Hindus; the opposite of, and therefore less sacred, than the Vedas, which are Sruti, or “revelation”.

Sod (Heb.). An “Arcanum”, or religious mystery. The Mysteries of Baal, Adonis and Bacchus, all sun-gods having serpents as symbols, or, as in the case of Mithra, a “solar serpent”. The ancient Jews had their Sod also, symbols not excluded, since they had the “brazen serpent” lifted in the Wilderness, which particular serpent was the Persian Mithra, the symbol of Moses as an Initiate, but was certainly never meant to represent the historical Christ. “The secret (Sod) of the Lord is with them that fear him”, says David, in Psalm xxv., 14. But this reads in the original Hebrew, “Sod Ihoh (or the Mysteries) of Jehovah are for those who fear him”. So terribly is the Old Testament mistranslated, that verse 7 in Psalm lxxxix., which stands in the original “Al (El) is terrible in the great Sod of the Kedeshim” (the Galli, the priests of the inner Jewish mysteries), reads now in the muti-

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lated translation “God is greatly to be feared in the assembly of the saints”. Simeon and Levi held their Sod, and it is repeatedly mentioned in the Bible. “Oh my soul”, exclaims the dying Jacob, “come not thou into their secret (Sod, in the orig.), unto their assembly”, i.e.. into the Sodalily of Simeon and Levi (Gen. xlix., 6). (See Dunlap, Sôd, the Mysteries of Adoni.)

Sodales (Lat.). The members of the Priest-colleges. (See Freund’s Latin Lexicon, iv., 448.) Cicero tells us also (De Senectute, 13) that “Sodalities were constituted in the Idæan Mysteries of the MIGHTY MOTHER”. Those initiated into the Sod were termed the “Companions”.

Sodalian Oath. The most sacred of all oaths. The penalty of death followed the breaking of the Sodalian oath or pledge. The oath and the Sod (the secret learning) are earlier than the Kabbalah or Tradition, and the ancient Midrashim treated fully of the Mysteries or Sod before they passed into the Zohar. Now they are referred to as the Secret Mysteries of the Thorah, or Law, to break which is fatal.

Soham (Sk.). A mystic syllable representing involution: lit., “THAT I AM”.

Sokaris (Eg.). A fire-god; a solar deity of many forms. He is Ptah Sokaris, when the symbol is purely cosmic, and “Ptah-Sokaris-Osiris” when it is phallic. This deity is hermaphrodite, the sacred bull Apis being its son, conceived in it by a solar ray. According to Smith’s History of the East, Ptah is a “second Demiurgus, an emanation from the first creative Principle” (the first Logos). The upright Ptah, with cross and staff, is the “creator of the eggs of the sun and moon”. Pierret thinks that he represents the primordial Force that preceded the gods and “created the stars, and the eggs of the sun and moon”. Mariette Bey sees in him “Divine Wisdom scattering the stars in immensity”, and he is corroborated by the Targum of Jerusalem, which states that the “Egyptians called the Wisdom of the First Intellect Ptah”.

Sokhit (Eg.). A deity to whom the cat was sacred.

Solomon’s Seal. The symbolical double triangle, adopted by the T.S. and by many Theosophists. Why it should be called “Solomon’s Seal” is a mystery, unless it came to Europe from Iran, where many stories are told about that mythical personage and the magic seal used by him to catch the djins and imprison them in old bottles. But this seal or double triangle is also called in India the “Sign of Vishnu”, and may be seen on the houses in every village as a talisman against evil. The triangle was sacred and used as a religious sign in the far East ages before Pythagoras proclaimed it to be the first of the geometrical figures, as well as the most mysterious. It is found on pyramid and obelisk, and is

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pregnant with occult meaning, as are, in fact, all triangles. Thus the pentagram is the triple triangle—the six-pointed being the hexalp ha. (See “Pentacle” and “Pentagram”.) The way a triangle points determines its meaning. If upwards, it means the male element and divine fire; downwards, the female and the waters of matter; upright, but with a bar across the top, air and astral light; downwards, with a bar—the earth or gross matter, etc., etc. When a Greek Christian priest in blessing holds his two fingers and thumb together, he simply makes the magic sign—by the power of the triangle or “trinity”.

Soma (Sk.). The moon, and also the juice of the plant of that name used in the temples for trance purposes; a sacred beverage. Soma, the moon, is the symbol of the Secret Wisdom. In the Upanishads the word is used to denote gross matter (with an association of moisture) capable of producing life under the action of heat. (See “Soma-drink”.)

Soma-drink. Made from a rare mountain plant by initiated Brahmans. This Hindu sacred beverage answers to the Greek ambrosia or nectar, quaffed by the gods of Olympus. A cup of Kykeôn was also quaffed by the Mystes at the Eleusinian initiation. He who drinks it easily reaches Bradhna, or the place of splendour (Heaven). The Soma-drink known to Europeans is not the genuine beverage, but its substitute; for the initiated priests alone can taste of the real Soma; and even kings and Rajas, when sacrificing, receive the substitute. Haug, by his own confession, shows in his Aitareya Brâhmana, that it was not the Soma that he tasted and found nasty, but the juice from the roots of the Nyagradha, a plant or bush which grows on the hills of Poona. We were positively informed that the majority of the sacrificial priests of the Dekkan have lost the secret of the true Soma. It can be found neither in the ritual books nor through oral information. The true followers of the primitive Vedic religion are very few; these are the alleged descendants of the Rishis, the real Agnihôtris, the initiates of the great Mysteries. The Soma drink is also commemorated in the Hindu Pantheon, for it is called King-Soma. He who drinks thereof is made to participate in the heavenly king; he becomes filled with his essence, as the Christian apostles and their converts were. filled with the Holy Ghost, and purified of their sins. The Soma makes a new man of the initiate; he is reborn and transformed, and his spiritual nature overcomes the physical; it bestows the divine power of inspiration, and develops the clairvoyant faculty to the utmost. According to the exoteric explanation the soma is a plant, but at the same time it is an angel. It forcibly connects the inner, highest “spirit” of man, which spirit is an angel like the mystical Soma, with his “irrational soul”, or astral body, and thus united by the power of the magic drink, they soar together above physical nature and participate during life in the beatitude and ineffable glories of Heaven.

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Thus the Hindu Soma is mystically and in all respects the same that the Eucharist supper is to the Christian. The idea is similar. By means of the sacrificial prayers—the mantras—this liquor is supposed to be immediately transformed into the real Soma, or the angel, and even into Brahmâ himself. Some missionaries have expressed themselves with much indignation about this ceremony, the more so, seeing that the Brahmans generally use a kind of spirituous liquor as a substitute. But do the Christians believe less fervently in the transubstantiation of the communion wine into the blood of Christ, because this wine happens to be more or less spirituous? Is not the idea of the symbol attached to it the same? But the missionaries say that this hour of soma-drinking is the golden hour of Satan, who lurks at the bottom of the Hindu sacrificial cup. (Isis Unveiled.)

Soma-loka (Sk.). A kind of lunar abode where the god Soma, the regent of the moon, resides. The abode of the Lunar Pitris—or Pitriloka.

Somapa (Sk.). A class of Lunar Pitris. (See “Trisuparna.”)

Somnambulism Lit., “sleep-walking”, or moving, acting, writing, reading and performing every function of waking consciousness in one’s sleep, with utter oblivion of the fact on awakening. This is one of the great psycho-physiological phenomena, the least understood as it is the most puzzling, to which Occultism alone holds the key.

Son-kha-pa (Tib.). Written also Tsong-kha-pa. A famous Tibetan reformer of the fourteenth century, who introduced a purified Buddhism into his country. He was a great Adept, who being unable to witness any longer the desecration of Buddhist philosophy by the false priests who made of it a marketable commodity, put a forcible stop thereto by a timely revolution and the exile of 40,000 sham monks and Lamas from the country. He is regarded as an Avatar of Buddha, and is the founder of the Gelukpa (“yellow-cap”) Sect, and of the mystic Brotherhood connected with its chiefs. The “tree of the 10,000 images” (khoom boom) has, it is said, sprung from the long hair of this ascetic, who leaving it behind him disappeared for ever from the view of the profane.

Sooniam. A magical ceremony for the purpose of removing a sickness from one person to another. Black magic, sorcery.

Sophia (Gr.). Wisdom. The female Logos of the Gnostics; the Universal Mind; and the female Holy Ghost with others.

Sophia Achamoth (Gr.). The daughter of Sophia. The personified Astral Light, or the lower plane of Ether.

Sortes Sanctorum (Lat.). The “holy casting of lots for purposes of divination”, practised by the early and mediæval Christian clergy. St. Augustine, who does not “disapprove of this method of learning futurity,

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provided it be not used for worldly purposes, practised it himself” (Life of St. Gregory of Tours). If, however, “it is practised by laymen, heretics, or heathen” of any sort, sortes sanctorum become—if we believe the good and pious fathers—sortes diabolorum or sortilegium—sorcery.

Sosiosh (Zend). The Mazdean Saviour who, like Vishnu, Maitreya Buddha and others, is expected to appear on a white horse at the end of the cycle to save mankind. (See “S’ambhala”.)

Soul. The Ψυχη, or nephesh of the Bible; the vital principle, or the breath of life, which every animal, down to the infusoria, shares with man. In the translated Bible it stands indifferently for life, blood and soul. “Let us not kill his nephesh”, says the original text: “let us not kill him”, translate the Christians (Genesis xxxvii. 21), and so on.

Sowan (Pali). The first of the “four paths” which lead to Nirvâna, in Yoga practice.

Sowanee (Pali). He who entered upon that “path”.

Sparsa (Sk). The sense of touch.

Spenta Armaita (Zend). The female genius of the earth; the “fair daughter of Ahura Mazda”. With the Mazdeans, Spenta Armaita is the personified Earth.

Spirit. The lack of any mutual agreement between writers in the use of this word has resulted in dire confusion. It is commonly made synonymous with soul; and the lexicographers countenance the usage. In Theosophical teachings. the term “Spirit” is applied solely to that which belongs directly to Universal Consciousness, and which is its homogeneous and unadulterated emanation. Thus, the higher Mind in Man or his Ego (Manas) is, when linked indissolubly with Buddhi, a spirit; while the term “Soul”, human or even animal (the lower Manas acting in animals as instinct), is applied only to Kâma-Manas, and qualified as the living soul. This is nephesh, in Hebrew, the “breath of life”. Spirit is formless and immaterial, being, when individualised, of the highest spiritual substance—Suddasatwa, the divine essence, of which the body of the manifesting highest Dhyânis are formed. Therefore, the Theosophists reject the appellation “Spirits” for those phantoms which appear in the phenomenal manifestations of the Spiritualists, and call them “shells”, and various other names. (See “Sukshma Sarîra”.) Spirit, in short, is no entity in the sense of having form; for, as Buddhist philosophy has it, where there is a form, there is a cause for pain and suffering. But each individual spirit—this individuality lasting only throughout the manvantaric life-cycle—may be described as a centre of consciousness, a self-sentient and self-conscious centre; a state, not a conditioned individual. This is why there is such a wealth of words in Sanskrit to express the

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different States of Being, Beings and Entities, each appellation showing the philosophical difference, the plane to which such unit belongs, and the degree of its spirituality or materiality. Unfortunately these terms are almost untranslatable into our Western tongues.

Spiritualism. In philosophy, the state or condition of mind opposed to materialism or a material conception of things. Theosophy, a doctrine which teaches that all which exists is animated or informed by the Universal Soul or Spirit, and that not an atom in our universe can be outside of this omnipresent Principle—is pure Spiritualism. As to the belief that goes under that name, namely, belief in the constant communication of the living with the dead, whether through the mediumistic powers of oneself or a so-called medium—it is no better than the materialisation of spirit, and the degradation of the human and the divine, souls. Believers in such communications are simply dishonouring the dead and performing constant sacrilege. It was well called “Necromancy” in days of old. But our modern Spiritualists take offence at being told this simple truth.

Spook. A ghost, a hobgoblin. Used of the various apparitions in the séance-rooms of the Spiritualists.

Sraddha (Sk). Lit., faith, respect, reverence.

Srâddha (Sk.). Devotion to the memory and care for the welfare of the manes of dead relatives. A post-mortem rite for newly-deceased kindred. There are also monthly rites of Srâddha.

Srâddhadeva (Sk.). An epithet of Yama, the god of death and king of the nether world, or Hades.

Sramana (Sk.). Buddhist priests, ascetics and postulants for Nirvâna, “they who have to place a restraint on their thoughts”. The word Saman, now “Shaman” is a corruption of this primitive word.

Srastara (Sk.). A couch consisting of a mat or a tiger’s skin, strewn with darbha, kusa and other grasses, used by ascetics—gurus and chelas—and spread on the floor.

Sravah (Mazd.). The Amshaspends, in their highest aspect.

Srâvaka (Sk.). Lit., “he who causes to hear”; a preacher. But in Buddhism it denotes a disciple or chela.

Sri Sankarâchârya (Sk.). The great religious reformer of India, and teacher of the Vedânta philosophy—the greatest of all such teachers, regarded by the Adwaitas (Non-dualists) as an incarnation of Siva and a worker of miracles. He established many mathams (monasteries), and founded the most learned sect among Brahmans, called the Smârtava. The legends about him are as numerous as his philosophical writings. At the age of thirty-two he went to Kashmir, and reaching Kedâranâth in

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the Himalayas, entered a cave alone, whence he never returned. His followers claim that he did not die, but only retired from the world.

Sringa Giri (Sk.). A large and wealthy monastery on the ridge of the Western Ghauts in Mysore (Southern India); the chief matham of the Adwaita and Smârta Brahmans, founded by Sankarâchârya. There resides the religious head (the latter being called Sankarâchârya) of all the Vedantic Adwaitas, credited by many with great abnormal powers.

Sri-pâda (Sk.). The impression of Buddha’s foot. Lit., “the step or foot of the Master or exalted Lord”.

Srivatsa (Sk.). A mystical mark worn by Krishna, and also adopted by the Jains.

Sriyantra (Sk.). The double triangle or the seal of Vishnu, called also “Solomon’s seal”, and adopted by the T.S.

Srotâpatti (Sk) Lit., “he who has entered the stream”, i.e., the stream or path that leads to Nirvâna, or figuratively, to the Nirvânic Ocean. The same as Sowanee.

Srotriya (Sk) The appellation of a Brahman who practises the Vedic rites he studies, as distinguished from the Vedavit, the Brahman who studies them only theoretically.

Sruti (Sk.). Sacred tradition received by revelation; the Vedas are such a tradition as distinguished from “Smriti” (q.v.).

St. Germain, the Count of. Referred to as an enigmatical personage by modern writers. Frederic II., King of Prussia, used to say of him that he was a man whom no one had ever been able make out. Many are his “biographies”, and each is wilder than the other. By some he was regarded as an incarnate god, by others as a clever Alsatian Jew. One thing is certain, Count de St. Germain—whatever his real patronymic may have been—had a right to his name and title, for he had bought a property called San Germano, in the Italian Tyrol, and paid the Pope for the title. He was uncommonly handsome, and his enormous erudition and linguistic capacities are undeniable, for he spoke English, Italian, French, Spanish, Portuguese, German, Russian, Swedish, Danish, and many Slavonian and Oriental languages, with equal facility with a native. He was extremely wealthy, never received a sou from anyone—in fact never accepted a glass of water or broke bread with anyone— but made most extravagant presents of superb jewellery to all his friends, even to the royal families of Europe. His proficiency in music was marvellous; he played on every instrument, the violin being his favourite. “St. Germain rivalled Paganini himself”, was said of him by an octogenarian Belgian in 1835, after hearing the “Genoese maestro”. “It is St. Germain resurrected who plays the

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violin in the body of an Italian skeleton”, exclaimed a Lithuanian baron who had heard both.

He never laid claim to spiritual powers, but proved to have a right to such claim. He used to pass into a dead trance from thirty-seven to forty-nine hours without awakening, and then knew all he had to know, and demonstrated the fact by prophesying futurity and never making a mistake. It is he who prophesied before the Kings Louis XV. and XVI., and the unfortunate Marie Antoinette. Many were the still living witnesses in the first quarter of this century who testified to his marvellous memory; he could read a paper in the morning and, though hardly glancing at it, could repeat its contents without missing one word days afterwards; he could write with two hands at once, the right hand writing a piece of poetry, the left a diplomatic paper of the greatest importance. He read sealed letters without touching them, while still in the hand of those who brought them to him. He was the greatest adept in transmuting metals, making gold and the most marvellous diamonds, an art, he said, he had learned from certain Brahmans in India, who taught him the artificial crystallisation (“quickening”) of pure carbon. As our Brother Kenneth Mackenzie has it:—“In 1780, when on a visit to the French Ambassador to the Hague, he broke to pieces with a hammer a superb diamond of his own manufacture, the counterpart of which, also manufactured by himself, he had just before sold to a jeweller for 5500 louis d’or”. He was the friend and confidant of Count Orloff in 1772 at Vienna, whom he had helped and saved in St. Petersburg in 1762, when concerned in the famous political conspiracies of that time; he also became intimate with Frederick the Great of Prussia. As a matter of course, he had numerous enemies, and therefore it is not to be wondered at if all the gossip invented about him is now attributed to his own confessions: e.g., that he was over five hundred years old; also, that he claimed personal intimacy “with the Saviour and his twelve Apostles, and that he had reproved Peter for his bad temper”—the latter clashing somewhat in point of time with the former, if he had really claimed to be only five hundred years old. If he said that “he had been born in Chaldea and professed to possess the secrets of the Egyptian magicians and sages”, he may have spoken truth without making any miraculous claim. There are Initiates, and not the highest either, who are placed in a condition to remember more than one of their past lives. But we have good reason to know that St. Germain could never have claimed “personal intimacy” with the Saviour. How ever that may be, Count St. Germain was certainly the greatest Oriental Adept Europe has seen during the last centuries. But Europe knew him not. Perchance some may recognise him at the next Terreur which will affect all Europe when it comes, and not one country alone.

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Sthâla Mâyâ (Sk.). Gross, concrete and—because differentiated—an illusion.

Sthâna (Sk.). Also Ayâna; the place or abode of a god.

Sthâvara (Sk). From sthâ to stay or remain motionless. The term for all conscious, sentient objects deprived of the power of locomotion—fixed and rooted like the trees or plants; while all those sentient things, which add motion to a certain degree of consciousness, are called Jangama, from gam, to move, to go.

Sthâvirâh, or Sthâviranikaya (Sk.). One of the earliest philosophical contemplative schools, founded 300 B.C. In the year 247 before the Christian era, it split into three divisions: the Mahâvihâra Vâsinâh (School of the great monasteries), Jêtavaniyâh, and Abhayagiri Vâsinâh. It is one of the four branches of the Vaibhâchika School founded by Kâtyâyana, one of the great disciples of Lord Gautama Buddha, the author of the Abhidharma Jnâna Prasthâna Shâstra, who is expected to reappear as a Buddha. (See “Abhayagiri”, etc.) All these schools are highly mystical. Lit., Stâviranikaya is translated the “School of the Chairman” or “President” (Chohan).

Sthirâtman (Sk.). Eternal, supreme, applied to the Universal Soul.

Sthiti (Sk.). The attribute of preservation; stability.

Sthûla (Sk.). Differentiated and conditioned matter.

Sthûla Sarîram (Sk.). In metaphysics, the gross physical body.

Sthûlopadhi (Sk.). A “principle” answering to the lower triad in man, i.e., body, astral form, and life, in the Târaka Râja Yoga system, which names only three chief principles in man. Sthûlopadhi corresponds to the jagrata, or waking conscious state.

Stûpa (Sk.). A conical monument, in India and Ceylon, erected over relics of Buddha, Arhats, or other great men.

Subhâva (Sk.). Being; the self-forming substance, or that “substance which gives substance to itself”. (See the Ekasloha Shâstra of Nâgârjuna.) Explained paradoxically, as “the nature which has no nature of its own”, and again as that which is with, and without, action. (See “Svabhâvat”.) This is the Spirit within Substance, the ideal cause of the potencies acting on the work of formative evolution (not “creation” in the sense usually attached to the word); which potencies become in turn the real causes. In the words used in the Vedânta and Vyâya Philosophies: nimitta, the efficient, and upâdâna, the material, causes are contained in Subhava co-eternally. Says a Sanskrit Sloka: “Worthiest of ascetics, through its potency [that of the ‘efficient’ cause] every created thing comes by its proper nature”.

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Substance. Theosophists use the word in a dual sense, qualifying substance as perceptible and imperceptible; and making a distinction between material, psychic and spiritual substances (see “Sudda Satwa”), into ideal (i.e., existing on higher planes) and real substance.

Suchi (Sk.). A name of Indra; also of the third son of Abhimânin, son of Agni; i.e., one of the primordial forty-nine fires.

Su-darshana (Sk.). The Discus of Krishna; a flaming weapon that plays a great part in Krishna’s biographies.

Sudda Satwa (Sk.). A substance not subject to the qualities of matter; a luminiferous and (to us) invisible substance, of which the bodies of the Gods and highest Dhyânis are formed. Philosophically, Suddha Satwa is a conscious state of spiritual Ego-ship rather than any essence.

Suddhodana (Sk.). The King of Kapilavastu; the father of Gautama Lord Buddha.

Sudhâ (Sk.). The food of the gods, akin to amrita the substance that gives immortality.

S’udra (Sk.). The last of the four castes that sprang from Brahmâ’s body. The “servile caste” that issued from the foot of the deity.

Sudyumna (Sk.). An epithet of Ila (or Ida), the offspring of Vaivasvata Manu and his fair daughter who sprang from his sacrifice when he was left alone after the flood. Sudyumna was an androgynous creature, one month a male and the other a female.

Suffism (Gr.). From the root of Sophia, “Wisdom”. A mystical sect in Persia something like the Vedantins; though very strong in numbers, none but very intelligent men join it. They claim, and very justly, the possession of the esoteric philosophy and doctrine of true Mohammedanism. The Suffi (or Sofi) doctrine is a good deal in touch with Theosophy, inasmuch as it preaches one universal creed, and outward respect and tolerance for every popular exoteric faith. It is also in touch with Masonry. The Suffis have four degrees and four stages of initiation: 1st, probationary, with a strict outward observance of Mussulman rites, the hidden meaning of each ceremony and dogma being explained to the candidate; 2nd, metaphysical training; 3rd, the “Wisdom” degree, when the candidate is initiated into the innermost nature of things; and 4th final Truth, when the Adept attains divine powers, and complete union with the One Universal Deity in ecstacy or Samâdhi.

Sugata (Sk.). One of the Lord Buddha’s titles, having many meanings.

Sukhab (Chald.). One of the seven Babylonian gods.

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Sukhâvatî (Sk.). The Western Paradise of the uneducated rabble. The popular notion is that there is a Western Paradise of Amitâbha, wherein good men and saints revel in physical delights until they are carried once more by Karma into the circle of rebirth. This is an exaggerated and mistaken notion of Devâchân.

Suki (Sk.). A daughter of Rishi Kashyapa, wife of Garuda, the king of the birds, the vehicle of Vishnu; the mother of parrots, owls and crows.

Sukra (Sk.). A name of the planet Venus, called also Usanas. In this impersonation Usanas is the Guru and preceptor of the Daityas—the giants of the earth—in the Purânas.

Sûkshma Sarîra (Sk.). The dream-like, illusive body akin to Mânasarûpa or “thought-body”. It is the vesture of the gods, or the Dhyânis and the Devas. Written also Sukshama Sharira and called Sukshmopadhi by the Târaka Râja Yogis. (Secret Doctrine, I., 157)

Sûkshmopadhi (Sk.). In Târaka Râja Yoga the “principle” containing both the higher and the lower Manas and Kâma. It corresponds to the Manomaya Kosha of the Vedantic classification and to the Svapna state. (See “Svapna”.)

Su-Mêru (Sk.). The same as Meru, the world-mountain. The prefix Su implies the laudation and exaltation of the object or personal name which follows it.

Summerland. The name given by the American Spiritualists and Phenomenalists to the land or region inhabited after death by their “Spirits”. It is situated, says Andrew Jackson Davis, either within or beyond the Milky Way. It is described as having cities and beautiful buildings, a Congress Hall, museums and libraries for the instruction of the growing generations of young “Spirits”. We are not told whether the latter are subject to disease, decay and death; but unless they are, the claim that the disembodied “Spirit” of a child and even still-born babe grows and develops as an adult is hardly consistent with logic. But that which we are distinctly told is, that in the Summerland Spirits are given in marriage, beget spiritual (?) children, and are even concerned with politics. All this is no satire or exaggeration of ours, since the numerous works by Mr. A. Jackson Davis are there to prove it, e.g., the International Congress of Spirits by that author, as well as we remember the title. It is this grossly materialistic way of viewing a disembodied spirit that has turned many of the present Theosophists away from Spiritualism and its “philosophy”. The majesty of death is thus desecrated, and its awful and solemn mystery becomes no better than a farce.

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Sunasepha (Sk.). The Purânic “Isaac”; the son of the sage Rishika who sold him for one hundred cows to King Ambarisha, for a sacrifice and “burnt offering” to Varuna, as a substitute for the king’s son Rohita, devoted by his father to the god. When already stretched on the altar Sunasepha is saved by Rishi Visvâmitra, who calls upon his own hundred sons to take the place of the victim, and upon their refusal degrades them to the condition of Chândâlas. After which the Sage teaches the victim a mantram the repetition of which brings the gods to his rescue; he then adopts Sunasepha for his elder son. (See Râmâyana.) There are different versions of this story.

Sung-Ming-Shu (Chin.). The Chinese tree of knowledge and tree of life.

Sûnya (Sk.). Illusion, in the sense that all existence is but a phantom, a dream, or a shadow.

Sunyatâ (Sk.). Void, space, nothingness. The name of our objective universe in the sense of its unreality and illusiveness.

Suoyator (Fin.). In the epic poem of the Finns, the Kalevala, the name for the primordial Spirit of Evil, from whose saliva the serpent of sin was born.

Surabhi (Sk.). The “cow of plenty”; a fabulous creation, one of the fourteen precious things yielded by the ocean of milk when churned by the gods. A “cow” which yields every desire to its possessor.

Surarânî (Sk.). A title of Aditi, the mother of the gods or suras.

Suras (Sk.). A general term for gods, the same as devas; the contrary to asuras or “no-gods”.

Su-rasâ (Sk.). A daughter of Daksha, Kashyapa’s wife, and the mother of a thousand many-headed serpents and dragons.

Surpa (Sk.). “Winnower.”

Surtur (Scand.). The leader of the fiery sons of Muspel in the Eddas.

Surukâya (Sk). One of the “Seven Buddhas”, or Sapta thatâgata.

Sûryâ (Sk.). The Sun, worshipped in the Vedas. The offspring of Aditi (Space), the mother of the gods. The husband of Sanjnâ, or spiritual consciousness. The great god whom Visvakarman, his father-in-law, the creator of the gods and men, and their “carpenter”, crucifies on a lathe, and cutting off the eighth part of his rays, deprives his head of its effulgency, creating round it a dark aureole. A mystery of the last initiation, and an allegorical representation of it.

Sûryasiddhânta (Sk.). A Sanskrit treatise on astronomy.

Sûryavansa (Sk). The solar race. A Sûrayavansee is one who claims descent from the lineage headed by Ikshvâku. Thus, while Râma

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belonged to the Ayodhyâ Dynasty of the Sûryavansa, Krishna belonged to the line of Yadu of the lunar race, or the Chandravansa, as did Gautama Buddha.

Sûryâvarta (Sk.). A degree or stage of Samâdhi.

Sushumnâ (Sk.). The solar ray—the first of the seven rays. Also the name of a spinal nerve which connects the heart with the Brahmarandra, and plays a most important part in Yoga practices.

Sushupti Avasthâ (Sk.). Deep sleep; one of the four aspects of Prânava.

Sûtra (Sk.). The second division of the sacred writings, addressed to the Buddhist laity.

Sûtra Period (Sk.). One of the periods into which Vedic literature is divided.

Sûtrâtman (Sk.). Lit., “the thread of spirit”; the immortal Ego, the Individuality which incarnates in men one life after the other, and upon which are strung, like beads on a string, his countless Personalities. The universal life-supporting air, Samashti prau; universal energy.

Svabhâvat (Sk.). Explained by the Orientalists as “plastic substance”, which is an inadequate definition. Svabhâvat is the world-substance and stuff, or rather that which is behind it—the spirit and essence of substance. The name comes from Subhâva and is composed of three words—su, good, perfect, fair, handsome; sva, self; and bkâva, being, or state of being. From it all nature proceeds and into it all returns at the end of the life-cycles. In Esotericism it is called “Father-Mother”. It is the plastic essence of matter.

Svâbhâvika (Sk.). The oldest existing school of Buddhism. They assigned the manifestation of the universe and physical phenomena to Svabhâva or respective nature of things. According to Wilson the Svabhâvas of things are “the inherent properties of the qualities by which they act, as soothing, terrific or stupefying, and the forms Swarûpas are the distinction of biped, quadruped, brute, fish, animal and the like”.

Svadhâ (Sk.). Oblation; allegorically called “the wife of the Pitris”, the Agnishwattas and Barhishads.

Svâhâ (Sk). A customary exclamation meaning “May it be perpetuated” or rather, “so be it”. When used at ancestral sacrifices (Brahmanic), it means “May the race be perpetuated!”

Svapada (Sk.). Protoplasm, cells, or microscopic organisms.

Svapna (Sk). A trance or dreamy condition. Clairvoyance.

Svapna Avasthâ (Sk.). A dreaming state; one of the four aspects of Prânava; a Yoga practice.

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Svarâj (Sk.). The last or seventh (synthetical) ray of the seven solar rays; the same as Brahmâ. These seven rays are the entire gamut of the seven occult forces (or gods) of nature, as their respective names well prove. These are: Sushumnâ (the ray which transmits sunlight to the moon); Harikesha, Visvakarman, Visvatryarchas, Sannadhas, Sarvâvasu, and Svarâj. As each stands for one of the creative gods or Forces, it is easy to see how important were the functions of the sun in the eyes of antiquity, and why it was deified by the profane.

Svarga (Sk.). A heavenly abode, the same as Indra-loka; a paradise. It is the same as—

Svar-loka (Sk.). The paradise on Mount Meru.

Svasam Vedanâ (Sk.). Lit., “the reflection which analyses itself”; a synonym of Paramârtha.

Svastika (Sk.). In popular notions, it is the Jaina cross, or the “four-footed” cross (croix cramponnée). In Masonic teachings, “the most ancient Order of the Brotherhood of the Mystic Cross” is said to have been founded by Fohi, 1,027 B.C., and introduced into China fifty-two years later, consisting of the three degrees. In Esoteric Philosophy, the most mystic and ancient diagram. It is “the originator of the fire by friction, and of the ‘Forty-nine Fires’.” Its symbol was stamped on Buddha’s heart, and therefore called the “Heart’s Seal”. It is laid on the breasts of departed Initiates after their death; and it is mentioned with the greatest respect in the Râmâyana. Engraved on every rock, temple and prehistoric building of India, and wherever Buddhists have left their landmarks; it is also found in China, Tibet and Siam, and among the ancient Germanic nations as Thor’s Hammer. As described by Eitel in his Hand-Book of Chinese Buddhism.. (1) it is “found among Bonpas and Buddhists”; (2) it is “one of the sixty-five figures of the Sripâda”; (3) it is “the symbol of esoteric Buddhism”; (4) “the special mark of all deities worshipped by the Lotus School of China”. Finally, and in Occultism, it is as sacred to us as the Pythagorean Tetraktys, of which it is indeed the double symbol.

Svastikâsana (Sk.). The second of the four principal postures of the eighty-four prescribed in Hatha Yoga practices.

Svayambhû (Sk.). A metaphysical and philosophical term, meaning “the spontaneously self-produced” or the “self-existent being”. An epithet of Brahmâ. Svâyambhuva is also the name of the first Manu.

Svayambhû Sûnyatâ (Sk.). Spontaneous self-evolution; self-existence of the real in the unreal, i.e., of the Eternal Sat in the periodical Asat.

Sveta (Sk.). A serpent-dragon; a son of Kashyapa.

Sveta-dwîpa (Sk.). Lit., the White Island or Continent; one of the

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Sapta-dwipa. Colonel Wilford sought to identify it with Great Britain, but failed.

Sveta-lohita (Sk.). The name of Siva when he appears in the 29th Kalpa as “a moon-coloured Kumâra”.

Swedenborg, Emmanuel. The great Swedish seer and mystic. He was born on the 29th January, 1688, and was the son of Dr. Jasper Swedberg, bishop of Skara, in West Gothland; and died in London, in Great Bath Street, Clerkenwell, on March 29th, 1772. Of all mystics, Swedenborg has certainly influenced “Theosophy” the most, yet he left a far more profound impress on official science. For while as an astronomer, mathematician, physiologist, naturalist, and philosopher he had no rival, in psychology and metaphysics he was certainly behind his time. When forty-six years of age, he became a “Theosophist”, and a “seer”; but, although his life had been at all times blameless and respectable, he was never a true philanthropist or an ascetic. His clairvoyant powers, however, were very remarkable; but they did not go beyond this plane of matter; all that he says of subjective worlds and spiritual beings is evidently far more the outcome of his exuberant fancy, than of his spiritual insight. He left behind him numerous works, which are sadly misinterpreted by his followers.

Sylphs. The Rosicrucian name for the elementals of the air.

Symbolism. The pictorial expression of an idea or a thought. Primordial writing had at first no characters, but a symbol generally stood for a whole phrase or sentence. A symbol is thus a recorded parable, and a parable a spoken symbol. The Chinese written language is nothing more than symbolical writing, each of its several thousand letters being-a symbol.

Syzygy (Gr.). A Gnostic term, meaning a pair or couple, one active, the other passive. Used especially of Æons.

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T—The twentieth letter of the alphabet. In the Latin Alphabet its value was 160, and, with a dash over it (T̅) signified 160,000. It is the last letter of the Hebrew alphabet, the Tau whose equivalents are T, TH, and numerical value 400. Its symbols are as a tau, a cross , the foundation framework of construction; and as a teth (T), the ninth letter, a snake and the basket of the Eleusinian mysteries.

Taaroa (Tah.). The creative power and chief god of the Tahitians.

Tab-nooth (Heb.). Form; a Kabbalist term.

Tad-aikya (Sk.). “Oneness”; identification or unity with the Absolute. The universal, unknowable Essence (Parahrahm) has no name in the Vedas but is referred to generally as Tad, “That”.

Tafne (Eg.). A goddess; daughter of the sun, represented with the head of a lioness.

Tahmurath (Pers.). The Iranian Adam, whose steed was Simorgh Anke, the griffin-phœnix or infinite cycle. A repetition or reminiscence of Vishnu and Garuda.

Tahor (Heb.). Lit., Mundus, the world; a name given to the Deity, which identification indicates a belief in Pantheism.

Taht Esmun (Eg.). The Egyptian Adam; the first human ancestor.

Taijasi (Sk.). The radiant, flaming—from Tejas “fire”; used sometimes to designate the Mânasa-rûpa, the “thought-body”, and also the stars.

Tairyagyonya (Sk.). The fifth creation, or rather the fifth stage of creation, that of the lower animals, reptiles, etc. (See “Tiryaksrotas”.)

Taittrîya (Sk.). A Brâhmana of the Yajur Veda.

Talapoin (Siam.). A Buddhist monk and ascetic in Siam; some of these ascetics are credited with great magic powers.

Talisman. From the Arabic tilism or tilsam, a “magic image”. An object, whether in stone, metal, or sacred wood; often a piece of parchment filled with characters and images traced under certain planetary influences in magical formulæ given by one versed in occult sciences to one unversed, either with the object of preserving him from evil, or for the accomplishment of certain desires. The greatest virtue and efficacy of the talisman, however, resides in the faith of its possessor;

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not because of the credulity of the latter, or that it possesses no virtue, but because faith is a quality endowed with a most potent creative power; and therefore—unconsciously to the believer—intensifies a hundredfold the power originally imparted to the talisman by its maker.

Talmidai Hakhameem (Heb.). A class of mystics and Kabbalists whom the Zohar calls “Disciples of the Wise”, and who were Sârisim or voluntary eunuchs, becoming such for spiritual motives. (See Matthew xix., 11-12, a passage implying the laudation of such an act.)

Talmud (Heb.). Rabbinic Commentaries on the Jewish faith. It is composed of two parts, the older Mishnah, and the more modern Gemara. Hebrews, who call the Pentateuch the written law, call the Talmud the unwritten or oral law. [w.w.w.]

The Talmud contains the civil and canonical laws of the Jews, who claim a great sanctity for it. For, save the above-stated difference between the Pentateuch and the Talmud, the former, they say, can claim no priority over the latter, as both were received simultaneously by Moses on Mount Sinai from Jehovah, who wrote the one and delivered the other orally.

Tamâla Pattra (Sk.). Stainless, pure, sage-like. Also the name of a leaf of the Laurus Cassia, a tree regarded as having various very occult and magical properties.

Tamarisk, or Erica. A sacred tree in Egypt of great occult virtues. Many of the temples were surrounded with such trees, pre-eminently one at Philæ, sacred among the sacred, as the body of Osiris was s to lie buried under it.

Tamas (Sk.). The quality of darkness, “foulness” and inertia; also of ignorance, as matter is blind. A term used in metaphysical philosophy. It is the lowest of the three gunas or fundamental qualities.

Tammuz (Syr.). A Syrian deity worshipped by idolatrous Hebrews as well as by Syrians. The women of Israel held annual lamentations over Adonis (that beautiful youth being identical with Tammuz). The feast held in his honour was solstitial, and began with the new moon, in the month of Tammuz (July), taking place chiefly at Byblos in Phœnicia; but it was also celebrated as late as the fourth century of our era at Bethlehem, as we find St. Jerome writing (Epistles p. 49) his lamentations in these words: “Over Bethlehem, the grove of Tammuz, that is of Adonis, was casting its shadow! And in the grotto where formerly the infant Jesus cried, the lover of Venus was being mourned.” Indeed, in the Mysteries of Tammuz or Adonis a whole week was spent in lamentations and mourning. The funereal processions were succeeded by a fast, and later by rejoicings; for after the fast Adonis-Tammuz was regarded as raised from the dead, and wild orgies of joy, of eating and

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drinking, as now in Easter week, went on uninterruptedly for several days.

Tamra-Parna (Sk.). Ceylon, the ancient Taprobana.

Tamti (Chald.). A goddess, the same as Belita. Tamti-Belita is the personified Sea, the mother of the City of Erech, the Chaldean Necropolis. Astronomically, Tamti is Astoreth or Istar, Venus.

Tanaim (Heb.). Jewish Initiates, very learned Kabbalists in ancient times. The Talmud contains sundry legends about them and gives the chief names among them.

Tanga-Tango (Peruv.). An idol much reverenced by the Peruvians. It is the symbol of the Triune or the Trinity, “One in three, and three in One”, and existed before our era.

Tanha (Pali). The thirst for life. Desire to live and clinging to life on this earth. This clinging is that which causes rebirth or reincarnation.

Tanjur (Tib.). A collection of Buddhist works translated from the Sanskrit into Tibetan and Mongolian. It is the more voluminous canon, comprising 225 large volumes on miscellaneous subjects. The Kanjur, which contains the commandments or the “Word of the Buddha”, has only 108 volumes.

Tanmâtras (Sk.). The types or rudiments of the five Elements; the subtile essence of these, devoid of all qualities and identical with the properties of the five basic Elements—earth, water, fire, air and ether; i.e., the tanmâtras are, in one of their aspects, smell, taste, touch, sight, and hearing.

Tantra (Sk.). Lit., “rule or ritual”. Certain mystical and magical works, whose chief peculiarity is the worship of the female power, personified in Sakti. Devî or Durgâ (Kâlî, Siva’s wife) is the special energy connected with sexual rites and magical powers—the worst form of black magic or sorcery.

Tântrika (Sk) Ceremonies connected with the above worship. Sakti having a two-fold nature, white and black, good and bad, the Saktas are divided into two classes, the Dakshinâchâris and Vâmâchâris, or the right-hand and the left-hand Saktas, i.e., “white” and “black” magicians. The worship of the latter is most licentious and immoral.

Tao (Chin.). The name of the philosophy of Lao-tze.

Taöer (Eg.). The female Typhon, the hippopotamus, called also Ta-ur, Ta-op-oer, etc.; she is the Thoueris of the Greeks. This wife of Typhon was represented as a monstrous hippopotamus, sitting on her hind legs with a knife in one hand and the sacred knot in the other the pâsa of Siva). Her back was covered with the scales of a crocodile,

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and she had a crocodile’s tail. She is also called Teb, whence the name of Typhon is also, sometimes, Tebh. On a monument of the sixth dynasty she is called “the nurse of the gods”. She was feared in Egypt even more than Typhon. (See “Typhon”.)

Tao-teh-king (Chin.). Lit., “The Book of the Perfectibility of Nature” written by the great philosopher Lao-tze. It is a kind of cosmogony which contains all the fundamental tenets of Esoteric Cosmo genesis. Thus he says that in the beginning there was naught but limitless and boundless Space. All that lives and is, was born in it, from the “Principle which exists by Itself, developing Itself from Itself”, i.e., Swabhâvat. As its name is unknown and it essence is unfathomable, philosophers have called it Tao (Anima Mundi), the uncreate, unborn and eternal energy of nature, manifesting periodically. Nature as well as man when it reaches purity will reach rest, and then all become one with Tao, which is the source of all bliss and felicity. As in the Hindu and Buddhistic philosophies, such purity and bliss and immortality can only be reached through the exercise of virtue and the perfect quietude of our worldly spirit; the human mind has to control and finally subdue and even crush the turbulent action of man’s physical nature; and the sooner he reaches the required degree of moral purification, the happier he will feel. (See Annales du Musée Guimet, Vols. XI. and XII.; Etudes sur la Religion des Chinois, by Dr. Groot.) As the famous Sinologist, Pauthier, remarked: “Human Wisdom can never use language more holy and profound”.

Tapas (Sk.). “Abstraction”, “meditation”. “To perform tapas” is to sit for contemplation. Therefore ascetics are often called Tâpasas.

Tâpasâ-tarû (Sk.). The Sesamum Orientate, a tree very sacred among the ancient ascetics of China and Tibet.

Tapasvî (Sk.). Ascetics and anchorites of every religion, whether Buddhist, Brahman, or Taoist.

Taphos (Gr.). Tomb, the sarcophagus placed in the Adytum and used for purposes of initiation.

Tapo-loka (Sk.). The domain of the fire-devas named Vairâjas. It is known as the “world of the seven sages”, and also “the realm of penance”. One of the Shashta-loka (Six worlds) above our own, which is the seventh.

Târâ (Sk.). The wife of Brihaspati (Jupiter), carried away by King Soma, the Moon, an act which led to the war of the Gods with the Asuras. Târâ personifies mystic knowledge as opposed to ritualistic faith. She is the mother (by Soma) of Buddha, “Wisdom”.

Târakâ (Sk) Described as Dânava or Daitya, i.e., a “Giant-

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Demon”, whose superhuman austerities as a yogi made the gods tremble for their power and supremacy. Said to have been killed by Kârttikeya. (See Secret Doctrine, II., 382.)

Târakâmaya (Sk.). The first war in Heaven through Târâ.

Târakâ Râja Yoga (Sk.). One of the Brahminical Yoga systems for the development of purely spiritual powers and knowledge which lead to Nirvâna.

Targum (Chald.). Lit., “Interpretation”, from the root targem to interpret. Paraphrases of Hebrew Scriptures. Some of the Targums are very mystical, the Aramaic (or Targumatic) language being used all through the Zohar and other Kabbalistic works. To distinguish this language from the Hebrew, called the “face” of the sacred tongue, it is referred to as ahorayim, the “back part”, the real meaning of which must be read between the lines, according to certain methods given to students. The Latin word tergum, “back”, is derived from the Hebrew or rather Aramaic and Chaldean targum. The Book of Daniel begins in Hebrew, and is fully comprehensible till chap. ii., v. 4, when the Chaldees (the Magician-Initiates) begin speaking to the king in Aramaic—not in Syriac, as mistranslated in the Protestant Bible. Daniel speaks in Hebrew before interpreting the king’s dream to him; but explains the dream itself (chap. vii.) in Aramaic. “So in Ezra iv., v. and vi., the words of the kings being there literally quoted, all matters connected therewith are in Aramaic”, says Isaac Myer in his Qabbalah. The Targumim are of different ages, the latest already showing signs of the Massoretic or vowel-system, which made them still more full of intentional blinds. The precept of the Pirke Aboth (c. i., § I), “Make a fence to the Thorah” (law), has indeed been faithfully followed in the Bible as in the Targumim; and wise is he who would interpret either correctly, unless he is an old Occultist-Kabbalist.

Tashilhûmpa (Tib.). The great centre of monasteries and colleges, three hours’ walk from Tchigadze, the residence of the Teshu Lama for details of whom see “Panchen Rimboche”. It was built in 1445 by the order of Tson-kha-pa.

Tassissudun (Tib.). Lit., “the holy city of the doctrine” inhabited, nevertheless, by more Dugpas than Saints. It is the residential capital in Bhutan of the ecclesiastical Head of the Bhons—the Dharma Râjâ. The latter, though professedly a Northern Buddhist, is simply a worshipper of the old demon-gods of the aborigines, the nature-sprites or elementals, worshipped in the land before the introduction of Buddhism. All strangers are prevented from penetrating into Eastern or Great Tibet, and the few scholars who venture on their travels into those forbidden regions, are permitted to penetrate no further

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than the border-lands of the land of Bod. They journey about Bhutan, Sikkhim, and elsewhere on the frontiers of the country, but can learn or know nothing of true Tibet; hence, nothing of the true Northern Buddhism or Lamaism of Tsong-kha-pa. And yet, while describing no more than the rites and beliefs of the Bhons and the travelling Shamans, they assure the world they are giving it the pure Northern Buddhism, and comment on its great fall from its pristine purity!

Tat (Eg.). An Egyptian symbol: an upright round standard tapering toward the summit, with four cross-pieces placed on the top. It was used as an amulet. The top part is a regular equilateral cross. This, on its phallic basis, represented the two principles of creation, the male and the female, and related to nature and cosmos; but when the tat stood by itself, crowned with the atf (or atef ), the triple crown of Horus—two feathers with the uræus in front—it represented the septenary man; the cross, or the two cross-pieces, standing for the lower quaternary, and the atf for the higher triad. As Dr. Birch well remarks: “The four horizontal bars . . . represent the four foundations of all things, the tat being an emblem of stability”.

Tathâgata (Sk.). “One who is like the coming”; he who is, like his predecessors (the Buddhas) and successors, the coming future Buddha or World-Saviour. One of the titles of Gautama Buddha, and the highest epithet, since the first and the last Buddhas were the direct immediate avatars of the One Deity.

Tathâgatagupta (Sk.). Secret or concealed Tathâgata, or the “guardian” protecting Buddhas: used of the Nirmânakâyas.

Tattwa (Sk.). Eternally existing “That”; also, the different principles in Nature, in their occult meaning. Tattwa Samâsa is a work of Sânkhya philosophy attributed to Kapila himself.

Also the abstract principles of existence or categories, physical and metaphysical. The subtle elements—five exoterically, seven in esoteric philosophy—which are correlative to the five and the seven senses on the physical plane; the last two senses are as yet latent in man, but will be developed in the two last root-races.

Tau (Heb.). That which has now become the square Hebrew letter tau, but was ages before the invention of the Jewish alphabet, the Egyptian handled cross, the crux ansata of the Latins, and identical with the Egyptian ankh. This mark belonged exclusively, and still belongs, to the Adepts of every country. As Kenneth R. F. Mackenzie shows, “It was a symbol of salvation and consecration, and as such has been adopted as a Masonic symbol in the Royal Arch Degree”. It is also called the astronomical cross, and was used by the ancient Mexicans—

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as its presence on one of the palaces at Palenque shows—as well as by the Hindus, who placed the tau as a mark on the brows of their Chelas.

Taurus (Lat.). A most mysterious constellation of the Zodiac, one connected with all the “First-born” solar gods. Taurus is under the asterisk A, which is its figure in the Hebrew alphabet, that of Aleph; and therefore that constellation is called the “One”, the “First”, after the said letter. Hence, the “First-born” to all of whom it was made sacred. The Bull is the symbol of force and procreative power—the Logos; hence, also, the horns on the head of Isis, the female aspect of Osiris and Horus. Ancient mystics saw the ansated cross, in the horns of Taurus (the upper portion of the Hebrew Aleph) pushing away the Dragon, and Christians connected the sign and constellation with Christ. St. Augustine calls it “the great City of God”, and the Egyptians called it the “interpreter of the divine voice”, the Apis-Pacis of Hermonthis. (See “Zodiac”.)

Taygete (Gr.). One of the seven daughters of Atlas third, who became later one of the Pleiades. These seven daughters are said to typify the seven sub-races of the fourth root-race, that of the Atlanteans.

[Sanskrit words commencing with the letters Tch are, owing to faulty transliteration, misplaced, and should come under C.]

Tchaitya (Sk.). Any locality made sacred through some event in the life of Buddha; a term signifying the same in relation to gods, and any kind of place or object of worship.

Tchakchur (Sk.). The first Vidjnâna (q.v.). Lit., “the eye”, meaning the faculty of sight, or rather, an occult perception of spiritual and subjective realities (Chakshur).

Tchakra, or Chakra (Sk.). A spell. The disk of Vishnu, which served as a weapon; the wheel of the Zodiac, also the wheel of time, etc. With Vishnu, it was a symbol of divine authority. One of the sixty-five figures of the Sripâda, or the mystic foot-print of Buddha which contains that number of symbolical figures. The Tchakra is used in mesmeric phenomena and other abnormal practices.

Tchandâlas, or Chhandâlas (Sk.). Outcasts, or people without caste, a name now given to all the lower classes of the Hindus; but in antiquity it was applied to a certain class of men, who, having forfeited their right to any of the four castes-—Brâhmans, Kshatriyas, Vaisyas and Sûdras—were expelled from cities and sought refuge in the forests. Then they became “bricklayers”, until finally expelled they left the country, some 4,000 years before our era. Some see in them the

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ancestors of the earlier Jews, whose tribes began with A-brahm or “No Brahm”. To this day it is the class most despised by the Brahmins in India.

Tchandragupta, or Chandragupta (Sk.). The son of Nanda, the first Buddhist King of the Morya Dynasty, the grandfather of King Asoka, “the beloved of the gods” (Piyadasi).

Tchatur Mahârâja (Sk.). The “four kings”, Devas, who guard the four quarters of the universe, and are connected with Karma.

Tcherno-Bog (Slavon.). Lit., “black god”; the chief deity of the ancient Slavonian nations.

Tchertchen. An oasis in Central Asia, situated about 4,000 feet above the river Tchertchen Darya; the very hot-bed and centre of ancient civilization, surrounded on all sides by numberless ruins, above and below ground, of cities, towns, and burial-places of every description. As the late Colonel Prjevalski reported, the oasis is inhabited by some 3,000 people “representing the relics of about a hundred nations and races now extinct, the very names of which are at present unknown to ethnologists”.

Tchhanda Riddhi Pâda (Sk.). “The step of desire”, a term used in Râja Yoga. It is the final renunciation of all desire as a sine quâ non condition of phenomenal powers, and entrance on the direct path of Nirvâna.

Tchikitsa Vidyâ Shâstra (Sk.). A treatise on occult medicine, which contains a number of “magic” prescriptions. It is one of the Pancha Vidyâ Shâstras or Scriptures.

Tchîna (Sk) The name of China in Buddhist works, the land being so called since the Tsin dynasty, which was established in the year 349 before our era.

Tchitta Riddhi Pâda (Sk) “The step of memory.” The third condition of the mystic series which leads to the acquirement of adept-ship; i.e., the renunciation of physical memory, and of all thoughts connected with worldly or personal events in one’s life—benefits, personal pleasures or associations. physical memory has to be sacrificed, and recalled by will power only when absolutely needed. The Riddhi Pâda, lit., the four “Steps to Riddhi”, are the four modes of controlling and finally of annihilating desire, memory, and finally meditation itself—so far as these are connected with any effort of the physical brain—meditation then becomes absolutely spiritual.

Tchitta Smriti Upasthâna (Sk.). One of the four aims of Smriti Upasthâna, i.e., the keeping ever in mind the transitory character of man’s life, and the incessant revolution of the wheel of existence.

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Tebah (Heb.). Nature; which mystically and esoterically is the same as its personified Elohim, the numerical value of both words—Tebah and Elohim (or Aleim) being the same, namely 86.

Tefnant (Eg.). One of the three deities who inhabit “the land of the rebirth of gods” and good men, i.e., Aamroo (Devâchân) The three deities are Scheo, Tefnant, and Seb.

Telugu. One of the Dravidian languages spoken in Southern India.

Temura (Heb.). Lit., “Change”. The title of one division of the practical Kabalah, treating of the analogies between words, the relationship of which is indicated by certain changes in position of the letters, or changes by substituting one letter for another.

Ten Pythagorean Virtues. Virtues of Initiation, &c., necessary before admission. (See “Pythagoras”.) They are identical with those prescribed by Manu, and the Buddhist Pâramitâs of Perfection.

Teraphim (Heb.). The same as Seraphim, or the Kabeiri Gods; serpent-images. The first Teraphim, according to legend, were received by Dardanus as a dowry, and brought by him to Samothrace and Troy. The idol-oracles of the ancient Jews. Rebecca stole them from her father Laban.

Teratology. A Greek name coined by Geoffroi St. Hilaire to denote the pre-natal formation of monsters, both human and animal.

Tetragrammaton. The four-lettered name of God, its Greek title: the four letters are in Hebrew “yod, hé vau, hé”,or in English capitals, IHVH. The true ancient pronunciation is now unknown; the sincere Hebrew considered this name too sacred for speech, and in reading the sacred writings he substituted the title “Adonai”, meaning Lord. In the Kabbalah, I is associated with Chokmah, H with Binah, V with Tiphereth, and H final with Malkuth. Christians in general call IHVH Jehovah, and many modern Biblical scholars write it Yahveh. In the Secret Doctrine, the name Jehovah is assigned to Sephira Binah alone, but this attribution is not recognised by the Rosicrucian school of Kabbalists, nor by Mathers in his translation of Knorr Von Rbsenroth’s Kabbalah Denudata: certain Kabbalistic authorities have referred Binah alone to IHVH, but only in reference to the Jehovah of the exoteric Judaism. The IHVH of the Kabbalah has but a faint resemblance to the God of the Old Testament. [w.w.w.]

The Kabbalah of Knorr von Rosenroth is no authority to the Eastern Kabbalists; because it is well known that in writing his Kabbalah Denudata he followed the modern rather than the ancient (Chaldean) MSS.; and it is equally well known that those MSS. and writings of the Zohar that are classified as “ancient”, mention, and some even use, the Hebrew vowel

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or Massoretic points. This alone would make these would-be Zoharic books spurious, as there are no direct traces of the Massorah scheme before the tenth century of our era, nor any remote trace of it before the seventh. (See “Tetraktys”.)

Tetraktys (Gr.) or the Tetrad. The sacred “Four” by which the Pythagoreans swore, this being their most binding oath. It has a very mystic and varied signification, being the same as the Tetragrammaton. First of all it is Unity, or the “One” under four different aspects; then it is the fundamental number Four, the Tetrad containing the Decad, or Ten, the number of perfection; finally it signifies the primeval Triad (or Triangle) merged in the divine Monad. Kircher, the learned Kabbalist. Jesuit, in his Œdipus-Ægvpticus (II p. 267), gives the Ineffable Name IHVH—one of the Kabbalistic formulæ of the 72 names—arranged in the shape of the Pythagorean Tetrad. Mr. I. Myer gives it in this wise:


.       .

.       .       .

.       .       .       .








The Ineffable

Name thus
















He also shows that “the sacred Tetrad of the Pythagoreans appears to have been known to the ancient Chinese”. As explained in Isis Unveiled (I, xvi.): The mystic Decad, the resultant of the Tetraktys, or the 1+2+3+4=10, is a way of expressing this idea. The One is the impersonal principle ‘God’; the Two, matter; the Three, combining Monad and Duad and partaking of the nature of both, is the phenomenal world; the Tetrad, or form of perfection, expresses the emptiness of all; and the Decad, or sum of all, involves the entire Kosmos.

Thalassa (Gr.). The sea. (See “Thallath”.)

Thales (Gr.). The Greek philosopher of Miletus (circa 600 years B.C.) who taught that the whole universe was produced from water, while Heraclitus of Ephesus maintained that it was produced by fire, and Anaximenes by air. Thales, whose real name is unknown, took his name from Thallath, in accordance with the philosophy he taught.

Thallath (Chald.). The same as Thalassa. The goddess personifying the sea, identical with Tiamat and connected with Tamti and Belita. The goddess who gave birth to every variety of primordial monster in Berosus’ account of cosmogony.

Tharana (Sk.). “Mesmerism”, or rather self-induced trance or self-

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hypnotisation; an action in India, which is of magical character and a kind of exorcism. Lit., “to brush or sweep away” (evil influences, tharhn meaning a broom, and thârnhan, a duster); driving away the bad bhûts (bad aura and bad spirits) through the mesmeriser’s beneficent will.

Thaumaturgy. Wonder or “miracle-working”; the power of working wonders with the help of gods. From the Greek words thauma, “wonder”, and theurgia, “divine work”.

Theanthropism. A state of being both god and man; a divine Avatar (q.v.).

Theiohel (Heb.). The man-producing habitable globe, our earth in the Zohar.

Theli (Chald.). The great Dragon said to environ the universe symbolically. In Hebrew letters it is TLI = 400+30+10 = 440 when “its crest [initial letter] is repressed”, said the Rabbis, 40 remains, or the equivalent of Mem; M=Water, the waters above the firmament. Evidently the same idea as symbolised by Shesha—the Serpent of Vishnu.

Theocrasy. Lit., “mixing of gods”. The worship of various gods, as that of Jehovah and the gods of the Gentiles in the case of the idolatrous Jews.

Theodicy. “Divine right”, i.e, the privilege of an all-merciful and just God to afflict the innocent, and damn those predestined, and still remain a loving and just Deity theologically—a mystery.

Theodidaktos (Gr.). Lit., “God-taught”. Used of Ammonius Saccas, the founder of the Neo-Platonic Eclectic School of the Philalethæ in the fourth century at Alexandria.

Theogony. The genesis of the gods; that branch of all non-Christian theologies which teaches the genealogy of the various deities. An ancient Greek name for that which was translated later as the “genealogy of the generation of Adam and the Patriarchs”—the latter being all “gods and planets and zodiacal signs”.

Theomachy. Fighting with, or against the gods, such, as the “War of the Titans”, the “War in Heaven” and the Battle of the Archangels (gods) against their brothers the Arch-fiends (ex-gods, Asuras, etc.).

Theomancy. Divination through oracles, from theos, a god, and manteia, divination.

Theopathy. Suffering for one’s god. Religious fanaticism.

Theophilanthropism (Gr.). Love to God and man, or rather, in the philosophical sense, love of God through love of Humanity. Certain persons who during the first revolution in France sought to replace Christianity by pure philanthropy and reason, called themselves theophilanthropists.

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Theophilosophy. Theism and philosophy combined.

Theopneusty. Revelation; something given or inspired by a god or divine being. Divine inspiration.

Theopœa (Gr.). A magic art of endowing inanimate figures, statues, and other objects, with life, speech, or locomotion.

Theosophia (Gr.). Wisdom-religion, or “Divine Wisdom”. The substratum and basis of all the world-religions and philosophies, taught and practised by a few elect ever since man became a thinking being. In its practical bearing, Theosophy is purely divine ethics; the definitions in dictionaries are pure nonsense, based on religious prejudice and ignorance of the true spirit of the early Rosicrucians and mediæval philosophers who called themselves Theosophists.

Theosophical Society, or “Universal Brotherhood”. Founded in 1875 at New York, by Colonel H. S. Olcott and H. P. Blavatsky, helped by W. Q. Judge and several others. Its avowed object was at first the scientific investigation of psychic or so-called “spiritualistic” phenomena, after which its three chief objects were declared, namely (1) Brotherhood of man, without distinction of race, colour, religion, or social position; (2) the serious study of the ancient world-religions for purposes of comparison and the selection therefrom of universal ethics; (3) the study and development of the latent divine powers in man. At the present moment it has over 250 Branches scattered all over the world, most of which are in India, where also its chief Headquarters are established. It is composed of several large Sections—the Indian, the American, the Australian, and the European Sections.

Theosophists. A name by which many mystics at various periods of history have called themselves. The Neo-Platonists of Alexandria were Theosophists; the Alchemists and Kabbalists during the mediæval ages were likewise so called, also the Martinists, the Quietists, and other kinds of mystics, whether acting independently or incorporated in a brotherhood or society. All real lovers of divine Wisdom and Truth had, and have, a right to the name, rather than those who, appropriating the qualification, live lives or perform actions opposed to the principles of Theosophy. As described by Brother Kenneth R. Mackenzie, the Theosophists of the past centuries—“entirely speculative, and founding no schools, have still exercised a silent influence upon philosophy; and, no doubt, when the time arrives, many ideas thus silently propounded may yet give new directions to human thought. One of the ways in which these doctrines have obtained not only authority, but power, has been among certain enthusiasts in the higher degrees of Masonry. This power has, however, to a great degree died with the founders, and modern Freemasonry contains few traces of theosophic

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influence. However accurate and beautiful some of the ideas of Swedenborg, Pernetty, Paschalis, Saint Martin, Marconis, Ragon, and Chastanier may have been, they have but little direct influence on society.” This is true of the Theosophists of the last three centuries, but not of the later ones. For the Theosophists of the current century have already visibly impressed themselves on modern literature, and introduced the desire and craving for some philosophy in place of the blind dogmatic faith of yore, among the most intelligent portions of human-kind. Such is the difference between past and modern THEOSOPHY.

Therapeutæ (Gr.) or Therapeutes. A school of Esotericists, which was an inner group within Alexandrian Judaism and not, as generally believed, a “sect”. They were “healers” in the sense that some “Christian” and “Mental” Scientists, members of the T.S., are healers, while they are at the same time good Theosophists and students of the esoteric sciences. Philo Judæus calls them “servants of god”. As justly shown in A Dictionary of . . . Literature, Sects, and Doctrines (Vol. IV., art. “Philo Judmus”) in mentioning the Therapeutes—“There appears no reason to think of a special “sect”, but rather of an esoteric circle of illuminati, of ‘wise men’ . . . They were contemplative Hellenistic Jews.”

Thermutis (Eg.). The asp-crown of the goddess Isis; also the name of the legendary daughter of Pharaoh who is alleged to have saved Moses from the Nile.

Thero (Pali). A priest of Buddha. Therunnanse, also.

Theurgia, or Theurgy (Gr.). A communication with, and means of bringing down to earth, planetary spirits and angels—the “gods of Light”. Knowledge of the inner meaning of their hierarchies, and purity of life alone can lead to the acquisition of the powers necessary for communion with them. To; arrive at such an exalted goal the aspirant must be absolutely worthy and unselfish.

Theurgist. The first school of practical theurgy (from θεος, god, and εργον work,) in the Christian period, was founded by Iamblichus among certain Alexandrian Platonists. The priests, however, who were attached to the temples of Egypt, Assyria, Babylonia and Greece, and whose business it was to evoke the gods during the celebration of the Mysteries, were known by this name, or its equivalent in other tongues, from the earliest archaic period. Spirits (but not those of the dead, the evocation of which was called Necromancy) were made visible to the eyes of mortals. Thus a theurgist had to be a hierophant and an expert in the esoteric learning of the Sanctuaries of all great countries. The Neo-platonists of the school of Iamblichus were called theurgists, for they performed the so-called “ceremonial magic”, and evoked the simulacra or

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the images of the ancient heroes, “gods”, and daimonia (δαιμονια, divine, spiritual entities). In the rare cases when the presence of a tangible and visible “spirit” was required, the theurgist had to furnish the weird apparition with a portion of his own flesh and blood—he had to perform the thepæa or the “creation of gods”, by a mysterious process well known to the old, and perhaps some of the modern, Tântrikas and initiated Brahmans of India. Such is what is said in the Book of Evocations of the pagodas. It shows the perfect identity of rites and ceremonial between the oldest Brahmanic theurgy and that of the Alexandrian Platonists.

The following is from Isis Unveiled: “The Brahman Grihasta (the evocator) must be in a state of complete purity before he ventures to call forth the Pitris. After having prepared a lamp, some sandal-incense, etc., and having traced the magic circles taught him by the superior Guru, in order to keep away bad spirits, he ceases to breathe, and calls the fire (Kundalini) to his help to disperse his body.” He pronounces a certain number of times the sacred word, and “his soul (astral body) escapes from its prison, his body disappears, and the soul (image) of the evoked spirit descends into the double body and animates it”. Then “his (the theurgist’s) soul (astral) re-enters its body, whose subtile particles have again been aggregating (to the objective sense), after having formed from themselves an aërial body for the deva (god or spirit) he evoked”. . . . And then, the operator propounds to the latter questions “on the mysteries of Being and the transformation of the imperishable”. The popular prevailing idea is that the theurgists, as well as the magicians, worked wonders, such as evoking the souls or shadows of the heroes and gods, and other thaumaturgic works, by supernatural powers. But this never was the fact. They did it simply by the liberation of their own astral body, which, taking the form of a god or hero, served as a medium or vehicle through which the special current preserving the ideas and knowledge of that hero or god could be reached and manifested. (See “Iamblichus”.)

Thirty-two Ways of Wisdom (Kab.). The Zohar says that Chochmah or Hokhmah (wisdom) generates all things “by means of (these) thirty-two paths”. (Zohar iii., 290a). The full account of them is found in the Sepher Yezirah, wherein letters and numbers constitute as entities the Thirty-two Paths of Wisdom, by which the Elohim built the whole Universe. For, as said elsewhere, the brain “hath an outlet from Zeir Anpin, and therefore it is spread and goes out to thirty-two ways”. Zeir Anpin, the “Short Face” or the “Lesser Countenance”, is the Heavenly Adam, Adam Kadmon, or Man. Man in the Zohar is looked upon as the twenty-two letters of the Hebrew alphabet to which the decad is added and hence the thirty-two symbols of his faculties or paths.

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Thohu-Bohu (Heb.). From Tohoo—“the Deep” and Bohu “primeval Space”—or the Deep of Primeval Space, loosely rendered as “Chaos” “Confusion” and so on. Also spelt and pronounced “tohu-bohu”.

Thomei (Eg.). The Goddess of Justice, with eyes bandaged and holding a cross. The same as the Greek Themis.

Thor (Scand.). From Thonar to “thunder”. The son of Odin and Freya, and the chief of all Elemental Spirits. The god of thunder, Jupiter Tonans. The word Thursday is named after Thor. Among the Romans Thursday was the day of Jupiter, Jovis dies, Jeudi in French—the fifth day of the week, sacred also to the planet Jupiter.

Thorah (Heb.). “Law”, written down from the transposition of the letters of the Hebrew alphabet. Of the “hidden Thorah” it is said that before At-tee-k-ah (the “Ancient of all the Ancients”) had arranged Itself into limbs (or members) preparing Itself to manifest, It willed to create a Thorah; the latter upon being produced addressed It in these words: “It, that wishes to arrange and to appoint other things, should first of all, arrange Itself in Its proper Forms”. In other words, Thorah, the Law, snubbed its Creator from the moment of its birth, according to the above, which is an interpolation of some later Talmudist. As it grew and developed, the mystic Law of the primitive Kabbalist was transformed and made by the Rabbins to supersede in its dead letter every metaphysical conception; and thus the Rabbinical and Talmudistic Law makes Ain Soph and every divine Principle subservient to itself, and turns its back upon the true esoteric interpretations.

Thor’s Hammer. A weapon which had the form of the Svastika; called by European Mystics and Masons the “Hermetic Cross”, and also “Jaina Cross”, croix cramponnée; the most archaic, as the most sacred and universally respected symbol. (See “Svastika”.)

Thoth (Eg.). The most mysterious and the least understood of gods, whose personal character is entirely distinct from all other ancient deities. While the permutations of Osiris, Isis, Horus, and the rest, are so numberless that their individuality is all but lost, Thoth remains changeless from the first to the last Dynasty. He is the god of wisdom and of authority over all other gods. He is the recorder and the judge. His ibis-head, the pen and tablet of the celestial scribe, who records the thoughts, words and deeds of men and weighs them in the balance, liken him to the type of the esoteric Lipikas. His name is one of the first that appears on the oldest monuments. He is the lunar god of the first dynasties, the master of Cynocephalus—the dog-headed ape who stood in Egypt as a living symbol and remembrance of the Third Root-Race. (Secret Doctrine, II. pp. 184 and 185). He is the “Lord of Hermopolis”

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—Janus, Hermes and Mercury combined. He is crowned with an atef and the lunar disk, and bears the “Eye of Horus”, the third eye, in his hand. He is the Greek Hermes, the god of learning, and Hermes Trismegistus, the “Thrice-great Hermes”, the patron of physical sciences and the patron and very soul of the occult esoteric knowledge. As Mr. J. Bonwick, F.R.G.S., beautifully expresses it: “Thoth . . . has a powerful effect on the imagination . . . in this intricate yet beautiful phantasmagoria of thought and moral sentiment of that shadowy past. It is in vain we ask ourselves however man, in the infancy of this world of humanity, in the rudeness of supposed incipient civilization, could have dreamed of such a heavenly being as Thoth. The lines are so delicately drawn, so intimately and tastefully interwoven, that we seem to regard a picture designed by the genius of a Milton, and executed with the skill of a Raphael.” Verily, there was some truth in that old saying, “The wisdom of the Egyptians”. . . . “When it is shown that the wife of Cephren, builder of the second Pyramid, was a priestess of Thoth, one sees that the ideas comprehended in him were fixed 6,000 years ago”. According to Plato, “Thoth-Hermes was the discoverer and inventor of numbers, geometry, astronomy and letters”. Proclus, the disciple of Plotinus, speaking of this mysterious deity, says: “He presides over every species of condition, leading us to an intelligible essence from this mortal abode, governing the different herds of souls”. In other words Thoth, as the Registrar and Recorder of Osiris in Amenti, the Judgment Hall of the Dead was a psychopompic deity; while Iamblichus hints that “the cross with a handle (the thau or tau) which Tot holds in his hand, was none other than the monogram of his name”. Besides the Tau, as the prototype of Mercury, Thoth carries the serpent-rod, emblem of Wisdom, the rod that became the Caduceus. Says Mr. Bonwick, “Hermes was the serpent itself in a mystical sense. He glides like that creature, noiselessly, without apparent exertion, along the course of ages. He is . . . a representative of the spangled heavens. But he is the foe of the bad serpent, for the ibis devoured the snakes of Egypt.”

Thothori Nyan Tsan (Tib.) A King of Tibet in the fourth century. It is narrated that during his reign he was visited by five mysterious strangers, who revealed to him how he might use for his country’s welfare four precious things which had fallen down from heaven, in 331 A.D., in a golden casket and “the use of which no one knew”. These were (1) hands folded as the Buddhist ascetics fold them; (2) a be-jewelled Shorten (a Stupa built over a receptacle for relics); (3) a gem inscribed with the “Aum mani padme hum”; and (4) the Zamotog, a religious work on ethics, a part of the Kanjur. A voice from heaven then told

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the King that after a certain number of generations everyone would learn how precious these four things were. The number of generations stated carried the world to the seventh century, when Buddhism became the accepted religion of Tibet. Making an allowance for legendary licence, the four things fallen from heaven, the voice, and the five mysterious strangers, may be easily seen to have been historical facts. They were without any doubt five Arhats or Bhikshus from India, on their proselytising tour. Many were the Indian. sages who, persecuted in India for their new faith, betook themselves to Tibet and China.

Thrætaona (Mazd.) The Persian Michael, who contended with Zohak or Azhi-Dahaka, the destroying serpent. In the Avesta Azhi-Dahaka is a three-headed monster, one of whose heads is human, and the two others Ophidian. Dahaka, who is shown in the Zoroastrian Scriptures as coming from Babylonia, stands as the allegorical symbol of the Assyrian dynasty of King Dahaka (Az-Dahaka) which ruled Asia with an iron hand, and whose banners bore the purple sign of the dragon, Purpureum signum draconis. Metaphysically, however, the human head denotes the physical man, and the two serpent heads the dual manasic principles—the dragon and serpent both standing as symbols of wisdom and occult powers.

Thread Soul. The same as Sutrâtmâ (q.v.).

Three Degrees (of Initiation). Every nation had its exoteric and esoteric religion, the one for the masses, the other for the learned and elect. For example, the Hindus had three degrees with several sub-degrees. The Egyptians had also three preliminary degrees, personified under the “three guardians of the fire” in the Mysteries. The Chinese had their most ancient Triad Society: and the Tibetans have to this day their “triple step”; which was symbolized in the Vedas by the three strides of Vishnu. Everywhere antiquity shows an unbounded reverence for the Triad and Triangle—the first geometrical figure. The old Babylonians had their three stages of initiation into the priesthood (which was then esoteric knowledge); the Jews, the Kabbalists and mystics borrowed them from the Chaldees, and the Christian Church from the Jews. “There are Two”, says Rabbi Simon ben Jochai, “in conjunction with One; hence they are Three, and if they are Three, then they are One.”

Three Faces. The Trimûrti of the Indian Pantheon; the three persons of the one godhead. Says the Book of Precepts: “There are two Faces, one in Tushita (Devâchân) and one in Myalba (earth); and the Highest Holy unites them and finally absorbs both.”

Three Fires (Occult). The name given to Âtmâ-Buddhi-Manas, which when united become one.

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Thsang Thisrong tsan (Tib.). A king who flourished between the years 728 and 787, and who invited from Bengal Pandit Rakshit, called for his great learning Bodhisattva, to come and settle in Tibet, in order to teach Buddhist philosophy to his priests.

Thûmi Sambhota (Sk.). An Indian mystic and man of erudition, the inventor of the Tibetan alphabet.

Thummim (Heb.). “Perfections.” An ornament on the breastplates of the ancient High Priests of Judaism. Modern Rabbins and Hebraists may well pretend they do not know the joint purposes of the Thummim and the Urim; but the Kabbalists do and likewise the Occultists. They were the instruments of magic divination and oracular communication—theurgic and astrological. This is shown in the following well-known facts—(1) upon each of the twelve precious stones was engraved the name of one of the twelve sons of Jacob, each of these “sons” personating one of the signs of the zodiac; (2) both were oracular images, like the teraphim, and uttered oracles by a voice, and both were agents for hypnotisation and throwing the priests who wore them into an ecstatic condition. The Urim and Thummim were not original with the Hebrews, but had been borrowed, like most of their other religious rites, from the Egyptians, with whom the mystic scarabæus worn on the breast by the Hierophants, had the same functions. They were thus purely heathen and magical modes of divination; and when the Jewish “Lord God” was called upon to manifest his presence and speak out his will through the Urim by preliminary incantations, the modus operandi was the same as that used by all the Gentile priests the world over.

Thumos (Gr.). The astral, animal soul; the Kâmas-Manas; Thumos means passion, desire and confusion and is so used by Homer. The word is probably derived from the Sanskit Tamas, which has the same meaning.

Tia-Huanaco (Peruv.). Most magnificent ruins of a pre-historic city in Peru.

Tiamat (Chald.). A female dragon personifying the ocean; the “great mother” or the living principle of chaos. Tiamat wanted to swallow Bel, but Bel sent a wind which entered her open mouth and killed Tiamat.

Tiaou (Eg.). A kind of Devachanic post mortem state.

Tien-Hoang (Chin.). The twelve hierarchies of Dhyânis.

Tien-Sin (Chin.). Lit., “the heaven of mind”, or abstract, subjective, ideal heaven. A metaphysical term applied to the Absolute.

Tikkun (Chald.). Manifested Man or Adam Kadmon, the first ray from the manifested Logos.

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Tiphereth (Heb.). Beauty; the sixth of the ten Sephiroth, a masculine active potency, corresponding to the Vau, V, of the Tetragrammaton IHVH; also called Melekh or King; and the Son. It is the central Sephira of the six which compose Zauir Anpin, the Microprosopus, or Lesser Countenance. It is translated “Beauty” and “Mildness”.

Tîrthakas, or Tîrthika and Tîrthyas (Sk.). “Heretical teachers.” An epithet applied by the Buddhist ascetics to the Brahmans and certain Yogis of India.

Tirthankâra (Sk.). Jaina saints and chiefs, of which there are twenty-four. It is claimed that one of them was the spiritual Guru of Gautama Buddha. Tirthankâra is a synonym of Jaina.

Tiryakarota (Sk.). From tiryak “crooked”, and srotas (digestive) “canal”. The name of the “creation” by Brahmâ of men or beings, whose stomachs were, on account of their erect position as bipeds, in a horizontal position. This is a Purânic invention, absent in Occultism.

Tishya (Sk.). The same as Kaliyuga, the Fourth Age.

Titans (Gr.). Giants of divine origin in Greek mythology who made war against the gods. Prometheus was one of them.

Titikshâ (Sk.). Lit., “long-suffering, patience”. Titikshâ, daughter of Daksha and wife of Dharma (divine law) is its personification.

To On (Gr.). The “Being”, the “Ineffable All” of Plato. He “whom no person has seen except the Son”.

Tobo (Gnost.). In the Codex Nazaræus, a mysterious being which bears the soul of Adam from Orcus to the place of life, and thence is called “the liberator of the soul of Adam”.

Todas. A mysterious people of India found in the unexplored fastnesses of Nilgiri (Blue) Hills in the Madras Presidency, whose origin, language and religion are to this day unknown. They are entirely distinct, ethnically, philologically, and in every other way, from the Badagas and the Mulakurumbas, two other races found on the same hills.

Toom (Eg.). A god issued from Osiris in his character of the Great Deep Noot. He is the Protean god who generates other gods, “assuming the form he likes”. He is Fohat. (Secret Doctrine, I., 673.)

Tope. An artificial mound covering relics of Buddha or some other great Arhat. The Topes are also called Dâgobas.

Tophet (Heb.). A place in the valley of Gehenna, near Jerusalem, where a constant fire was kept burning, in which children were immolated to Baal. The locality is thus the prototype of the Christian Hell, the fiery Gehenna of endless woe.

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Toralva, Dr. Eugene. A physician who lived in the fourteenth century, and who received as a gift from Friar Pietro, a great magician and a Dominican monk, a demon named Zequiel to be his faithful servant. (See Isis Unveiled, II., 60.)

Toyâmbudhi (Sk.). A country in the northern part of which lay the “White Island”—Shveta Dwîpa of the seven Purânic islands or continents.

Trailokya, or Trilokya (Sk.). Lit., the “three regions” or worlds; the complementary triad to the Brahmanical quaternary of worlds named Bhuvanatraya. A Buddhist profane layman will mention only three divisions of every world, while a non-initiated Brahman will maintain that there are four. The four divisions of the latter are purely physical and sensuous, the Trailokya of the Buddhist are purely spiritual and ethical. The Brahmanical division may be found fully described under the heading of Vyahritis, the difference being for the present sufficiently shown in the following parallel:—

  Brahmanical Division of the Worlds

1. Bhur, earth.

2. Bhuvah, heaven, firmament.

3. Swar, atmosphere, the sky.

4. Mahar, eternal luminous essence.

        Buddhist Division of the Regions

     1. World of desire, Kâmadhâtu or Kâmalôka.

     2. World of form, Rûpadhâtu.

3. The formless world, Arûpadhâtu.

All these are the worlds of post mortem states. For instance, Kâmalôka or Kâmadhâtu, the region of Mâra, is that which mediæval and modern Kabalists call the world of astral light, and the “world of shells”. Kâmalôka has, like every other region, its seven divisions, the lowest of which begins on earth or invisibly in its atmosphere; the six others ascend gradually, the highest being the abode of those who have died owing to accident, or suicide in a fit of temporary insanity, or were otherwise victims of external forces. It is a place where all those who have died before the end of the term allotted to them, and whose higher principles do not, therefore, go at once into Devachanic state—sleep a dreamless sweet sleep of oblivion, at the termination of which they are either reborn immediately, or pass gradually into the Devachanic state. Rûpadhâtu is the celestial world of form, or what we call Devâchân. With the uninitiated Brahmans, Chinese and other Buddhists, the Rûpadhâtu is divided into eighteen Brahmâ or Devalokas; the life of a soul therein lasts from half a Yuga up to 16,000 Yugas or Kalpas, and the height of the “Shades” is from half a Yojana up to 16,000 Yojanas (a Yojana measuring from five and a half to ten miles ! !), and such-like theological twaddle evolved from priestly brains. But the Esoteric Philosophy teaches that though for the Egos for the time being, everything or every-

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one preserves its form (as in a dream), yet as Rûpadhâtu is a purely mental region, and a state, the Egos themselves have no form outside their own consciousness. Esotericism divides this “ region” into seven Dhyânas, “regions”, or states of contemplation, which are not localities but mental representations of these. Arûpadhâtu: this “region” is again divided into seven Dhyânas, still more abstract and formless, for this “World” is without any form or desire whatever. It is the highest region of the post mortem Trailokya; and as it is the abode of those who are almost ready for Nirvâna and is, in fact, the very threshold of the Nirvânic state, it stands to reason that in Arûpadhâtu (or Arûpavachara) there can be neither form nor sensation, nor any feeling connected with our three dimensional Universe.

Trees of Life. From the highest antiquity trees were connected with the gods and mystical forces in nature. Every nation had its sacred tree, with its peculiar characteristics and attributes based on natural, and also occasionally on occult properties, as expounded in the esoteric teachings. Thus the peepul or Âshvattha of India, the abode of Pitris (elementals in fact) of a lower order, became the Bo-tree or ficus religiosa of the Buddhists the world over, since Gautama Buddha reached the highest knowledge and Nirvâna under such a tree. The ash tree, Yggdrasil, is the world-tree of the Norsemen or Scandinavians. The banyan tree is the symbol of spirit and matter, descending to the earth, striking root, and then re-ascending heavenward again. The triple-leaved palâsa is a symbol of the triple essence in the Universe—Spirit, Soul, Matter. The dark cypress was the world-tree of Mexico, and is now with the Christians and Mahomedans the emblem of death, of peace and rest. The fir was held sacred in Egypt, and its cone was carried in religious processions, though now it has almost disappeared from the land of the mummies; so also was the sycamore, the tamarisk, the palm and the vine. The sycamore was the Tree of Life in Egypt, and also in Assyria. It was sacred to Hathor at Heliopolis; and is now sacred in the same place to the Virgin Mary. Its juice was precious by virtue of its occult powers, as the Soma is with Brahmans, and Haoma with the Parsis. “The fruit and sap of the Tree of Life bestow immortality.” A large volume might be written upon these sacred trees of antiquity, the reverence for some of which has survived to this day, without exhausting the subject.

Trefoil. Like the Irish shamrock, it has a symbolic meaning, “the three-in-one mystery” as an author calls it. It crowned the head of Osiris, and the wreath fell off when Typhon killed the radiant god. Some see in it a phallic significance, but we deny this idea in Occultism. It was the plant of Spirit, Soul, and Life.

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Tretâ Yuga (Sk.). The second age of the world, a period of 1,296,000 years.

Triad, or the Three. The ten Sephiroth are contemplated as a group of three triads: Kether, Chochmah and Binah form the supernal triad; Chesed, Geburah and Tiphereth, the second; and Netzach, Hod and Yesod, the inferior triad. The tenth Sephira, Malkuth, is beyond the three triads. [w.w.w.]

The above is orthodox Western Kabalah. Eastern Occultists recognise but one triad—the upper one (corresponding to Atma-Buddhi and the “Envelope” which reflects their light, the three in one)—and count seven lower Sephiroth, everyone of which stands for a “principle”, beginning with the Higher Manas and ending with the Physical Body—of which Malkuth is the representative in the Microcosm and the Earth in the Macrocosm.

Tri-bhuvana, or Tri-loka (Sk.). The three worlds—Swarga, Bhûmi, Pâtâla, or Heaven, Earth, and Hell in popular beliefs; esoterically, these are the Spiritual and Psychic (or Astral) regions, and the Terrestrial sphere.

Tridandî (Sk.). The name generally given to a class or sect of Sanyâsîs who constantly keep in the hand a kind of club (danda) branching off into three rods at the top. The word is variously etymologized, and some give the name to the triple Brahmanical thread.

Tri-dasha (Sk.). Three times ten or “thirty”. This is in round numbers the sum of the Indian Pantheon—the thirty-three crores of deities—the twelve Âdityas, the eight Vasus, the eleven Rudras and the two Ashvins, or thirty-three kotis, or 330 millions of gods.

Trigunas (Sk.). The three divisions of the inherent qualities of differentiated matter—i.e., of pure quiescence (satva), of activity and desire (rajas), of stagnation and decay (tamas). They correspond with Vishnu, Brahmâ, and Shiva. (See “Trimûrti”.)

Trijnâna, (Sk.). Lit., “triple knowledge”. This consists of three degrees (1) belief on faith; (2) belief on theoretical knowledge; and (3) belief through personal and practical knowledge.

Trikâya (Sk) Lit., three bodies, or forms. This is a most abstruse teaching which, however, once understood, explains the mystery of every triad or trinity, and is a true key to every three-fold metaphysical symbol. In its most simple and comprehensive form it is found in the human Entity in its triple division into spirit, soul, and body, and in the universe, regarded pantheistically, as a unity composed of a Deific, purely spiritual Principle, Supernal Beings—its direct rays—and

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Humanity. The origin of this is found in the teachings of the pre historic Wisdom Religion, or Esoteric Philosophy. The grand Pantheistic ideal, of the unknown and unknowable Essence being transformed first into subjective, and then into objective matter, is at the root of all these triads and triplets. Thus we find in philosophical Northern Buddhism (1) Âdi-Buddha (or Primordial Universal Wisdom); (2) the Dhyâni-Buddhas (or Bodhisattvas); (3) the Mânushi (Human) Buddhas. In European conceptions we find the same: God, Angels and Humanity symbolized theologically by the God-Man. The Brahmanical Trimûrti and also the three-fold body of Shiva, in Shaivism, have both been conceived on the same basis, if not altogether running on the lines of Esoteric teachings. Hence, no wonder if one finds this conception of the triple body—or the vestures of Nirmânakâya, Sambhogakâya and Dharmakâya, the grandest of the doctrines of Esoteric Philosophy—accepted in a more or less disfigured form by every religious sect, and explained quite incorrectly by the Orientalists. Thus, in its general application, the three-fold body symbolizes Buddha’s statue, his teachings and his stûpas; in the priestly conceptions it applies to the Buddhist profession of faith called the Triratna, which is the formula of taking “refuge in Buddha, Dharma, and Sangha”. Popular fancy makes Buddha ubiquitous, placing him thereby on a par with an anthropomorphic god, and lowering him to the level of a tribal deity; and, as a result, it falls into flat contradictions, as in Tibet and China. Thus the exoteric doctrine seems to teach that while in his Nirmâkâya body (which passed through 100,000 kotis of transformations on earth), he, Buddha, is at the same time a Lochana (a heavenly Dhyâni-Bodhisattva), in his Sambhogakâya “robe of absolute completeness”, and in Dhyâna, or a state which must cut him off from the world and all its connections; and finally and lastly he is, besides being a Nirmânakâya and a Sambhogakâya, also a Dharmakâya “of absolute purity”, a Vairotchana or Dhyâni-Buddha in full Nirvâna! (See Eitel’s Sanskrit-Chinese Dictionary.) This is the jumble of contradictions, impossible to reconcile, which is given out by missionaries and certain Orientalists as the philosophical dogmas of Northern Buddhism. If not an intentional confusion of a philosophy dreaded by the upholders of a religion based on inextricable contradictions and guarded “mysteries”, then it is the product of ignorance. As the Trailokya, the Trikâya, and the Triratna are the three aspects of the same conceptions, and have to be, so to say, blended in one, the subject is further explained under each of these terms. (See also in this relation the term “Trisharana”.)

Tri-kûta (Sk.). Lit., “three peaks”. The mountain on which Lankâ (modern Ceylon) and its city were built. It is said, allegorically,

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to be a mountain range running south from Meru. And so no doubt it was before Lankâ was submerged, leaving now but the highest summits of that range out of the waters. Submarine topography and geological formation must have considerably changed since the Miocene period. There is a legend to the effect that Vâyu, the god of the wind, broke the summit off Meru and cast it into the sea, where it forthwith became Lankâ.

Trilcohana (Sk.). Lit., “three-eyed”, an epithet of Shiva. It is narrated that while the god was engaged one day on a Himâlayan summit in rigid austerities, his wife placed her hand lovingly on his third eye, which burst from Shiva’s forehead with a great flame. This is the eye which reduced Kâma, the god of love (as Mârâ, the tempter), to ashes, for trying to inspire him during his devotional meditation with thoughts of his wife.

Trimûrti (Sk). Lit., “three faces”, or “triple form”—the Trinity. In the modern Pantheon these three persons are Brahmâ, the creator, Vishnu, the preserver, and Shiva, the destroyer. But this is an after thought, as in the Vedas neither Brahmâ nor Shiva is known, and the Vedic trinity consists of Agni, Vâyu and Sûrya; or as the Nirukta explains it, the terrestrial fire, the atmospheric (or aërial) and the heavenly fire, since Agni is the god of fire, Vayu of the air, and Sûrya is the sun. As the Padma Purâna has it: “In the beginning, the great Vishnu, desirous of creating the whole world, became threefold: creator, preserver, destroyer. In order to produce this world, the Supreme Spirit emanated from the right side of his body, himself, as Brahmâ then, in order to preserve the universe, he produced from the left side of his body Vishnu; and in order to destroy the world he produced from the middle of his body the eternal Shiva. Some worship Brahmâ, some Vishnu, others Shiva; but Vishnu, one yet threefold, creates, preserves, and destroys, therefore let the pious make no difference between the three.” The fact is, that all the three “persons” of the Trimûrti are simply the three qualificative gunas or attributes of the universe of differentiated Spirit-Matter, self-formative, self-preserving and self-destroying, for purposes of regeneration and perfectibility. This is the correct meaning; and it is shown in Brahmâ being made the personified embodiment of Rajoguna, the attribute or quality of activity, of desire for procreation, that desire owing to which the universe and everything in it is called into being. Vishnu is the embodied Sattvaguna, that property of preservation arising from quietude and restful enjoyment, which characterizes the intermediate period between the full growth and the beginning of decay; while Shiva, being embodied Tamoguna—which

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is the attribute of stagnancy and final decay—becomes of course the destroyer. This is as highly philosophical under its mask of anthropomorphism, as it is unphilosophical and absurd to hold to and enforce on the world the dead letter of the original conception.

Trinity. Everyone knows the Christian dogma of the “three in one” and “one in three”; therefore it is useless to repeat that which may he found in every catechism. Athanasius, the Church Father who defined the Trinity as a dogma, had little necessity of drawing upon inspiration or his own brain power; he had but to turn to one of the innumerable trinities of the heathen creeds, or to the Egyptian priests, in whose country he had lived all his life. He modified slightly only one of the three “persons”. All the triads of the Gentiles were composed of the Father, Mother, and the Son. By making it “Father, Son, and Holy Ghost”, he changed the dogma only outwardly, as the Holy Ghost had always been feminine, and Jesus is made to address the Holy Ghost as his “mother” in every Gnostic Gospel.

Tripada (Sk.). “Three-footed”, fever, personified as having three feet or stages of development—cold, heat and sweat.

Tripitaka (Sk.). Lit., “the three baskets”; the name of the Buddhist canon. It is composed of three divisions: (1) the doctrine; (2) the rules and laws for the priesthood and ascetics; (3) the philosophical dissertations and metaphysics: to wit, the Abhidharma, defined by Buddhaghosa as that law (dharma) which goes beyond (abhi) the law. The Abhidharma contains the most profoundly metaphysical and philosophical teachings, and is the store-house whence the Mahâyâna and Hinayâna Schools got their fundamental doctrines. There is a fourth division—the Samyakta Pitaka. But as it is a later addition by the Chinese Buddhists, it is not accepted by the Southern Church of Siam and Ceylon.

Triratna, or Ratnatraya (Sk) The Three Jewels, the technical term for the well-known formula “Buddha, Dharma and Sangha” (or Samgha), the two latter terms meaning, in modern interpretation, “religious law” (Dharma), and the “priesthood” (Sangha). Esoteric Philosophy, however, would regard this as a very loose rendering. The words “Buddha, Dharma and Sangha”, ought to be pronounced as in the days of Gautama, the Lord Buddha, namely “Bodhi, Dharma and Sangha and interpreted to mean “Wisdom, its laws and priests”, the latter in the sense of “spiritual exponents”, or adepts. Buddha, however, being regarded as personified “Bodhi” on earth, a true avatar of Âdi-Buddha, Dharma gradually came to be regarded as his own particular law, and Sangha as his own special priesthood. Nevertheless,

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it is the profane of the later (now modern) teachings who have shown a greater degree of natural intuition than the actual interpreters of Dharma, the Buddhist priests. The people see the Triratna in the three statues of Amitâbha, Avalokiteshvara and Maitreya Buddha; i.e., in Boundless Light” or Universal Wisdom, an impersonal principle which is the correct meaning of Âdi-Buddha; in the “Supreme Lord” of the Bodhisattvas, or Avalokiteshvara; and in Maitreya Buddha, the symbol of the terrestrial and human Buddha, the “Mânushi Buddha “. Thus, even though the uninitiated do call these three statues “the Buddhas of the Past, the Present and the Future”, still every follower of true philosophical Buddhism—called “atheistical” by Mr. Eitel—would explain the term Triratna correctly. The philosopher of the Yogâchârya School would say—as well he could—“Dharma is not a person but an unconditioned and underived entity, combining in itself the spiritual and material principles of the universe, whilst from Dharma proceeded, by emanation, Buddha [‘reflected’ Bodhi rather], as the creative energy which produced, in conjunction with Dharma, the third factor in the trinity, viz., ‘Samgha’, which is the comprehensive sum total of all real life.” Samgha, then, is not and cannot be that which it is now understood to be, namely, the actual “priesthood”; for the latter is not the sum total of all real life, but only of religious life. The real primitive significance of the word Samgha or “Sangha” applies to the Arhats or Bhikshus, or the “initiates”, alone, that is to say to the real exponents of Dharma—the divine law and wisdom, coming to them as a reflex light from the one “boundless light”. Such is its philosophical meaning. And yet, far from satisfying the scholars of the Western races, this seems only to irritate them; for E. J. Eitel, of Hongkong, remarks, as to the above: “Thus the dogma of a Triratna, originating from three primitive articles of faith, and at one time culminating in the conception of three persons, a trinity in unity, has degenerated into a metaphysical theory of the evolution of three abstract principles”! And if one of the ablest European scholars will sacrifice every philosophical ideal to gross anthropomorphism, then what can Buddhism with its subtle metaphysics expect at the hands of ignorant missionaries?

Trisharana (Sk.). The same as “Triratna” and accepted by both the Northern and Southern Churches of Buddhism. After the death of the Buddha it was adopted by the councils as a mere kind of formula fidei, enjoining “to take refuge in Buddha”, “to take refuge in Dharma”, and “to take refuge in Sangha”, or his Church, in the sense in which it is now interpreted; but it is not in this sense that the “Light of Asia” would have taught the formula. Of Trikâya, Mr. E. J. Eitel, of Hongkong, tells us in his Handbook of Chinese Buddhism that this “tricho-

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tomism was taught with regard to the nature of all Buddhas. Bodhi being the characteristic of a Buddha”—a distinction was made between “essential Bodhi” as the attribute of the Dharmakâya, i.e., “essential body”; “reflected Bodhi” as the attribute of Sambhogakâya; and “practical Bodhi” as the attribute of Nirmânakâya. Buddha combining in himself these three conditions of existence, was said to be living at the same time in three different spheres. Now, this shows how greatly misunderstood is the purely pantheistical and philosophical teaching. Without stopping to enquire how even a Dharmakâya vesture can have any “attribute” in Nirvâna, which state is shown, in philosophical Brahmanism as much as in Buddhism, to be absolutely devoid of any attribute as conceived by human finite thought—it will be sufficient to point to the following:—(1) the Nirmânakâya vesture is preferred by the “Buddhas of Compassion” to that of the Dharmakâya state, precisely because the latter precludes him who attains it from any communication or relation with the finite, i.e., with humanity; (2) it is not Buddha (Gautama, the mortal man, or any other personal Buddha) who lives ubiquitously in “three different spheres, at the same time”, but Bodhi, the universal and abstract principle of divine wisdom, symbolised in philosophy by Âdi-Buddha. It is the latter that is ubiquitous because it is the universal essence or principle. It is Bodhi, or the spirit of Buddhaship, which, having resolved itself into its primordial homogeneous essence and merged into it, as Brahmâ (the universe) merges into Parabrahm, the ABSOLUTENESS—that is meant under the name of “essential Bodhi”. For the Nirvanee, or Dhyani Buddha, must be supposed—by living in Arûpadhâtu, the formless state, and in Dharmakâya—to be that “essential Bodhi” itself. It is the Dhyâni Bodhisattvas, the primordial rays of the universal Bodhi, who live in “reflected Bodhi” in Rûpadhâtu, or the world of subjective “forms”; and it is the Nirmânakâyas (plural) who upon ceasing their lives of “practical Bodhi”, in the “enlightened” or Buddha forms, remain voluntarily in the Kâmadhâtu (the world of desire), whether in objective forms on earth or in subjective states in its sphere (the second Buddhakshetra). This they do in order to watch over, protect and help mankind. Thus, it is neither one Buddha who is meant, nor any particular avatar of the collective Dhyâni Buddhas, but verily Âdi-Bodhi—the first Logos, whose primordial ray is Mahâbuddhi, the Universal Soul, ALAYA, whose flame is ubiquitous, and whose influence has a different sphere in each of the three forms of existence, because, once again, it is Universal Being itself or the reflex of the Absolute. Hence, if it is philosophical to speak of Bodhi, which “as Dhyâni Buddha rules in the domain of the spiritual” (fourth Buddhakshetra or region of Buddha); and of the

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Dhyâni Bodhisattvas “ruling in the third Buddhakshetra “or the domain of ideation; and even of the Mânushi Buddhas, who are in the second Buddhakshetra as Nirmânakâyas—to apply the “idea of a unity in trinity” to three personalities—is highly unphilosophical.

Trishnâ (Sk.). The fourth Nidâna; spiritual love.

Trishûla (Sk.). The trident of Shiva.

Trisuparna (Sk.). A certain portion of the Veda, after thoroughly studying which a Brâhman is also called a Trisuparna.

Trithemius. An abbot of the Spanheim Benedictines, a very learned Kabbalist and adept in the Secret Sciences, the friend and instructor of Cornelius Agrippa.

Triton (Gr.). The san of Poseidon and Amphitrite, whose body from the waist upwards was that of a man and whose lower limbs were those of a dolphin. Triton belongs in esoteric interpretation to the group of fish symbols—such as Oannes (Dagon), the Matsya or Fish-avatar, and the Pisces, as adopted in the Christian symbolism. The dolphin is a constellation called by the Greeks Capricornus, and the latter is the Indian Makâra. It has thus an anagrammatical significance, and its interpretation is entirely occult and mystical, and is known only to the advanced students of Esoteric Philosophy. Suffice to say that it is as physiological as it is spiritual and mystical. (See Secret Doctrine II., pp. 578 and 579.)

Trividha Dvâra (Sk.). Lit., the “three gates”, which are body, mouth, and mind; or purity of body, purity of speech, purity of thought—the three virtues requisite for becoming a Buddha.

Trividyâ (Sk.). Lit., “the three knowledges” or sciences”. These are the three fundamental axioms in mysticism—(a) the impermanency of all existence, or Anitya; (b) suffering and misery of all that lives and is, or Dukha; and (c) all physical, objective existence as evanescent and unreal as a water-bubble in a dream, or Anâtmâ.

Trivikrama (Sk.).An epithet of Vishnu used in the Rig Veda in relation to the “three steps of Vishnu”. The first step he took on earth, in the form of Agni; the second in the atmosphere, in the form of Vâyu, god of the air; and the third in the sky, in the shape of Sûrya, the sun.

Triyâna (Sk.). “The three vehicles” across Sansâra—the ocean of births, deaths, and rebirths—are the vehicles called Sravaka, Pratyeka Buddha and Bodhisattva, or the three degrees of Yogaship. The term Triyâna is also used to denote the three schools of mysticism—the Mahâyâna, Madhyimâyâna and Hinayâna schools; of which the first is the “Greater”, the second the “Middle”, and the last the “Lesser” Vehicle. All and every system between the Greater and the Lesser Vehicles are considered “useless”. Therefore the Pratyeka

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Buddha is made to correspond with the Madhyimâyâna. For, as explained, “this (the Pratyeka Buddha state) refers to him who lives all for himself and very little for others, occupying the middle of the vehicle, filling it all and leaving no room for others”. Such is the selfish candidate for Nirvâna.

Tsanagi-Tsanami (Jap.). A kind of creative god in Japan.

Tsien-Sin (Chin.). The “Heaven of Mind”, Universal Ideation and Mahat, when applied to the plane of differentiation “Tien-Sin” (q.v.) when referring to the Absolute.

Tsien-Tchan (Ch.). The universe of form and matter.

Tsi-tsai (Chin.). The “Self-Existent” or the “Unknown Darkness”, the root of Wuliang Sheu, “Boundless Age”, all Kabbalistic terms, which were used in China ages before the Hebrew Kabbalists adopted them, borrowing them from Chaldea and Egypt.

Tubal-Cain (Heb.). The Biblical Kabir, “an instructor of every artificer in brass and iron”, the son of Zillah and Lamech; one with the Greek Hephæstos or Vulcan. His brother Jabal, the son of Adah and the co-uterine brother of Jabal, one the father of those “who handle the harp and organ”, and the other the father “of such as have cattle”, are also Kabiri: for, as shown by Strabo, it is the Kabiri (or Cyclopes in one sense) who made the harp for Kronos and the trident for Poseidon, while some of their other brothers were instructors in agriculture. Tubal-Cain (or Thubal-Cain) is a word used in the Master-Mason’s degree in the ritual and ceremonies of the Freemasons.

Tullia (Lat.). A daughter of Cicero, in whose tomb, as claimed by several alchemists, was found burning a perpetual lamp, placed there more than a thousand years previously.

Tum, or Toom The “Brothers of the Tum”, a very ancient school of Initiation in Northern India in the days of Buddhist persecution. The “Tum B’hai” have now become the “Aum B’hai”, spelt, however, differently at present, both schools having merged into one. The first was composed of Kshatriyas, the second of Brahmans. The word “Tum” has a double meaning, that of darkness (absolute darkness), which as absolute is higher than the highest and purest of lights, and a sense resting on the mystical greeting among Initiates, “Thou art thou, thyself”, equivalent to saying “Thou art one with the Infinite and the All”.

Turîya (Sk.). A state of the deepest trance—the fourth state of the Târaka Râja Yoga, one that corresponds with Âtmâ, and on this earth with dreamless sleep—a causal condition.

Turîya Avasthâ (Sk.). Almost a Nirvânic state in Samâdhi, which

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is itself a beatific state of the contemplative Yoga beyond this plane. A condition of the higher Triad, quite distinct (though still inseparable) from the conditions of Jagrat (waking), Svapna (dreaming), and Sushupti (sleeping).

Tushita (Sk.). A class of gods of great purity in the Hindu Pantheon. In exoteric or popular Northern Buddhism, it is a Deva-loka, a celestial region on the material plane, where all the Bodhisattvas are reborn, before they descend on this earth as future Buddhas.

Tyndarus (Gr.). King of Lacedæmon the fabled husband of Leda, the mother of Castor and Pollux and of Helen of Troy.

Typhæus (Gr.). A famous giant, who had a hundred heads like those of a serpent or dragon, and who was the reputed father of the Winds, as Siva was that of the Maruts—also “winds”. He made war against the gods, and is identical with the Egyptian Typhon.

Typhon (Eg.). An aspect or shadow of Osiris. Typhon is not, as Plutarch asserts, the distinct “Evil Principle” or the Satan of the Jews; but rather the lower cosmic “principles” of the divine body of Osiris, the god in them—Osiris being the personified universe as an ideation, and Typhon as that same universe in its material realization. The two in one are Vishnu-Siva. The true meaning of the Egyptian myth is that Typhon is the terrestrial and material envelope of Osiris, who is the indwelling spirit thereof. In chapter 42 of the Ritual (“Book of the Dead”), Typhon is described as “Set, formerly called Thoth”. Orientalists find themselves greatly perplexed by discovering Set-Typhon addressed in some papyri as “a great and good god”, and in others as the embodiment of evil. But is not Siva, one of the Hindu Trimûrti, described in some places as “the best and most bountiful of gods”, and at other times, “a dark, black, destroying, terrible” and “fierce god”? Did not Loki, the Scandinavian Typhon, after having been described in earlier times as a beneficent being, as the god of fire, the presiding genius of the peaceful domestic hearth, suddenly lose caste and become forthwith a power of evil, a cold-hell Satan and a demon of the worst kind? There is a good reason for such an invariable transformation. So long as these dual gods, symbols of good and necessary evil, of light and darkness, keep closely allied, i.e., stand for a combination of differentiated human qualities, or of the element they represent—they are simply an embodiment of the average personal god. No sooner, however, are they separated into two entities, each with its two characteristics, than they become respectively the two opposite poles of good and evil, of light and darkness; they become in short, two independent and distinct entities or rather personalities. It is only by dint of sophistry that the Churches have succeeded to this day in preserving in the minds of the

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few the Jewish deity in his primeval integrity. Had they been logical they would have separated Christ from Jehovah, light and goodness from darkness and badness. And this was what happened to Osiris Typhon;but no Orientalist has understood it, and thus their perplexity goes on increasing. Once accepted—as in the case of the Occultists—as an integral part of Osiris, just as Ahriman is an inseparable part of Ahura Mazda, and the Serpent of Genesis the dark aspect of the Elohim, blended into our “Lord God”—every difficulty in the nature of Typhon disappears. Typhon is a later name of Set, later but ancient—as early in fact as the fourth Dynasty; for in the Ritual one reads: “O Typhon-Set! I invoke thee, terrible, invisible, all-powerful god of gods, thou who destroyest and renderest desert”. Typhon belongs most decidedly to the same symbolical category as Siva the Destroyer, and Saturn—the “dark god”. In the Book of the Dead, Set, in his battle with Thoth (wisdom)—who is his spiritual counterpart—is emasculated as Saturn-Kronos was and Ouranos before him. As Siva is closely connected with the bull Nandi—an aspect of Brahmâ-Vishnu, the creative and preserving powers—so is Set-Typhon allied with the bull Apis, both bulls being sacred to, and allied with, their respective deities. As Typhon was originally worshipped as an upright stone, the phallus, so is Siva to this day represented and worshipped as a lingham. Siva is Saturn. Indeed, Typhon-Set seems to have served as a prototype for more than one god of the later ritualistic cycle, including even the god of the Jews, some of his ritualistic observances having passed bodily into the code of laws and the canon of religious rites of the “chosen people”. Who of the Bible-worshippers knows the origin of the scape-goat (ez or aza) sent into the wilderness as an atonement? Do they know that ages before the exodus of Moses the goat was sacred to Typhon, and that it is over the head of that Typhonic goat that the Egyptians confessed their sins, after which the animal was turned into the desert? “And Aaron shall take the scapegoat (Azâzel) . . . . and lay his hands upon the head of the live goat, and confess over him all the iniquities of the children of Israel . . . and shall send him away . . . into the wilderness” (Levit., xvi.). And as the goat of the Egyptians made an atonement with Typhon, so the goat of the Israelites “made an atonement before the Lord” (Ibid., v. 10). Thus, if one only remembers that every anthropomorphic creative god was with the philosophical ancients the “Life-giver” and the “Death-dealer”—Osiris and Typhon, Ahura Mazda and Ahriman, etc., etc.—it will be easy for him to comprehend the assertion made by the Occultists, that Typhon was but a symbol for the lower quaternary, the ever conflicting and turbulent principles of

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differentiated chaotic matter, whether in the Universe or in Man, while Osiris symbolized the higher spiritual triad. Typhon is accused in the Ritual of being one who “steals reason from the soul”. Hence, he is shown fighting with Osiris and cutting him into fourteen (twice seven) pieces, after which, left without his counterbalancing power of good and light, he remains steeped in evil and darkness. In this way the fable told by Plutarch becomes comprehensible as an allegory. He asserts that, overcome in his fight with Horus, Typhon “fled seven days on an ass, and escaping begat the boys Ierosolumos and Ioudaios”. Now as Typhon was worshipped at a later period under the form of an ass, and as the name of the ass is AO, or (phonetically) IAO, the vowels mimicking the braying of the animal, it becomes evident that Typhon was purposely blended with the name of the Jewish God, as the two names of Judea and Jerusalem, begotten by Typhon—sufficiently imply.

Twashtri (Sk.). The same as Vishwakarman, “the divine artist”, the carpenter and weapon-maker of the gods. (See “Vishwakarman”.)

Tzaila (Heb.). A rib; see Genesis for the myth of the creation of the first woman from a rib of Adam, the first man. It is curious that no other myth describes anything like this “rib” process, except the Hebrew Bible. Other similar Hebrew words are Tzela, a “fall”, and Tzelem, “the image of God”. Inman remarks that the ancient Jews were fond of punning conceits, and sees one here—that Adam fell, on account of a woman, whom God made in his image, from a fall in the man’s side. [w.w.w.]

Tzelem (Heb.). An image, a shadow. The shadow of the physical body of a man, also the astral body—Linga Sharîra. (See “Tzool-mah”.)

Tzim-tzum (Kab.). Expansion and contraction, or, as some Kabbalists explain it—“the centrifugal and centripetal energy”.

Tziruph (Heb)A set of combinations and permutations of the Hebrew letters designed to shew analogies and preserve secrets. For example, in the form called Atbash, A and T were substitutes, B and Sh, G and R, etc. [w.w.w.]

Tzool-mah (Kab.). Lit., “shadow”. It is stated in the Zohar (I., 218 a, i. fol. 117 a, col. 466.), that during the last seven nights of a mans life, the Neshczmah, his spirit, leaves him and the shadow, tzool-mah, acts no longer, his body casting no shadow; and when the tzool-mah disappears entirely, then Ruach and Nephesh—the soul and life—go with it. It has been often urged that in Kabbalistic philosophy there were but three, and, with the Body, Guff, four “principles”. It can be easily shown there are seven, and several subdivisions more, for there are the “upper” and the “lower” Neshamah (the dual Manas); Ruach, Spirit or

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Buddhi; Nephesh (Kâma) which “has no light from her own substance”, but is associated with the Guff, Body; Tzelem, “Phantom of the Image”; and D’yooknah, Shadow of the Phantom Image, or Mâyâvi Rûpa. Then come the Zurath, Prototypes, and Tab-nooth, Form; and finally, Tzurah, “The highest Principle (Âtman) which remains above”, etc., etc. (See Myer’s Qabbalah, pp. 400 et. seq.)

Tzuphon (Heb.). A name for Boreas, the Northern Wind, which some of the old Israelites deified and worshipped.

Tzurah (Heb.). The divine prototype in the Kabbalah. In Occultism it embraces Âtmâ-Buddhi-Manas, the Highest Triad; the eternal divine Individual. The plural is tzurath.

Tzure (Heb.). Almost the same as the above: the prototype of the “Image” tzelem; a Kabbalistic term used in reference to the so-called creation of the divine and the human Adam, of which the Kabala (or Kabbalah) has four types, agreeing with the root-races of men. The Jewish Occultists knew of no Adam and, refusing to recognise in the first human race Humanity with Its Adam, spoke only of “primordial sparks”.

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U.—The twenty-first letter of the Latin alphabet, which has no equivalent in Hebrew. As a number, however, it is considered very mystical both by the Pythagoreans and the Kabbalists, as it is the product of 3 x 7. The latter consider it the most sacred of the odd numbers, as 21 is the sum of the numerical value of the Divine Name aeie, or eiea, or again aheihe—thus (read backward, aheihe):

he    i    he    a
5 + 10 + 5 + 1 = 21.

In Alchemy it symbolizes the twenty-one days necessary for the transmutation of baser metals into silver.

Uasar (Eg.). The same as Osiris, the latter name being Greek. Uasar is described as the “Egg-born “, like Brahmâ. “He is the egg-sprung Eros of Aristophanes, whose creative energy brings all things into existence; the demiurge who made and animates the world, a being who is a sort of personification of Amen, the invisible god, as Dionysos is a link between mankind and the Zeus Hypsistos” (The Great Dionysiak Myth, Brown). Isis is called Uasi, as she is the Sakti of Osiris, his female aspect, both symbolizing the creating, energising, vital forces of nature in its aspect of male and female deity.

Uchchaih-Sravas (Sk.). The model-horse; one of the fourteen precious things or Jewels produced at the Churning of the Ocean by the gods. The white horse of Indra, called the Râjâ of horses.

Uchnîcha, also Buddhôchnîcha (Sk.). Explained as “a protuberance on Buddha’s cranium, forming a hair-tuft”. This curious description is given by the Orientalists, varied by another which states that Uchnicha was “originally a conical or flame-shaped hair tuft on the crown of a Buddha, in later ages represented as a fleshy excrescence on the skull itself”. This ought to read quite the reverse; for esoteric philosophy would say: Originally an orb with the third eye in it, which degenerated later in the human race into a fleshy protuberance, to disappear gradually, leaving in its place but an occasional flame-coloured aura, perceived only through clairvoyance, and when the exuberance of spiritual energy causes the (now concealed) “third eye” to radiate its superfluous magnetic power. At this period of our racial development, it is of course the “Buddhas” or Initiates alone who enjoy in full the faculty of the “third eye”, as it is more or less atrophied in everyone else.

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Udâna (Sk) Extemporaneous speeches; also Sûtras. In philosophy the term applies to the physical organs of speech, such as tongue, mouth, voice, etc. In sacred literature in general, it is the name of those Sûtras which contain extemporaneous discourses, in distinction to the Sûtras that contain only that subject matter which is introduced by questions put to Gautama the Buddha and his replies.

Udayana (Sk.). Modern Peshawer. “The classic land of sorcery”, according to Hiouen-Thsang.

Udayana Râjâ (Sk.). A king of Kausâmbi, called Vatsarâjâ, who was the first to have a statue of Buddha made before his death; in consequence of which, say the Roman Catholics, who build statues of Madonnas and Saints at every street corner—he “became the originator of Buddhist IDOLATRY”.

Udra Râmaputra (Sk.). Udra, the son of Râma. A Brahman ascetic, who was for some years the Guru of Gautama Buddha.

Udumbara (Sk.). A lotus of gigantic size, sacred to Buddha: the Nila Udumbara or “blue lotus”, regarded as a supernatural omen when ever it blossoms, for it flowers but once every three thousand years. One such, it is said, burst forth before the birth of Gautama, another, near a lake at the foot of the Himalayas, in the fourteenth century, just before the birth of Tsong-kha-pa, etc., etc. The same is said of the Udumbara tree (ficus glomerata) because it flowers at intervals of long centuries, as does also a kind of cactus, which blossoms only at extra ordinary altitudes and opens at midnight.

Ullambana (Sk.). The festival of “all souls”, the prototype of All Souls’ Day in Christian lands. It is held in China on the seventh moon annually, when both “Buddhist and Tauist priests read masses, to release the souls of those who died on land or sea from purgatory, scatter rice to feed Prêtas [classes of demons ever hungry and thirsty], consecrate domestic ancestral shrines,. . . . . recite Tantras . . . accompanied by magic finger-play (mûdra) to comfort the ancestral spirits of seven generations in Nâraka” (a kind of purgatory or Kâma Loka). The author of the Sanskrit-Chinese Dictionary thinks that this is the old Tibetan (Bhon) “Gtorma ritual engrafted upon Confucian ancestral worship,” owing to Dhamaraksha translating the Ullambana Sûtra and introducing it into China. The said Sûtra is certainly a forgery, as it gives these rites on the authority of Sâkyamuni Buddha, and “supports it by the alleged experiences of his principal disciples, Ânanda being said to have appeased Pretas by food offerings”. But as correctly stated by Mr. Eitel, “the whole theory, with the ideas of intercessory prayers, priestly litanies and requiems, and ancestral worship, is

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entirely foreign to ancient and Southern Buddhism”. And to the Northern too, if we except the sects of Bhootan and Sikkim, of the Bhon or Dugpa persuasion—the red caps, in short. As the ceremonies of All Saints’ Day, or days, are known to have been introduced into China in the third century (265-292), and as the same Roman Catholic ceremonial and ritual for the dead, held on November 2nd, did not exist in those early days of Christianity, it cannot be the Chinese who borrowed this religious custom from the Latins, but rather the latter who imitated the Mongolians and Chinese.

Uller (Scand.). The god of archery, who “journeys over the silvery ice-ways on skates”. He is the patron of the chase during that period when the Sun passes over the constellation of Sagittarius; and lives in the “Home of the Light-Elves” which is in the Sun and outside of Asgard.

Ulom (Pœnic.) The intelligible deity. The objective or material Universe, in the theogony of Mochus. The reflection of the ever-concealed deity; the Plerôma of the Gnostics.

Ulphilas (Scand.). A schoolman who made a new alphabet for the Goths in the fourth century—a union of Greek letters with the form of the runic alphabet, since which time the runes began to die out and their secret was gradually lost. (See “Runes”.) He translated the Bible into Gothic, preserved in the Codex Argenteus.

Ulûpî (Sk.). A daughter of Kauravya, King of the Nâgas in Pâtâla (the nether world, or more correctly, the Antipodes, America). Exoterically, she was the daughter of a king or chief of an aboriginal tribe of the Nâgas, or Nagals (ancient adepts) in pre-historic America—Mexico most likely, or Uruguay. She was married to Arjuna, the disciple of Krishna, whom every tradition, oral and written, shows travelling five thousand years ago to Pâtâla (the Antipodes). The Purânic tale is based on a historical fact. Moreover, Ulûpi, as a name, has a Mexican ring in it, like “Atlan”, “Aclo”, etc.

Umâ-Kanyâ (Sk.). Lit., “Virgin of Light”; a title ill-befitting its possessor, as it was that of Durgâ Kâlî, the goddess or female aspect of Siva. Human flesh was offered to her every autumn; and, as Durgâ, she was the patroness of the once murderous Thugs of India, and the special goddess of Tântrika sorcery. But in days of old it was not as it is now. The earliest mention of the title “Umâ-Kanyâ is found in the KenaUpanishad; in it the now blood-thirsty Kâlî, was a benevolent goddess, a being of light and goodness, who brings about reconciliation between Brahmâ and the gods. She is Saraswati and she is Vâch. In esoteric symbology, Kâlî is the dual type of the dual soul—the divine and the human, the light and the dark soul of man.

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Umbra (Lat.). The shadow of an earth-bound spook. The ancient Latin races divided man (in esoteric teachings) into seven principles, as did every old system, and as Theosophists do now. They believed that after death Anima, the pure divine soul, ascended to heaven, a place of bliss; Manes (the Kâma Rûpa) descended into Hades (Kâma Loka); and Umbra (or astral double, the Linga Sharîra) remained on earth hovering about its tomb, because the attraction of physical, objective matter and affinity to its earthly body kept it within the places which that body had impressed with its emanations. Therefore, they said that nothing but the astral image of the defunct could be seen on earth, and even that faded out with the disintegration of the last particle of the body which had been so long its dwelling.

Una (Sk.). Something underlying; subordinate; secondary also, and material.

Undines (Lat.). Water nymphs and spooks. One of the four principal kinds of elemental spirits, which are Salamanders (fire), Sylphs (air), Gnomes (earth), and Undines (water).

Upâdâna (Sk.). Material Cause; as flax is the cause of linen.

Upâdâna Kâranam (Sk.). The material cause of an effect.

Upâdhi (Sk.). Basis; the vehicle, carrier or bearer of something less material than itself: as the human body is the upâdhi of its spirit, ether the upâdhi of light, etc., etc.; a mould; a defining or limiting substance.

Upadvîpas (Sk.). The root (underlying) of islands; dry land.

Upanishad (Sk.). Translated as “esoteric doctrine”, or interpretation of the Vedas by the Vedânta methods. The third division of the Vedas appended to the Brâhmanas and regarded as a portion of Sruti or “revealed” word. They are, however, as records, far older than the Brâhmanas the exception of the two, still extant, attached to the Rig-Veda of the Aitareyins. The term Upanishad is explained by the Hindu pundits as “that which destroys ignorance, and thus produces liberation” of the spirit, through the knowledge of the supreme though hidden truth; the same, therefore, as that which was hinted at by Jesus, when he is made to say, “And ye shall know the truth, and the truth shall make you free” (John viii. 32). It is from these treatises of the Upanishads—themselves the echo of the primeval Wisdom-Religion—that the Vedânta system of philosophy has been developed. (See “Vedânta”.) Yet old as the Upanishads may be, the Orientalists will not assign to the oldest of them more than an antiquity of 600 years B.C. The accepted number of these treatises is 150, though now no more than about twenty are left unadulterated. They treat of very abstruse, metaphysical questions, such as the origin of the Universe; the nature and the

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essence of the Unmanifested Deity and the manifested gods the connection, primal and ultimate, of spirit and matter; the universality of mind and the nature of the human Soul and Ego.

The Upanishads must be far more ancient than the days of Buddhism, as they show no preference for, nor do they uphold, the superiority of the Brahmans as a caste. On the contrary, it is the (now) second caste, the Kshatriya, or warrior class, who are exalted in the oldest of them. As stated by Professor Cowell in Elphinstone’s History of India—“they breathe a freedom of spirit unknown to any earlier work except the Rig Veda. . . The great teachers of the higher knowledge and Brahmans are continually represented as going to Kshatriya Kings to become their pupils.” The “Kshatriya Kings” were in the olden times, like the King Hierophants of Egypt, the receptacles of the highest divine knowledge and wisdom, the Elect and the incarnations of the primordial divine Instructors—the Dhyâni Buddhas or Kumâras. There was a time, æons before the Brahmans became a caste, or even the Upanishads were written, when there was on earth but one “lip”, one religion and one science, namely, the speech of the gods, the Wisdom-Religion and Truth. This was before the fair fields of the latter, overrun by nations of many languages, became overgrown with the weeds of intentional deception, and national creeds invented by ambition, cruelty and selfishness, broke the one sacred Truth into thousands of fragments.

Upanita.(Sk.). One who is invested with the Brahmanical thread; lit., “brought to a spiritual teacher or Guru”.

Uparati (Sk) Absence of outgoing desires; a Yoga state.

Upâsaka (Sk.). Male chelas or rather devotees. Those who without entering the priesthood vow to preserve the principal commandments.

Upâsikâ (Sk.). Female chelas or devotees.

Upasruti (Sk.). According to Orientahists a “supernatural voice which is heard at night revealing the secrets of the future”. According to the explanation of Occultism, the voice of any person at a distance—generally one versed in the mysteries of esoteric teachings or an adept—endowed with the gift of projecting both his voice and astral image to any person whatsoever, regardless of distance. The upasruti may “reveal the secrets of the future”, or may only inform the person it addresses of some prosaic fact of the present; yet it will still be an upasruti—the “double” or the echo of the voice of a living man or woman.

Upekshâ (Sk.). Lit., Renunciation. In Yoga a state of absolute indifference attained by self-control, the complete mastery over one’s mental and physical feelings and sensations.

Ur (Chald.). The chief seat of lunar worship; the Babylonian city where

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the moon was the chief deity, and whence Abram brought the Jewish god, who is so inextricably connected with the moon as a creative and generative deity.

Uræus (Gr.). In Egyptian Urhek, a serpent and a sacred symbol. Some see in it a cobra, while others say it is an asp. Cooper explains that “the asp is not a uræus but a cerastes, or kind of viper, i.e., a two-horned viper. It is the royal serpent, wearing the pschent . . . the naya hâje.” The uræus is “round the disk of Horus and forms the ornament of the cap of Osiris, besides overhanging the brows of other divinities” (Bonwick). Occultism explains that the uræus is the symbol of initiation and also of hidden wisdom, as the serpent always is. The gods were all patrons of the hierophants and their instructors.

Uragas (Sk.). The Nâgas (serpents) dwelling in Pâtâla the nether world or hell, in popular thought; the Adepts, High Priests and Initiates of Central and South America, known to the ancient Aryans; where Arjuna wedded the daughter of the king of the Nâgas—Ulûpi. Nagalism or Nâga-worship prevails to this day in Cuba and Hayti, and Voodooism, the chief branch of the former, has found its way into New Orleans. In Mexico the chief “sorcerers”, the “medicine men”, are called Nagals to this day; just as thousands of years ago the Chaldean and Assyrian High Priests were called Nargals, they being chiefs of the Magi (Rab.Mag), the office held at one time by the prophet Daniel. The word Nâga, “wise serpent”, has become universal, because it is one of the few words that have survived the wreck of the first universal language. In South as well as in Central and North America, the aborigines use the word, from Behring Straits down to Uruguay, where it means a “chief”, a “teacher and a “serpent”. The very word Uraga may have reached India and been adopted through its connection, in prehistoric times, with South America and Uruguay itself, for the name belongs to the American Indian vernacular. The origin of the Uragas, for all that the Orientalists know, may have been in Uruguai, as there are legends about them which locate their ancestors the Nâgas in Pâtâla, the antipodes, or America.

Uranides (Gr.). One of the names of the divine Titans, those who rebelled against Kronos, the prototypes of the Christian “fallen” angels.

Urim (Heb.). See “Thummim”. The “Urim and Thummim” originated in Egypt, and symbolized the Two Truths, the two figures of Ra and Thmei being engraved on the breastplate of the Hierophant and worn by him during the initiation ceremonies. Diodorus adds that this necklace of gold and precious stones was worn by the High

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Priest when delivering judgment. Thme (plural Thmin) means “Truth” in Hebrew. “The Septuagint translates thummim, as Truth” (Bonwick). The late Mr. Proctor, the astronomer, shows the Jewish idea “derived directly from the Egyptians”. But Philo Judæus affirms that Urim and Thummim were “the two small images of Revelation and Truth, put between the double folds of the breastplate”, and passes over the latter, with its twelve stones typifying the twelve signs of the Zodiac, without explanation.

Urlak (Scand.). The same as “Orlog” (q.v.). Fate; an impersonal power bestowing gifts “blindly” on mortals; a kind of Nemesis.

Urvasî (Sk.). A divine nymph, mentioned in the Rig-Veda, whose beauty set the whole heaven ablaze. Cursed by the gods she descended to earth and settled there. The loves of Purûravas (the Vikrama), and the nymph Urvasi are the subject of Kâlidâsa’s world-famous drama, the Vikramorvasi.

Usanas (Sk.). The planet Venus or Sukra; or rather the ruler and governor of that planet.

Ushas (Sk.). The dawn, the daughter of heaven; the same as the Aurora of the Latins and the ήώς of the Greeks. She is first mentioned in the Vedas, wherein her name is also Ahanâ and Dyotanâ (the illuminator), and is a most poetical and fascinating image. She is the ever-faithful friend of men, of rich and poor, though she is believed to prefer the latter. She smiles upon and visits the dwelling of every living mortal. She is the immortal, ever-youthful virgin, the light of the poor, and the destroyer of darkness.

Uttara Mîmânsâ (Sk.). The second of the two Mîmansas—the first being Pûrva (first) Mîmânsâ, which form respectively the fifth and sixth of the Darshanas or schools of philosophy. The Mîmânsâ are included in the generic name of Vedânta, though it is the Uttara (by Vyâsa) which is really the Vedânta.

Uzza (Heb.). The name of an angel who, together with Azrael, opposed, as the Zohar teaches, the creation of man by the Elohim, for which the latter annihilated both.

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V.—The twenty-second letter of the Latin alphabet. Numerically it stands for 5; hence the Roman V̅ (with a dash) stands for 5,000. The Western Kabbalists have connected it with the divine Hebrew name IHVH. The Hebrew Vau, however, being number 6, it is only by being identical with the W, that it can ever become a proper symbol for the male-female, and spirit-matter. The equivalent for the Hebrew Vau is YO, and in numerals 6.

Vâch (Sk.). To call Vâch “speech” simply, is deficient in clearness. Vâch is the mystic personification of speech, and the female Logos, being one with Brahmâ, who created her out of one-half of his body, which he divided into two portions; she is also one with Virâj (called the “female” Virâj) who was created in her by Brahmâ. In one sense Vâch is “speech” by which knowledge was taught to man; in another she is the “mystic, secret speech” which descends upon and enters into the primeval Rishis, as the “tongues of fire” are said to have “sat upon” the apostles. For, she is called “the female creator”, the “mother of the Vedas”, etc., etc. Esoterically, she is the subjective Creative Force which, emanating from the Creative Deity (the subjective Universe, its “privation”, or ideation) becomes the manifested “world of speech”, i.e., the concrete expression of ideation, hence the “Word” or Logos. Vâch is “the male and female” Adam of the first chapter of Genesis, and thus called “Vâch-Virâj” by the sages. (See Atharva Veda.) She is also “the celestial Saraswatî produced from the heavens”, a “voice derived from speechless Brahmâ” (Mahâbhârata); the goddess of wisdom and eloquence. She is called Sata-rûpa, the goddess of a hundred forms.

Vacuum (Lat.). The symbol of the absolute Deity or Boundless Space, esoterically.

Vâhana (Sk.). A vehicle, the carrier of something immaterial and formless. All the gods and goddesses are, therefore, represented as using vahanas to manifest themselves, which vehicles are ever symbolical. So, for instance, Vishnu has during Pralayas, Ananta “the infinite” (Space), symbolized by the serpent Sesha, and during the Manvantaras—Garuda the gigantic half-eagle, half-man, the symbol of the great cycle; Brahma appears as Brahmâ, descending into the planes of manifestations on Kâlahamsa, the “swan in time or finite eternity”; Siva (phonet, Shiva) appears as the bull Nandi; Osiris as the sacred bull Apis; Indra

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travels on an elephant; Kârttikeya, on a peacock; Kâmadeva on Makâra, at other times a parrot; Agni, the universal (and also solar) Fire-god, who is, as all of them are, “a consuming Fire”, manifests itself as a ram and a lamb, Ajâ, “the unborn”; Varuna, as a fish; etc., etc., while the vehicle of MAN is his body.

Vaibhâchikas (Sk.). The followers of the Vibhâcha Shâstra, an ancient school of materialism; a philosophy that held that no mental concept can be formed except through direct contact between the mind, via the senses, such as sight, touch, taste, etc., and external objects. There are Vaibhâchikas, to this day, in India.

Vaidhâtra (Sk.). The same as the Kumâras.

Vaidyuta (Sk.). Electric fire, the same as Pâvaka, one of the three fires which, divided, produce forty-nine mystic fires.

Vaihara (Sk.). The name of a cave-temple near Râjagriha, whereinto the Lord Buddha usually retired for meditation.

Vaijayantî (Sk.). The magic necklace of Vishnu, imitated by certain Initiates among the temple Brahmans. It is made of five precious stones, each symbolizing one of the five elements of our Round; namely, the pearl, ruby, emerald, sapphire and diamond, or water, fire, earth, air and ether, called “the aggregate of the five elemental rudiments”—the word “powers” being, perhaps, more correct than “rudiments”.

Vaikhari Vâch (Sk.). ‘That which is uttered; one of the four forms of speech.

Vaikuntha (Sk.). One of the names of the twelve great gods, whence Vaikunthaloka, the abode of Vishnu.

Vairâjas (Sk.). In the popular belief, semi-divine beings, shades of saints, inconsumable by fire, impervious to water, who dwell in Tapo loka with the hope of being translated into Satya-loka—a more purified state which answers to Nirvâna. The term is explained as the aerial bodies or astral shades of “ascetics, mendicants, anchorites, and penitents, who have completed their course of rigorous austerities”. Now in esoteric philosophy they are called Nirmânakâyas, Tapo-loka being on the sixth plane (upward) but in direct communication with the mental plane. The Vairâjas are referred to as the first gods because the Mânasaputras and the Kumâras are the oldest in theogony, as it is said that even the gods worshipped them (Matsya Purâna); those whom Brahmâ “with the eye of Yoga beheld in the eternal spheres, and who are the gods of gods” (Vâyu Purâna).

Vairochana (Sk.). “All-enlightening”. A mystic symbol, or rather a generic personification of a class of spiritual beings described as the embodiment of essential wisdom (bodhi) and absolute purity.

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They dwell in the fourth Arûpa Dhâtu (formless world) or Buddhakshetra, and are the first or the highest hierarchy of the five orthodox Dhyâni Buddhas. There was a Sramana (an Arhat) of this name (see Eitel’s Sansk. Chin. Dict.) a native of Kashmir, “who introduced Buddhism into Kustan and lahoured in Tibet” (in the seventh century of our era). He was the best translator of the semi-esoteric Canon of Northern Buddhism, and a contemporary of the great Samantabhadra (q.v.).

Vaisâkha (Sk.). A celebrated female ascetic, born at Srâvasti, and called Sudatta, “virtuous donor”. She was the mother-abbess of a Vihâra, or convent of female Upâsikâs, and is known as the builder of a Vihâra for Sâkyamuni Buddha. She is regarded as the patroness of all the Buddhist female ascetics.

Vaisheshika (Sk.). One of the six Darshanas or schools of philosophy, founded by Kanâda. It is called the Atomistic School, as it teaches the existence of a universe of atoms of a transient character, an endless number of souls and a fixed number of material principles, by the correlation and interaction of which periodical cosmic evolutions take place without any directing Force, save a kind of mechanical law inherent in the atoms; a very materialistic school.

Vaishnava (Sk.). A follower of any sect recognising and worshipping Vishnu as the one supreme God. The worshippers of Siva are called Saivas.

Vaivaswata (Sk.). The name of the Seventh Manu, the forefather of the post-diluvian race, or our own fifth humankind. A reputed son of Sûrya (the Sun), he became, after having been saved in an ark (built by the order of Vishnu) from the Deluge, the father of Ikshwâku, the founder of the solar race of kings. (See “Sûryavansa”.)

Vajra (Sk.). Lit., “diamond club” or sceptre. In the Hindu works, the sceptre of Indra, similar to the thunderbolts of Zeus, with which this deity, as the god of thunder, slays his enemies. But in mystical Buddhism, the magic sceptre of Priest-Initiates, exorcists and adepts—the symbol of the possession of Siddhis or superhuman powers, wielded during certain ceremonies by the priests and theurgists. It is also the symbol of Buddha’s power over evil spirits or elementals. The possessors of this wand are called Vajrapâni (q.v.).

Vajrâchârya (Sk.). The spiritual achârya (guru, teacher) of the Yogâchâryas, The “Supreme Master of the Vajra”.

Vajradhara (Sk.). The Supreme Buddha with the Northern Buddhists.

Vajrapâni (Sk.), or Manjushrî, the Dhyâni-Bodhisattva (as the spiritual reflex, or the son of the Dhyâni-Buddhas, on earth) born directly from the subjective form of existence; a deity worshipped by the profane

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as a god, and by Initiates as a subjective Force, the real nature of which is known only to, and explained by, the highest Initiates of the Yogâchârya School.

Vajrasattva (Sk.). The name of the sixth Dhyâni-Buddha (of whom there are but five in the popular Northern Buddhism)—in the Yogâchârya school, the latter counting seven Dhyâni-Buddhas and as many Bodhisattvas—the “mind-sons” of the former. Hence, the Orientalists refer to Vajrasattva as “a fictitious Bodhisattva”.

Vallabâchârya (Sk.). The name of a mystic who was the chela (disciple) of Vishnu Swâmi, and the founder of a sect of Vaishnavas. His descendants are called Goswami Mahârâj, and have much landed property and numerous mandirs (temples) in Bombay. They have degenerated into a shamefully licentious sect.

Vâmana (Sk.). The fifth avatar of Vishnu, hence the name of the Dwarf whose form was assumed by that god.

Vara (Mazd.). A term used in the Vendîdâd, where Ahura-mazda commands Yima to build Vara. It also signifies an enclosure or vehicle, an ark (argha), and at the same time MAN (verse 30). Vara is the vehicle of our informing Egos, i.e. the human body, the soul in which is typified by the expression a “window self-shining within”.

Varâha (Sk.). The boar-avatar of Vishnu; the third in number.

Varna (Sk.). Caste; lit., “colour”. The four chief castes named by Manu—the Brahmin, Kshatriya, Vaisya and Sûdra—are called Chatur-varna.

Varsha (Sk.). A region, a plain; any stretch of country situated between the great mountain-ranges of the earth.

Varuna (Sk). The god of water, or marine god, but far different from Neptune, for in the case of this oldest of the Vedic deities, Water means the “Waters of Space”, or the all-investing sky, Âkâsa, in one sense. Varuna or Ooaroona (phonetically), is certainly the prototype of the Ouranos of the Greeks. As Muir says: “The grandest cosmical functions are ascribed to Varuna. Possessed of illimitable knowledge . . . . he upholds heaven and earth, he dwells in all worlds as sovereign ruler . . . He made the golden . . . sun to shine in the firmament. The wind which resounds through the atmosphere is his breath. . . . Through the operation of his laws the moon walks in brightness and the stars . . . mysteriously vanish in daylight. He knows the flight of birds in the sky, the paths of ships on the ocean, the course of the far travelling wind, and beholds all the things that have been or shall be done. . . . He witnesses men’s truth and false hood. He instructs the Rishi Vasishta in mysteries; but his secrets and

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those of Mitra are not to be revealed to the foolish.” . . . “The attributes and functions ascribed to Varuna impart to his character a moral elevation and sanctity far surpassing that attributed to any other Vedic deity.”

Vasishta (Sk.). One of the primitive seven great Rishis, and a most celebrated Vedic sage.

Vasudeva (Sk.). The father of Krishna. He belonged to the Yâdava branch of the Somavansa, or lunar race.

Vasus (Sk.). The eight evil deities attendant upon Indra. Personified cosmic phenomena, as their names show.

Vâyu (Sk.). Air: the god and sovereign of the air; one of the five states of matter, namely the gaseous; one of the five elements, called, as wind, Vâta. The Vishnu Purâna makes Vâyu King of the Gandharvas. He is the father of Hanumân, in the Râmâyana. The trinity of the mystic gods in Kosmos closely related to each other, are “Agni (fire) whose place is on earth; Vâyu (air, or one of the forms of Indra), whose place is in the air; and Sûrya (the sun) whose place is in the air.” (Nirukta.) In esoteric interpretation, these three cosmic principles, correspond with the three human principles, Kâma, Kâma-Manas and Manas, the sun of the intellect.

Vedanâ (Sk.). The second of the five Shandhas (perceptions, senses). The sixth Nidâna.

Vedânta (Sk.). A mystic system of philosophy which has developed from the efforts of generations of sages to interpret the secret meaning of the Upanishads (q.v.). It is called in the Shad-Darshanas (six schools or systems of demonstration), Uttara Mîmânsâ, attributed to Vyâsa, the compiler of the Vedas, who is thus referred to as the founder of the Vedânta. The orthodox Hindus call Vedânta—a term meaning literally the “end of all (Vedic) knowledge”—Brahma-jnâna, or pure and spiritual knowledge of Brahmâ. Even if we accept the late dates assigned to various Sanskrit schools and treatises by our Orientalists, the Vedânta must be 3,300 years old, as Vyâsa is said to have lived 1,400 years B.C. If, as Elphinstone has it in his History of India, the Brahmanas are the Talmud of the Hindus, and the Vedas the Mosaic books, then the Vedânta may be correctly called the Kabalah of India. But how vastly more grand! Sankarâchârya, who was the popularizer of the Vedântic system, and the founder of the Adwaita philosophy, is sometimes called the founder of the modern schools of the Vedânta.

Vedas (Sk.). The “revelation”. the scriptures of the Hindus, from the root vid, “to know”, or “divine knowledge”. They are the most ancient as well as the most sacred of the Sanskrit works. The Vedas—

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on the date and antiquity of which no two Orientalists can agree, are claimed by the Hindus themselves, whose Brahmans and Pundits ought to know best about their own religious works, to have been first taught orally for thousands of years and then compiled on the shores of Lake Mânasa-Sarovara (phonetically, Mânsarovara) beyond the Himalayas, in Tibet. When was this done? While their religious teachers, such as Swami Dayanand Saraswati, claim for them an antiquity of many decades of ages, our modern Orientalists will grant them no greater antiquity in their present form than about between 1,000 and 2,000 B.C. As compiled in their final form by Veda-Vyâsa, however, the Brahmans themselves unanimously assign 3,100 years before the Christian era, the date when Vyâsa flourished. Therefore the Vedas must be as old as this date. But their antiquity is sufficiently proven by the fact that they are written in such an ancient form, of Sanskrit, so different from the Sanskrit now used, that there is no other, work like them in the literature of this eldest sister of all the known languages, as Prof. Max Müller calls it. Only the most learned of the Brahman Pundits can read the Vedas in their original. It is urged that Colebrooke found the date 1400 B.C. corroborated absolutely by a passage which he discovered, and which is based on astronomical data. But if, as shown unanimously by all the Orientalists and the Hindu Pundits also, that (a) the Vedas are not a single work, nor yet any one of the separate Vedas; but that each Veda, and almost every hymn and division of the latter, is the production of various authors; and that (b) these have been written (whether as sruti, “revelation”, or not) at various periods of the ethnological evolution of the Indo-Aryan race, then—what does Mr. Colebrooke’s discovery prove? Simply that the Vedas were finally arranged and compiled fourteen centuries before our era; but this interferes in no way with their antiquity. Quite the reverse; for, as an offset to Mr. Colebrooke’s passage, there is a learned article, written on purely astronomical data by Krishna Shâstri Godbole (of Bombay), which proves as absolutely and on the same evidence that the Vedas must have been taught at least 25,000 years ago. (See Theosophist, Vol. II., p. 238 et seq., Aug., 1881.) This statement is, if not supported, at any rate not contradicted by what Prof. Cowell says in Appendix VII., of Elphinstone’s History of India: “There is a difference in age between the various hymns, which are now united in their present form as the Sanhitâ of the Rig Veda: but we have no data to determine their relative antiquity, and purely subjective criticism, apart from solid data, has so often failed in other instances, that we can trust but little to any of its inferences in such a recently opened field of research as Sanskrit literature. [Not a fourth part of the Vaidik literature is as yet in print, and very little of it has

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been translated into English (1866).] The still unsettled controversies about the Homeric poems may well warn us of being too confident in our judgments regarding the yet earlier hymns of the Rig-Veda. . . . When we examine these hymns . . . they are deeply interesting for the history of the human mind, belonging as they do to a much older phase than the poems of Homer or Hesiod.” The Vedic writings are all classified in two great divisions, exoteric and esoteric, the former being called Karma-Kânda, “division of actions or works”, and the Jnâna Kânda, “division of (divine) knowledge”, the Upanishads (q.v.) coming under this last classification. Both departments are regarded as Sruti or revelation. To each hymn of the Rig-Veda, the name of the Seer or Rishi to whom it was revealed is prefixed. It, thus, becomes evident on the authority of these very names (such as Vasishta, Viswâmitra, Nârada, etc.), all of which belong to men born in various manvantaras and even ages, that centuries, and perhaps millenniums, must have elapsed between the dates of their composition.

Veda-Vyâsa (Sk.). The compiler of the Vedas (q.v.).

Veddhas (Sing.). The name of a wild race of men living in the forests of Ceylon. They are very difficult to find.

Vehicle of Life (Mystic). The “Septeriary” Man among the Pythagoreans, “number seven” among the profane. The former “explained it by saying, that the human body consisted of four principal elements (principles), and that the soul is triple (the higher triad)”. (See Isis Unveiled, Vol. II., p. 418, New York, 1877.) It has been often remarked that in the earlier works of the Theosophists no septenary division of man was mentioned. The above quotation is sufficient warrant that, although with every caution, the subject was more than once approached, and is not a new-fangled theory or invention.

Vendîdâd (Pahlavi). The first book (Nosk) in the collection of Zend fragments usually known as the Zend-Avesta. The Vendîdâd is a corruption of the compound-word “Vidaêvô-dâtem”, meaning “the anti-demoniac law”, and is full of teachings how to avoid sin and defilement by purification, moral and physical—each of which teachings is based on Occult laws. It is a pre-eminently occult treatise, full of symbolism and often of meaning quite the reverse of that which is expressed in its dead-letter text. The Vendîdâd , as claimed by tradition, is the only one of the twenty-one Nosks (works) that has escaped the auto-da-fé at the hands of the drunken Iskander the Rûmi, he whom posterity calls Alexander the Great—though the epithet is justifiable only when applied to the brutality, vices and cruelty of this conqueror. It is through the vandalism of this Greek that literature and knowledge have lost much priceless lore in the Nosks burnt by him. Even the Vendîdâd has

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reached us in only a fragmentary state. The first chapters are very mystical, and therefore called “mythical” in the renderings of European Orientalists. The two “creators” of “spirit-matter” or the world of differentiation—Ahura-Mazda and Angra-Mainyu (Ahriman)—are introduced in them, and also Yima (the first man, or mankind personified). The work is divided into Fargards or chapters, and a portion of these is devoted to the formation of our globe, or terrestrial evolution. (See Zend-Avesta.)

Vetâla (Sk.). An elemental, a spook, which haunts burial grounds and animates corpses.

Vetâla Siddhi (Sk.). A practice of sorcery; means of obtaining power over the living by black magic, incantations, and ceremonies performed over a dead human body, during which process the corpse is desecrated. (See “Vetâla”.)

Vibhâvasu (Sk.). A mystic fire connected with the beginning of pralaya, or the dissolution of the universe.

Vibhûtayah (Sk.). The same as Siddhis or magic powers.

Vidyâ (Sk.). Knowledge, Occult Science.

Vidyâ-dhara (Sk.). And Vidya-dhari, male and female deities. Lit., “possessors of knowledge”. They are also called Nabhas-chara, “moving in the air”, flying, and Priyam-vada, “sweet-spoken”. They are the Sylphs of the Rosicrucians; inferior deities inhabiting the astral sphere between the earth and ether; believed in popular folk-lore to be beneficent, but in reality they are cunning and mischievous, and intelligent Elementals, or “Powers of the air”. They are represented in the East, and in the West, as having intercourse with men (”intermarrying”, as it is called in Rosicrucian parlance; see Count de Gabalis). In India they are also called Kâma-rûpins, as they take shapes at will. It is among these creatures that the “spirit-wives” and “spirit-husbands” of certain modern spiritualistic mediums and hysteriacs are recruited. These boast with pride of having such pernicious connexions (e.g., the American “Lily”, the spirit-wife of a well-known head of a now scattered community of Spiritualists, of a great poet and well-known writer), and call them angel-guides, maintaining that they are the spirits of famous disembodied mortals. These “spirit-husbands” and “wives” have not originated with the modern Spiritists and Spiritualists, but have been known in the East for thousands of years, in the Occult philosophy, under the names above given, and among the profane as—Pishâchas.

Vihâra (Sk.). Any place inhabited by Buddhist priests or ascetics; a Buddhist temple, generally a rock-temple or cave. A monastery, or a nunnery also. One finds in these days Vihâras built in the

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enclosures of monasteries and academies for Buddhist training in towns and cities; but in days of yore they were to be met with only in unfrequented wild jungles, on mountain tops, and in the most deserted places.

Vihâraswâmin (Sk.). The superior (whether male or female) of a monastery or convent, Vihâra. Also called Karmadâna, as every teacher or guru, having authority, takes upon himself the responsibility of certain actions, good or bad, committed by his pupils or the flock entrusted to him.

Vijnânam (Sk.). The Vedântic name for the principle which dwells in the Vijnânamaya Kosha (the sheath of intellect) and corresponds to the faculties of the Higher Manas.

Vikârttana (Sk.). Lit., “shorn of his rags”; a name of the Sun, and the type of the initiated neophyte. (See Secret Doctrine, I., p. 322, n.)

Vimoksha (Sk.). The same as Nirvâna.

Vînâ (Sk.). A kind of large guitar used in India and Tibet, whose invention is attributed variously to Siva, Nârada, and others.

Vinatâ (Sk.). A daughter of Daksha and wife of Kashyapa (one of the “seven orators” of the world). She brought forth the egg from which Garuda the seer was born.

Viprachitti (Sk.). The chief of the Dânavas—the giants that warred with the gods: the Titans of India.

Vîrabhadra (Sk.). A thousand-headed and thousand-armed monster, “born of the breath” of Siva Rudra, a symbol having reference to the “sweat-born”, the second race of mankind (Secret Doctrine, II., p. 182).

Virâj (Sk.). The Hindu Logos in the Purânas; the male Manu, created in the female portion of Brahmâ’s body (Vâch) by that god. Says Manu: “Having divided his body into two parts, the lord (Brahmâ) became with the one half a male and with the other half a female; and in her he created Virâj”. The Rig-Veda makes Virâj spring from Purusha, and Purusha spring from Virâj. The latter is the type of all male beings, and Vâch, Sata-rûpâ (she of the hundred forms), the type of all female forms.

Vishnu (Sk.). The second person of the Hindu Trimûrti (trinity), composed of Brahmâ, Vishnu and Siva. From the root vish, “to pervade”. in the Rig-Veda, Vishnu is no high god, but simply a manifestation of the solar energy, described as “striding through the seven regions of the Universe in three steps and enveloping all things with the dust (of his beams “.) Whatever may be the six other occult significances of the statement, this is related to the same class of types as the seven and ten Sephiroth, as the seven and three orifices of the perfect Adam Kadmon, as the seven “principles” and the higher triad in man, etc., etc. Later

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on this mystic type becomes a great god, the preserver and the renovator, he “of a thousand names—Sahasranâma”.

Vishwakarman (Sk.). The “Omnificent”. A Vedic god, a personification of the creative Force, described as the One “all-seeing god, . . . . the generator, disposer, who . . . is beyond the comprehension of (uninitiated) mortals”. In the two hymns of the Rig-Veda specially devoted to him, he is said “to sacrifice himself to himself ”. The names of his mother, “the lovely and virtuous Yoga-Siddhâ” (Purânas) and of his daughter Sanjnâ (spiritual consciousness), show his mystic character. (See Secret Doctrine, sub voc.) As the artificer of the gods and maker of their weapons, he is called Kâru, “workman”, Takshaka “carpenter”, or “wood-cutter”, etc., etc.

Vishwatryarchas (Sk.). The fourth solar (mystic) ray of the seven. (See Secret Doctrine, I., p. 515, n.)

Vivaswat (Sk.). The “bright One”, the Sun.

Viwan (Sk.). Some kind “of air-vehicle”, like a balloon, mentioned but not described in the old Sanskrit works, which the Atlanteans and the ancient Aryas seem to have known and used.

Voluspa (Scand.). A poem called “The Song of the Prophetess”, or “Song of Wala”.

Voodooism, or Voodoos. A system of African sorcery; a sect of black magicians, to which the New Orleans negroes are much addicted. It flourishes likewise in Cuba and South America.

Voordalak (Slav.). A vampire; a corpse informed by its lower principles, and maintaining a kind of semi-life in itself by raising itself during the night from the grave, fascinating its living victims and sucking out their blood. Roumanians, Moldavians, Servians, and all the Slavonian tribes dwelling in the Balkans, and also the Tchechs (Bohemians), Moravians, and others, firmly believe in the existence of such ghosts and dread them accordingly.

Votan (Mex.). The deified hero of the Mexicans, and probably the same as Quetzal-Coatl; a “son of the snakes”, one admitted “to the snake’s hole”, which means an Adept admitted to the Initiation in the secret chamber of the Temple. The missionary Brasseur de Bourbourg, seeks to prove him a descendant of Ham, the accursed son of Noah. (See Isis Unveiled, I., pp. 545 et seq.)

Vrata (Sk) Law, or power of the gods.

Vratâni (Sk.). Varuna’s “active laws”, courses of natural action. (See Rig-Vedic Hymns, X., 90-1.)

Vriddha Garga (Sk.). From Vriddha, “old”, and Garga, an ancient sage, one of the oldest writers on astronomy.

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Vriddha Mânava (Sk.). The laws of Manu.

Vritra (Sk.). The demon of drought in the Vedas, a great foe of Indra, with whom he is constantly at war. The allegory of a cosmic phenomenon.

Vritra-han (Sk.). An epithet or title of Indra, meaning “the slayer of Vritra”.

Vyahritis (Slav.). Lit., “fiery”, words lit by and born of fire. The three mystical, creative words, said by Manu to have been milked by the Prajâpati from the Vedas: bhûr, from the Rig-Veda; bhuvah, from the Vajur-Veda; and Swar, from the Sama-Veda (Manu II., 76). All three are said to possess creative powers. The Satapatha Brâhmana explains that they are “the three luminous essences” extracted from the Vedas by Prajâpati (“lords of creation”, progenitors), through heat. “He (Brahmâ) uttered the word bhûr and it became the earth; bhuvah, and it became the firmament; and swar, which became heaven”. Mahar is the fourth “luminous essence”, and was taken from the Atharva-Veda. But, as this word is purely mantric and magical, it is one, so to say, kept apart.

Vyâsa (Sk.).. Lit., one who expands or amplifies; an interpreter, or rather a revealer; for that which he explains, interprets and amplifies is a mystery to the profane. This term was applied in days of old to the highest Gurus in India. There were many Vyâsas in Aryavarta; one was the compiler and arranger of the Vedas; another, the author of the Mahâbhârata—the twenty-eighth Vyâsa or revealer in the order of succession—and the last one of note was the author of Uttara Mîmânsâ, the sixth school or system of Indian philosophy. He was also the founder of the Vedânta system. His date, as assigned by Orientalists (see Elphinstone, Cowell, etc.), is 1,400 B.C., but this date is certainly too recent. The Purânas mention only twenty-eight Vyâsas, who at various ages descended to the earth to promulgate Vedic truths—but there were many more.

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W.—The 23rd letter. Has no equivalent in Hebrew. In Western Occultism some take it as the symbol for celestial water, whereas M stands for terrestrial water.

Wala (Scand.). A prophetess in the songs of the Edda (Norse mythology). Through the incantations of Odin she was raised from her grave, and made to prophesy the death of Baldur.

Walhalla (Scand.). A kind of paradise (Devachan) for slaughtered warriors, called by the Norsemen “the hall of the blessed heroes”; it has five hundred doors.

Wali (Scand.). The son of Odin who avenges the death of Baldur, “the well-beloved”.

Walkyries (Scand.). Called the “choosers of the dead”. In the popular poetry of the Scandinavians, these goddesses consecrate the fallen heroes with a kiss, and bearing them from the battle-field carry them to the halls of bliss and to the gods in Walhalla.

Wanes (Scand.). A race of gods of great antiquity, worshipped at the dawn of time by the Norsemen, and later by the Teutonic races.

Wara (Scand.). One of the maidens of Northern Freya; “the wise Wara”, who watches the desires of each human heart, and avenges every breach of faith.

Water. The first principle of things, according to Thales and other ancient philosophers. Of course this is not water on the material plane, but in a figurative sense for the potential fluid contained in boundless space. This was symbolised in ancient Egypt by Kneph, the “unrevealed” god, who was represented as the serpent—the emblem of eternity—encircling a water-urn, with his head hovering over the waters, which he incubates with his breath. “And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters.” (Gen. i.) The honey-dew, the food of the gods and of the creative bees on the Yggdrasil, falls during the night upon the tree of life from the “divine waters, the birth-place of the gods”. Alchemists claim that when pre-Adamic earth is reduced by the Alkahest to its first substance, it is like clear water. The Alkahest is “the one and the invisible, the water, the first principle, in the second transformation”.

We (Scand.). One of the three gods—Odin, Wili and We—who kill the giant Ymir (chaotic force), and create the world out of his body, the primordial substance.

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Werdandi (Scand.). See “Nörns”, the three sister-goddesses who represent the Past, the Present and the Future. Werdandi represents the ever-present time.

Whip of Osiris. The scourge which symbolises Osiris as the “judge of the dead”. It is called the nekhekh, in the papyri, or the flagellum. Dr. Pritchard sees in it a fan or van, the winnowing instrument. Osiris, “whose fan is in his hand and who purges the Amenti of sinful hearts as a winnower sweeps his floor of the fallen grains and locks the good wheat into his garner”. (Compare Matthew, 12.)

White Fire (Kab.). The Zohar treating of the “Long Face” and Short Face “, the symbols of Macrocosm and Microcosm, speaks of the hidden White Fire, radiating from these night and day and yet never seen. It answers to vital force (beyond luminiferous ether), and electricity on the higher and lower planes. But the mystic “White Fire” is a name given to Ain-Soph. And this is the difference between the Aryan and the Semitic philosophies. The Occultists of the former speak of the Black Fire, which is the symbol of the unknown and unthinkable Brahm, and declare any speculation on the “Black Fire” impossible. But the Kabbalists who, owing to a subtle permutation of meaning, endow even Ain-Soph with a kind of indirect will and attributes, call its “fire” white, thus dragging the Absolute into the world of relation and finiteness.

White Head. In Hebrew Resha Hivra, an epithet given to Sephira, the highest of the Sephiroth, whose cranium “distils the dew which will call the dead again to life”.

White Stone. The sign of initiation mentioned in St. John’s Revelation. It had the word prize engraved on it, and was the symbol of that word given to the neophyte who, in his initiation, had successfully passed through all the trials in the MYSTERIES, it was the potent white cornelian of the mediæval Rosicrucians, who took it from the Gnostics. “To him that overcometh will I give to eat of the hidden manna (the occult knowledge which descends as divine wisdom from heaven), and will give him a white stone, and in the stone a new name written (the ‘mystery name’ of the inner man or the EGO of the new Initiate), which no man knoweth saving him that receiveth it.” (Revelation, ii. 17.)

Widow’s Son. A name given to the French Masons, because the Masonic ceremonies are principally based on the adventures and death of Hiram Abif, “the widow’s son”, who is supposed to have helped to build the mythical Solomon’s Temple.

Wili (Scand.). See “We”.

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Will. In metaphysics and occult philosophy, Will is that which governs the manifested universes in eternity. Will is the one and sole principle of abstract eternal MOTION, or its ensouling essence. “The will”, says Van Helmont, “is the first of all powers. . . . The will is the property of all spiritual beings and displays itself in them the more actively the more they are freed from matter.” And Paracelsus teaches that “determined will is the beginning of all magical operations. It is because men do not perfectly imagine and believe the result, that the (occult) arts are so uncertain, while they might he perfectly certain.” Like all the rest, the Will is septenary in its degrees of manifestation. Emanating from the one, eternal, abstract and purely quiescent Will (Âtmâ in Layam), it becomes Buddhi in its Alaya state, descends lower as Mahat (Manas), and runs down the ladder of degrees until the divine Eros becomes, in its lower, animal manifestation, erotic desire. Will as an eternal principle is neither spirit nor substance but everlasting ideation. As well expressed by Schopenhauer in his Parerga, “in sober reality there is neither matter nor spirit. The tendency to gravitation in a stone is as unexplainable as thought in the human brain . . . If matter can—no one knows why—fall to the ground, then it can also—no one knows why—think. . . . As soon, even in mechanics, as we trespass beyond the purely mathematical, as soon as we reach the inscrutable adhesion, gravitation, and so on, we are faced by phenomena which are to our senses as mysterious as the WILL.”

Wisdom. The “very essence of wisdom is contained in the Non-Being”, say the Kabbalists; but they also apply the term to the WORD or Logos, the Demiurge, by which the universe was called into existence. “The one Wisdom is in the Sound “, say the Occultists; the Logos again being meant by Sound, which is the substratum of Âkâsa. Says the Zohar, the “Book of Splendour”: “It is the Principle of all the Principles, the mysterious Wisdom, the crown of all that which there is of the most High”. (Zohar, iii., fol. 288, Myers Qabbalah.) And it is explained, “Above Kether is the Ayin, or Ens, i.e., Ain, the NOTHING”. “It is so named because we do not know, and it is impossible to know, that which there is in that Principle, because . . . it is above Wisdom itself.” (iii., fol. 288.) This shows that the real Kabbalists agree with the Occultists that the essence, or that which is in the principle of Wisdom, is still above that highest Wisdom.

Wisdom Religion. The one religion which underlies all the now-existing creeds. That “faith” which, being primordial, and revealed directly to human kind by their progenitors and informing EGOS (though the Church regards them as the “fallen angels”), required no “grace”, nor blind faith to believe, for it was knowledge. (See “Gupta Vidyâ”,

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Hidden Knowledge.) It is on this Wisdom Religion that Theosophy is based.

Witch. From the Anglo-Saxon word wicce, German wissen, “to know”, and wikken, “to divine”. The witches were at first called “wise women”, until the day when the Church took it unto herself to follow the law of Moses, which put every “witch” or enchantress to death.

Witchcraft. Sorcery, enchantment, the art of throwing spells and using black magic.

Witches’ Sabbath. The supposed festival and gathering of witches in some lonely spot, where the witches were accused of conferring directly with the Devil. Every race and people believed in it, and some believe in it still. Thus the chief headquarters and place of meeting of all the witches in Russia is said to be the Bald Mountain (Lyssaya Gorâ), near Kief, and in Germany the Brocken, in the Harz Mountains. In old Boston, U.S.A., they met near the “Devil’s Pond”, in a large forest which has now disappeared. At Salem, they were put to death almost at the will of the Church Elders, and in South Carolina a witch was burnt as late as 1865. In Germany and England they were murdered by Church and State in thousands, being forced to lie and confess under torture their participation in the “Witches’ Sabbath”.

Wittoba (Sk.). A form of Vishnu. Moor gives in his Hindu Pantheon the picture of Wittoba crucified in Space; and the Rev. Dr. Lundy maintains (Monumental Christianity) that this engraving is anterior to Christianity and is the crucified Krishna, a Saviour, hence a concrete prophecy of Christ. (See Isis Unveiled, II., 557)

Wizard. A wise man. An enchanter, or sorcerer.

Wodan (Saxon). The Scandinavian Odin, Votan, or Wuotan.

World. As a prefix to mountains, trees, and so on, it denotes a universal belief. Thus the “World-Mountain” of the Hindus was Meru. As said in Isis Unveiled: “All the world-mountains and mundane eggs, the mundane trees, and the mundane snakes and pillars, may be shown to embody scientifically demonstrated truths of natural philosophy. All of these mountains contain, with very trifling variations, the allegorically-expressed description of primal cosmogony; the mundane trees, that of subsequent evolution of spirit and matter; the mundane snakes and pillars, symbolical memorials of the various attributes of this double evolution in its endless correlation of cosmic forces. Within the mysterious recesses of the mountain—the matrix of the universe—the gods (powers) prepare the atomic germs of organic life, and at the same time the life-drink, which, when tasted, awakens in man-matter the man-spirit.

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The Soma, the sacrificial drink of the Hindus, is that sacred beverage. For, at the creation of the prima materia, while the grossest portions of it were used for the physical embryo-world, its more divine essence pervaded the universe, invisibly permeating and enclosing within its ethereal waves the newly-born infant, developing and stimulating it to activity as it slowly evolved out of the eternal chaos. From the poetry of abstract conception, these mundane myths gradually passed into the concrete images of cosmic symbols, as archæology now finds them.” Another and still more usual prefix to all these objects is “Mundane”. (See “Mundane Egg”, “Mundane Tree”, and “Yggdrasil”.)

Worlds, the Four. The Kabbalists recognise Four Worlds of Existence: viz., Atziluth or archetypal; Briah or creative, the first reflection of the highest; Yetzirah or formative; and Assiah, the ‘World of Shells or Klippoth, and the material universe. The essence of Deity concentrating into the Sephiroth is first manifested in the Atziluthic World, and their reflections are produced in succession in each of the four planes, with gradually lessening radiance and purity, until the material universe is arrived at. Some authors call these four planes the intellectual, Moral, Sensuous, and Material Worlds. [w.w.w.]

Worlds, Inferior and Superior. The Occultists and the Kabbalists agree in dividing the universe into superior and inferior worlds, the worlds of Idea and the worlds of Matter. “As above, so below”, states the Hermetic philosophy. This lower world is formed on its prototype—the higher world; and “everything in the lower is but an image (a reflection) of the higher”. (Zohar, ii., fol. 2oa.)

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X.—This letter is one of the important symbols in the Occult philosophy. As a numeral  stands, in mathematics, for the unknown quantity; in occult numerals, for the perfect number 10; when placed horizontally, thus  , it means 1,000; the same with a dash over it  for 10,000; and by itself, in occult symbolism, it is Plato’s logos (man as a microcosm) decussated in space in the form of the letter . The  , or cross within the circle, has moreover a still clearer significance in Eastern occult philosophy: it is MAN within his own spherical envelope.

Xenophilus. A Pythagorean adept and philosopher, credited by Lucian (de Macrob.), Pliny and others with having lived to his 170th year, preserving all his faculties to the last. He wrote on music and was surnamed the “Musician”.

Xisusthrus (Gr.). The Chaldean Noah, on the Assyrian tablets, who is thus described in the history of the ten kings by Berosus, according to Alexander Polyhistor: “After the death of (the ninth) Ardates, his son Xisusthrus reigned eighteen sari. In his time happened a great deluge.” Warned by his deity in a vision of the forthcoming cataclysm, Xisusthrus was ordered by that deity to build an ark, to convey into it his relations, together with all the different animals, bird etc., and trust himself to the rising waters. Obeying the divine admonition, Xisusthrus is shown to do precisely what Noah did many thousand years after him. He sent out birds from the vessel which returned to him again; then a few days after he sent them again, and they returned with their feet coated with mud; but the third time they came back to him no more. Stranded on a high mountain of Armenia, Xisusthrus descends and builds an altar to the gods. Here only, comes a divergence between the polytheistic and monotheistic legends. Xisusthrus, having worshipped and rendered thanks to the gods for his salvation, disappeared, and his companions “saw him no more”. The story informs us that on account of his great piety Xisusthrus and his family were translated to live with the gods, as he himself told the survivors. For though his body was gone, his voice was heard in the air, which, after apprising them of the occurrence, admonished them to return to Babylon, and pay due regard to virtue, religion, and the gods. This is more meritorious than to plant vines, get drunk on the juice of the grape, and curse one’s own son.

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Y.—The twenty-fifth letter of the English alphabet, and the tenth of the Hebrew—the Yod. It is the litera Pythagoræ the Pythagorean letter and symbol, signifying the two branches, or paths of virtue and vice respectively, the right leading to virtue, the left to vice. In Hebrew Kabbalistic mysticism it is the phallic male member, and also as number ten, the perfect number. Symbolically, it is represented by a hand with bent forefinger. Its numerical equivalent is ten.

Yâdava (Sk.). A descendant of Yadu; of the great race in which Krishna was born. The founder of this line was Yadu, the son of King Yayâti of the Somavansa or Lunar Race. It was under Krishna—certainly no mythical personage—that the kingdom of Dwârakâ in Guzerat was established; and also after the death of Krishna (3102 B.C.) that all the Yâdavas present in the city perished, when it was submerged by the ocean. Only a few of the Yâdavas, who were absent from the town at the time of the catastrophe, escaped to perpetuate this great race. The Râjâs of Vijaya-Nâgara are now among the small number of its representatives.

Yah (Heb.). The word, as claimed in the Zohar, through which the Elohim formed the worlds. The syllable is a national adaptation and one of the many forms of the “Mystery name” Iao. (See “Iaho” and “Yâho”.)

Yâho (Heb.). Fürst shows this to be the same as the Greek Iao. Yâho is an old Semitic and very mystic name of the supreme deity, while Yah (q.v.) is a later abbreviation which, from containing an abstract ideal, became finally applied to, and connected with, a phallic symbol—the lingham of creation. Both Yah and Yâho were Hebrew “mystery names” derived from Iao, but the Chaldeans had a Yâho before the Jews adopted it, and with them, as explained by some Gnostics and Neo-Platonists, it was the highest conceivable deity enthroned above the seven heavens and representing Spiritual Light (Âtman, the universal), whose ray was Nous, standing both for the intelligent Demiurge of the Universe of Matter and the Divine Manas in man, both being Spirit. The true key of this, communicated to the Initiates only, was that the name of Iao was “triliteral and its nature secret”, as explained by the Hierophants. The Phœnicians too had a supreme deity whose name was triliteral, and

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its meanings secret, this was also Iao; and Y-ha-ho was a sacred word in the Egyptian mysteries, which signified “the one eternal and concealed deity” in nature and in man; i.e., the “universal Divine Ideation”, and the human Manas, or the higher Ego.

Yajna (Sk.). “Sacrifice”, whose symbol or representation is now the constellation Mriga-shiras (deer-head), and also a form of Vishnu. “The Yajna”, say the Brahmans, “exists from eternity, for it proceeded from the Supreme, in whom it lay dormant from no beginning”. It is the key to the Trai-Vidyâ, the thrice sacred science contained in the Rig-Veda verses, which teaches the Yajna or sacrificial mysteries. As Haug states in his Introduction to the Aitareya Brâhmana—the Yajna exists as an invisible presence at all times, extending from the Âhavanîya or sacrificial fire to the heavens, forming a bridge or ladder by means of which the sacrificer can communicate with the world of devas, “and even ascend when alive to their abodes”. It is one of the forms of Akâsa, within which the mystic WORD (or its underlying “Sound”) calls it into existence. Pronounced by the Priest-Initiate or Yogi, this WORD receives creative powers, and is communicated as an impulse on the terrestrial plane through a trained Will-power.

Yakin and Boaz (Heb.). A Kabbalistic and Masonic symbol. The two pillars of bronze (Yakin, male and white; Boaz, female and red), cast by Hiram Abif of Tyre, called “the Widow’s Son, for Solomon’s supposed (Masonic) Temple. Yakin was the symbol of Wisdom (Chokmah), the second Sephira; and Boaz, that of Intelligence (Binah); the temple between the two being regarded as Kether, the crown, Father-Mother.

Yaksha (Sk.). A class of demons, who, in popular Indian folk-lore, devour men. In esoteric science they are simply evil (elemental) influences, who in the sight of seers and clairvoyants descend on men, when open to the reception of such influences, like a fiery comet or a shooting star.

Yama (Heb.). The personified third root-race in Occultism. In the Indian Pantheon Yama is the subject of two distinct versions of the myth. In the Vedas he is the god of the dead, a Pluto or a Minos, with whom the shades of the departed dwell (the Kâmarûpas in Kâmaloka). A hymn speaks of Yama as the first of men that died, and the first that departed to the world of bliss (Devachan). This, because Yama is the embodiment of the race which was the first to be endowed with consciousness (Manas), without which there is neither Heaven nor Hades. Yama is represented as the son of Vivaswat (the Sun). He had a twin-sister named Yamî, who was ever urging him, according to another hymn, to take her

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for his wife, in order to perpetuate the species. The above has a very suggestive symbolical meaning, which is explained in Occultism. As Dr. Muir truly remarks, the Rig-Veda—the greatest authority on the primeval myths which strike the original key-note of the themes that underlie all the subsequent variations—nowhere shows Yama “as having anything to do with the punishment of the wicked”. As king and judge of the dead, a Pluto in short, Yama is a far later creation. One has to study the true character of Yama-Yamî throughout more than one hymn and epic poem, and collect the various accounts scattered in dozens of ancient works, and then he will obtain a consensus of allegorical statements which will be found to corroborate and justify the Esoteric teaching, that Yama-Yamî is the symbol of the dual Manas, in one of its mystical meanings. For instance, Yama-Yamî is always represented of a green colour and clothed with red, and as dwelling in a palace of copper and iron. Students of Occultism know to which of the human “principles” the green and the red colours, and by correspondence the iron and copper, are to be applied. The “twofold-ruler”—the epithet of Yama Yamî—is regarded in the exoteric teachings of the Chino-Buddhists as both judge and criminal, the restrainer of his own evil doings and the evil-doer himself. In the Hindu epic poems Yama-Yamî is the twin-child of the Sun (the deity) by Sanjnâ (spiritual consciousness); but while Yama is the Aryan “lord of the day”, appearing as the symbol of spirit in the East, Yamî is the queen of the night (darkness, ignorance) “who opens to mortals the path to the West”—the emblem of evil and matter. In the Purânas Yama has many wives (many Yamîs) who force him to dwell in the lower world (Pâtâla, Myalba, etc., etc.); and an allegory represents him with his foot lifted, to kick Chhâyâ, the hand maiden of his father (the astral body of his mother, Sanjnâ, a metaphysical aspect of Buddhi or Alaya). As stated in the Hindu Scriptures, a soul when it quits its mortal frame, repairs to its abode in the lower regions (Kâmaloka or Hades). Once there, the Recorder, the Karmic messenger called Chitragupta (hidden or concealed brightness), reads out his account from the Great Register, wherein during the life of the human being, every deed and thought are indelibly impressed-—and, according to the sentence pronounced, the “soul” either ascends to the abode of the Pitris (Devachan), descends to a “hell” (Kâmaloka), or is reborn on earth in another human form. The student of Esoteric philosophy will easily recognise the bearings of the allegories.

Yamabooshee, or Yamabusi (Jap.). A sect in Japan of very ancient and revered mystics. They are monks “militant” and warriors, if needed, as are certain Yogis in Rajputana and the Lamas in Tibet. This Mystic brotherhood dwell chiefly near Kioto, and are renowned for their

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healing powers, says the Encyclopœdia, which translates the name “Hermit Brothers”: “They pretend to magical arts, and live in the recesses of mountains and craggy steeps, whence they come forth to tell fortunes (?), write charms and sell amulets. They lead a mysterious life and admit no one to their secrets, except after a tedious and difficult preparation by fasting and a species of severe gymnastic exercise(! !).

Yasna, or Yacna (Pahl.). The third portion of the first of the two parts of the Avesta, the Scripture of the Zoroastrian Parsis. The Yasna is composed of litanies of the same kind as the Vispêrad (the second portion) and of five hymns or gâthas. These gâthas are the oldest fragments of Zoroastrian literature known to the Parsis, for they are written “in a special dialect, older than the general language of the Avesta” (Darmesteter). (See “Zend”.)

Yati (Sk) A measure of three feet.

Yâtus, or Yâtudhânas (Sk.). A kind of animal-formed demons. Esoterically, human animal passions.

Yazathas (Zend). Pure celestial spirits, whom the Vendidâd shows once upon a time sharing their food with mortals, who thus participate in their existence.

Years of Brahmâ. The whole period of “Brahma’s Age” (100 Years). Equals 311,040,000,000,000 years. (See “Yuga”)

Yeheedah (Heb.). Lit., “Individuality”; esoterically, the highest individuality or Âtmâ-Buddhi-Manas, when united in one. This doctrine is in the Chaldean Book of Numbers, which teaches a septenary division of human “principles”, so-called, as does the Kabalah in the Zohar, according to the Book of Solomon (iii.,Io4a so as translated in I. Myer’s Qabbalah). At the time of the conception, the Holy “sends a d’yook-nah, or the phantom of a shadow image” like the face of a man. it is designed and sculptured in the divine tzelem, i.e., the shadow image of the Elohim. “Elohim created man in his (their) tzelem” or image, says Genesis (i. 27). It is the tzelem that awaits the child and receives it at the moment of its conception, and this tzelem is our linga sharîra. “The Rua’h forms with the Nephesh the actual personality of the man”, and also his individuality, or, as expressed by the Kabbalist, the combination of the two is called, if he (man) deserves it, Yeheedah. This combination is that which the Theosophist calls the dual Manas, the Higher and the Lower Ego, united to Âtmâ-Buddhi and become one. For as explained in the Zohar (i., 205b, 206a, Brody Ed.): “Neshamah, soul (Buddhi), comprises three degrees, and therefore she has three names, like the mystery above: that is, Nephesh, Rua’h, Neshamah”, or the Lower Manas, the Higher Ego, and Buddhi, the Divine Soul. “It is also to be noted that the Neshamah has

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three divisions;” says Myer’s Qabbalah, “the highest is the Ye-hee-dah”—or Âtmâ-Buddhi-Manas, the latter once more as a unit; “the middle principle is Hay-yah”—or Buddhi and the dual Manas; “and the last and third, the Neshamah, properly speaking”—or Soul in general. “They manifest themselves in Ma’hshabah, thought, Tzelem, phantom of the image, Zurath, prototypes (mâyâvic forms, or rûpas), and the D’yooknah, shadow of the phantom image. The D’mooth, likeness or similitude (physical body), is a lower manifestation” (p. 392). Here then, we find the faithful echo of Esoteric science in the Zohar and other Kabbalistic works, a perfect Esoteric septenary division. Every Theosophist who has studied the doctrine sketched out first in Mr. Sinnett’s Occult World and Esoteric Buddhism, and later in the Theosophist, Lucifer, and other writings, will recognise them in the Zohar. Compare for instance what is taught in Theosophical works about the pre- and post-mortem states of the three higher and the four lower human principles, with the following from the Zohar: “Because all these three are one knot like the above, in the mystery of Nephesh, Rua’h, Neshamah, they are all one, and bound in one. Nephesh (Kâma-Manas) has no light from her own substance; and it is for this reason that she is associated with the mystery of guff, the body, to procure enjoyment and food and everything which it needs. . . . Rua’h (the Spirit) is that which rides on that Nephesh (the lower soul) and rules over her and lights (supplies) her with everything she needs [i.e. with the light of reason], and the Nephesh is the throne [vehicle] of that Ru’ah. Neshamah (Divine Soul) goes over to that Rua’h, and she rules over that Rua’h and lights to him with that Light of Life, and that Rua’h depends on the Neshamah and receives light from her, which illuminates him . . . When the ‘upper’ Neshamah ascends (after the death of the body), she goes to . . . the Ancient of the Ancient, the Hidden of all the Hidden, to receive Eternity. The Rua’h does not [yet] go to Gan Eden [Devachan] because he is [mixed up with] Nephesh . . . the Rua’h goes up to Eden, but not so high as the soul, and Nephesh [the animal principle, lower soul] remains in the grave below [or Kâmaloka].” (Zohar, ii., 142a, Cremona Ed., ii., fol. 63b col. 252). It would be difficult not to recognise in the above our Âtmâ (or the “upper” Neshamah), Buddhi (Neshamah), Manas (Rua’h), and Kâma-Manas (Nephesh) or the lower animal soul; the first of which goes after the death of man to join its integral whole, the second and the third proceeding to Devachan, and the last, or the Kâmarûpa, “remaining in its grave”, called other wise the Kâmaloka or Hades.

Yênê, Angânta. The meaning of the Angânta Yênê is known to all India. It is the action of an elemental (bhût), who, drawn into the sensitive and passive body of a medium, takes possession of it. In other

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words, angânta yênê means literally “obsession”. The Hindus dread such a calamity now as strongly as they did thousands of years ago. “No Hindu, Tibetan, or Sinhalese, unless of the lowest caste and intelligence, can see, without a shudder of horror, the signs of ‘mediumship’ manifest themselves in a member of his family, or without saying, as a Christian would do now, ‘he hath the devil’. This ‘gift, blessing, and holy mission’, so called in England and America. is, among the older peoples, in the cradle-lands of our race, where longer experience than ours has taught them more spiritual wisdom, regarded as a dire misfortune.”

Yesod (Heb.). The ninth Sephira; meaning Basis or Foundation.

Yetzirah (Heb.). The third of the Four Kabbalistic Worlds, referred to the Angels; the “World of Formation”, or Olam Yetzirah. It is also called Malahayah, or “of the Angels”. It is the abode of all the ruling Genii (or Angels) who control and rule planets, worlds and spheres.

Yeu (Chin.). “Being”, a synonym of Subhâva; or “the Substance giving substance to itself”.

Yggdrasil (Scand.). The “World Tree of the Norse Cosmogony; the ash Yggdrasil; the tree of the Universe, of time and of life”. It has three roots, which reach down to cold Hel, and spread thence to Jotun heim, the land of the Hrimthurses, or “Frost Giants”, and to Midgard, the earth and dwelling of the children of men. Its upper boughs stretch out into heaven, and its highest branch overshadows Waihalla, the Devachan of the fallen heroes. The Yggdrasil is ever fresh and green, as it is daily sprinkled by the Norns, the three fateful sisters, the Past, the Present, and the Future, with the waters of life from the fountain of Urd that flows on our earth. It will wither and disappear only on the day when the last battle between good and evil is fought; when, the former prevailing, life, time and space pass out of life and space and time. Every ancient people had their world-tree. The Babylonians had their “tree of life”, which was the world-tree, whose roots penetrated into the great lower deep or Hades, whose trunk was on the earth, and whose upper boughs reached Zikum, the highest heaven above. Instead of in Walhalla, they placed its upper foliage in the holy house of Davkina, the “great mother” of Tammuz, the Saviour of the world—the Sun-god put to death by the enemies of light.

Yi-King. (Chin.). An ancient Chinese work, written by generations of sages.

Yima (Zend). In the Vendîdâd, the first man, and, from his aspect of spiritual progenitor of mankind, the same as Yama (q.v.). His further

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functions are not given in the Zend books, because so many of these ancient fragments have been lost, made away with, or otherwise prevented from falling into the hands of the profane. Yima was not born, for he represents the first three human Root-races, the first of which is “not born”; but he is the “first man who dies”, because the third race, the one which was informed by the rational Higher Egos, was the first one whose men separated into male and female, and “man lived and died, and was reborn”. (See Secret Doctrine, II., pp. 60 et seq.)

Ymir (Scand.). The personified matter of our globe in a seething condition. The cosmic monster in the form of a giant, who is killed in the cosmogonical allegories of the Eddas by the three creators, the sons of Bor, Odin, Wili and We, who are said to have conquered Ymir and created the world out of his body. This allegory shows the three principal forces of nature—separation, formation and growth (or evolution)—conquering the unruly, raging “giant” matter, and forcing it to become a world, or an inhabited globe. it is curious that an ancient, primitive and uncultured pagan people, so philosophical and scientifically correct in their views about the origin and formation of the earth, should, in order to be regarded as civilized, have to accept the dogma that the world was created out of nothing!

Yod (Heb.). The tenth letter of the alphabet, the first in the four fold symbol of the compound name Jah-hovah (Jehovah) or Jah-Eve, the hermaphrodite force and existence in nature. Without the later vowels, the word Jehovah is written IHVH (the letter Yod standing for all the three English letters y, i, or j, as the case may require), and is male-female. The letter Yod is the symbol of the lingham, or male organ, in its natural triple form, as the Kabalah shows. The second letter He, has for its symbol the yoni, the womb or “window-opening” as the Kabalah has it; the symbol of the third letter, the Vau, is a crook or a nail (the bishop’s crook having its origin in this), another male letter, and the fourth is the same as the second—the whole meaning to be or to exist under one of these forms or both. Thus the word or name is pre-eminently phallic, it is that of the fighting god of the Jews, “Lord of Hosts”; of the “aggressive Yod ” or Zodh, Cain (by permutation), who slew his female brother, Abel, and spilt his (her) blood. This name, selected out of many by the early Christian writers, was an unfortunate one for their religion on account of its associations and original significance; it is a number at best, an organ in reality. This letter Yod has passed into God and Gott.

Yoga (Sk.). (1) One of the six Darshanas or schools of India; a school of philosophy founded by Patânjali, though the real Yoga doctrine, the one that is said to have helped to prepare the world for the preaching

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of Buddha, is attributed with good reasons to the more ancient sage Yâjnawalkya, the writer of the Shatapatha Brâhmana, of Yajur Veda, the Brihad Âranyaka, and other famous works. (2) The practice of meditation as a means of leading to spiritual liberation. Psycho-spiritual powers are obtained thereby, and induced ecstatic states lead to the clear and correct perception of the eternal truths, in both the visible and invisible universe.

Yogâchârya (Sk.). (1) A mystic school. (2) Lit., a teacher (âchârya) of Yoga, one who has mastered the doctrines and practices of ecstatic meditation—the culmination of which are the Mahâsiddhis. It is incorrect to confuse this school with the Tantra, or Mahâtantra school founded by Samantabhadra, for there are two Yogâchârya Schools, one esoteric, the other popular. The doctrines of the latter were compiled and glossed by Asamgha in the sixth century of our era, and his mystic tantras and mantras, his formularies, litanies, spells and mudrâs would certainly, if attempted without a Guru, serve rather purposes of sorcery and black magic than real Yoga. Those who undertake to write upon the subject are generally learned missionaries and haters of Eastern philosophy in general. From these no unbiassed views can be expected. Thus when we read in the Sanskrit-Chinese Dictionary of Eitel, that the reciting of mantras (which he calls “spells” !) “should be accompanied by music and distortions of the fingers (mudrâ), that a state of mental fixity (Samâdhi) might he reached”—one acquainted, however slightly, with the real practice of Yoga can only shrug his shoulders. These distortions of the fingers or mudrâ are necessary, the author thinks, for the reaching of Samâdhi, “characterized by there being neither thought nor annihilation of thought, and consisting of six-fold bodily (sic) and mental happiness (yogi) whence would result endowment with supernatural miracle-working power”. Theosophists cannot be too much warned against such fantastic and prejudiced explanations.

Yogi (Sk.). (1) Not “a state of six-fold bodily and mental happiness as the result, of ecstatic meditation” (Eitel); but a state which, when reached, makes the practitioner thereof absolute master of his six principles”, he now being merged in the seventh. It gives him full control, owing to his knowledge of SELF and Self, over his bodily, intellectual and mental states, which, unable any longer to interfere with, or act upon, his Higher Ego, leave it free to exist in its original, pure, and divine state. (2) Also the name of the devotee who practises Yoga.

Yong-Grüb (Tib.). A state of absolute rest, the same as Paranirvâna.

Yoni (Sk.). The womb, the female principle.

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Yudishthira (Sk.). One of the heroes of the Mahâbhârata. The eldest brother of the Pândavas, or the five Pându princes who fought against their next of kin, the Kauravas, the sons of their maternal uncle. Arjuna, the disciple of Krishna, was his younger brother. The Bhagavad Gîtâ gives mystical particulars of this war. Kuntî was the mother of the Pândavas, and Draupadi the wife in common of the five brothers—an allegory. But Yudishthira is also, as well as Krishna, Arjuna, and so many other heroes, an historical character, who lived some 5,000 years ago, at the period when the Kali Yuga set in.

Yuga (Sk.). A 1,000th part of a Kalpa. An age of the World of which there are four, and the series of which proceed in succession during the manvantaric cycle. Each Yuga is preceded by a period called in the Purânas Sandhyâ, twilight, or transition period, and is followed by another period of like duration called Sandhyânsa, “portion of twilight”. Each is equal to one-tenth of the Yuga. The group of four Yugas is first computed by the divine years, or “years of the gods”—each such year being equal to 360 years of mortal men. Thus we have, in “divine” years:


Krita or Satya Yuga









Tretâ Yuga









Dwâpara Yuga









Kali Yuga










This rendered in years of mortals equals:
























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The above is called a Mahâyuga or Manvantara. 2,000 such Mahâyugas, or a period of 8,640,000 years, make a Kalpa: the latter being only a “day and a night”, or twenty-four hours, of Brahmâ. Thus an “age of Brahmâ”, or one hundred of his divine years, must equal 311,040,000,000,000 of our mortal years. The old Mazdeans or Magi (the modern Parsis) had the same calculation, though the Orientalists do not seem to perceive it, for even the Parsi Moheds themselves have forgotten it. But their “Sovereign time of the Long Period” (Zervan Dareghô Hvadâta) lasts 12,000 years, and these are the 12,000 divine years of a Mahâyuga as shown above, whereas the Zervan Akarana (Limitless Time), mentioned by Zarathustra, is the Kâla, out of space and time, of Parabrahm.

Yurbo Adonai. A contemptuous epithet given by the followers of the Nazarene Codex, the St. John Gnostics, to the Jehovah of the Jews.

Yürmungander (Scand.). A name of the Midgard snake in the Edda, whose brother is Wolf Fenris, and whose sister is the horrible monster Hel—the three children of wicked Loki and Angurboda (carrier of anguish), a dreaded giantess. The mundane snake of the Norsemen, the monster created by Loki but fashioned by the constant putrid emanations from the body of the slain giant Ymir (the matter of our globe), and producing in its turn a constant emanation, which serves as a veil between heaven and earth, i.e., the Astral Light.

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Z.—The 26th letter of the English alphabet. It stands as a numeral for 2,000, and with a dash over it thus, Z̅, equals 2,000,000. It is the seventh letter in the Hebrew alphabet—zayin, its symbol being a kind of Egyptian sceptre, a weapon. The zayin is equivalent to number seven. The number twenty-six is held most sacred by the Kabbalists, being equal to the numerical value of the letters of the Tetragrammaton—thus:

he   vau    he    yod
 5  +  6  +  5  +  10  =  26.

Zabulon (Heb.). The abode of God, the tenth Devachan in degree. Hence Zabulon, the tenth son of Jacob.

Zacchai (Heb.). One of the deity-names.

Zadok (Heb.). According to Josephus (see Antiquities, x., 8, § 6), Zadok was the first High-Priest Hierophant of Solomon’s High Temple. Masons connect him with some of their degrees.

Zalmat Gaguadi (Akkad.). Lit., “the dark race”, the first that fell into generation in the Babylonian legends. The Adamic race, one of the two principal races that existed at the time of the “Fall of Man” (hence our third Root-race), the other being called Sarku, or the “light race”. (Secret Doctrine, II., 5.)

Zampun (Tib.). The sacred tree of life, having many mystic meanings.

Zarathustra (Zend). The great lawgiver, and the founder of the religion variously called Mazdaism, Magism, Parseeïsm, Fire-Worship, and Zoroastrianism. The age of the last Zoroaster (for it is a generic name) is not known, and perhaps for that very reason. Xanthus of Lydia, the earliest Greek writer who mentions this great lawgiver and religious reformer, places him about six hundred years before the Trojan War. But where is the historian who can now tell when the latter took place? Aristotle and also Eudoxus assign him a date of no less than 6,000 years before the days of Plato, and Aristotle was not one to make a statement without a good reason for it. Berosus makes him a king of Babylon some 2,200 years B.C.; but then, how can one tell what were the original figures of Berosus, before his MSS. passed through the hands of Eusebius, whose fingers were so deft at altering figures,

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whether in Egyptian synchronistic tables or in Chaldean chronology? Haug refers Zoroaster to at least 1,000 years B.C.; and Bunsen (God in History, Vol. I., Book iii., ch. vi., p. 276) finds that Zarathustra Spitama lived under the King Vistaspa about 3,000 years B.C., and describes him as “one of the mightiest intellects and one of the greatest men of all time”. It is with such exact dates in hand, and with the utterly extinct language of the Zend, whose teachings are rendered, probably in the most desultory manner, by the Pahlavi translation—a tongue, as shown by Darmsteter, which was itself growing obsolete so far back as the Sassanides—that our scholars and Orientalists have presumed to monopolise to themselves the right of assigning hypothetical dates for the age of the holy prophet Zurthust. But the Occult records claim to have the correct dates of each of the thirteen Zoroasters mentioned in the Dabistan. Their doctrines, and especially those of the last (divine) Zoroaster, spread from Bactria to the Medes; thence, under the name of Magism, incorporated by the Adept-Astronomers in Chaldea, they greatly influenced the mystic teachings of the Mosaic doctrines, even before, perhaps, they had culminated into what is now known as the modern religion of the Parsis. Like Manu and Vyâsa in India, Zarathustra is a generic name for great reformers and law-givers. The hierarchy began with the divine Zarathustra in the Vendîdâd, and ended with the great, but mortal man, bearing that title, and now lost to history. There were, as shown by the Dabistan, many Zoroasters or Zarathustras. As related in the Secret Doctrine, Vol. II., the last Zoroaster was the founder of the Fire-temple of Azareksh, many ages before the historical era. Had not Alexander destroyed so many sacred and precious works of the Mazdeans, truth and philosophy would have been more inclined to agree with history, in bestowing upon that Greek Vandal the title of “the Great”.

Zarpanitu (Akkad) The goddess who was the supposed mother, by Merodach, of Nebo, god of Wisdom. One of the female “Serpents of Wisdom”.

Zelator. The lowest degree in the exoteric Rosicrucian system; a kind of probationer or low chelâ.

Zend-Avesta (Pahl.). The general name for the sacred books of the Parsis, fire or sun worshippers, as they are ignorantly called. So little is understood of the grand doctrines which are still found in the various fragments that compose all that is now left of that collection of religious works, that Zoroastrianism is called indifferently Fire-worship, Mazdaism, or Magism, Dualism, Sun-worship, and what not. The Avesta has two parts as now collected together, the first portion containing the Vendîdâd, the Vispêrad and the Yasna; and the second portion, called the Khorda Avesta (Small Avesta), being composed of short prayers

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called Gah, Nyâyish, etc. Zend means “a commentary or explanation”, and Avesta (from the old Persian âbashtâ, “the law”. (See Darmsteter.) As the translator of the Vendîdâd remarks in a foot note (see Int. xxx.): “what it is customary to call ‘the Zend language’, ought to be named ‘the Avesta language’, the Zend being no language at all; and if the word be used as the designation of one, it can be rightly applied only to the Pahlavi”. But then, the Pahlavi itself is only the language into which certain original portions of the Avesta are translated. What name should be given to the old Avesta language, and particularly to the “special dialect, older than the general language of the Avesta” (Darmst.), in which the five Gâthas in the Yasna are written? To this day the Orientalists are mute upon the subject. Why should not the Zend be of the same family, if not identical with the Zen-sar, meaning also the speech explaining the abstract symbol, or the “mystery language,” used by Initiates?

Zervana Akarna, or Zrvana Akarna (Pahl.). As translated from the Vendîdâd (Fargard xix), lit., “Boundless”, or “Limitless Time”, or “Duration in a Circle”. Mystically, the Beginningless and the Endless One Principle in Nature; the Sat of the Vedânta and esoterically, the Universal Abstract Space synonymous with the Unknowable Deity. It is the Ain-Soph of the Zoroastrians, out of which radiates Ahura Mazda, the eternal Light or Logos, from which, in its turn, emanates everything that has being, existence and form.

Zeus (Gr.). The “Father of the gods”. Zeus-Zen is Æther, there fore Jupiter was called Pater Æther by some Latin races.

Zicu (Akkad.). Primordial matter, from Zi, spirit-substance, Zikum and Zigarum.

Zio (Scand.). Also Tyr and Tius, A god in the Eddas who conquers and chains Fenris-WoIf, when the latter threatened the gods themselves in Asgard, and lost a hand in the battle with the monster. He is the god of war, and was greatly worshipped by the ancient Germans.

Zipporah (Heb.). Lit., the shining, the radiant. In the Biblical allegory of Genesis, Zipporah is one of the seven daughters of Jethro, the Midianite priest, the Initiator of Moses, who meets Zipporah (or spiritual light) near the “well” (of occult knowledge) and marries her.

Zirat-banit (Chald.). The wife of the great, divine hero of the Assyrian tablets, Merodach. She is identified with the Succoth Benoth of the Bible.

Ziruph (Heb.). More properly Tziruph, a mode of divination by Temura, or permutation of letters, taught by the mediæval Kabbalists. The school of Rabbis Abulafia and Gikatilla laid the most stress on the value of this process of the Practical Kabalah. [w.w.w.]

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Zodiac (Gr.). From the word zodion, a diminutive of zoon, animal. This word is used in a dual meaning; it may refer to the fixed and intellectual Zodiac, or to the movable and natural Zodiac. “In astronomy”, says Science, “it is an imaginary belt in the heavens 16° or 18° broad, through the middle of which passes the sun’s path (the ecliptic).” It contains the twelve constellations which constitute the twelve signs of the Zodiac, and from which they are named. As the nature of the zodiacal light—that elongated, luminous, triangular figure which, lying almost in the ecliptic, with its base on the horizon and its apex at greater and smaller altitudes, is to be seen only during the morning and evening twilights—is entirely unknown to science, the origin and real significance and occult meaning of the Zodiac were, and are still, a mystery, to all save the Initiates. The latter preserved their secrets well. Between the Chaldean star-gazer and the modern astrologer there lies to this day a wide gulf indeed; and they wander, in the words of Albumazar, “’twixt the poles, and heavenly hinges, ‘mongst eccentricals, centres, concentricks, circles and epicycles”, with vain pretence to more than profane human skill. Yet, some of the astrologers, from Tycho Braire and Kepler of astrological memory, down to the modern Zadkiels and Raphaels, have contrived to make a wonderful science from such scanty occult materials as they have had in hand from Ptolemy downwards. (See “Astrology”.) To return to the astrological Zodiac proper, however, it is an imaginary circle passing round the earth in the plane of the equator, its first point being called Aries 0º. It is divided into twelve equal parts called “Signs of the Zodiac”, each containing 30º of space, and on it is measured the right ascension of celestial bodies. The movable or natural Zodiac is a succession of constellations forming a belt of 47º in width, lying north and south of the plane of the ecliptic. The precession of the Equinoxes is caused by the “motion” of the sun through space, which makes the constellations appear to move forward against the order of the signs at the rate of 50⅓ seconds per year. A simple calculation will show that at this rate the constellation Taurus (Heb. Aleph) was in the first sign of the Zodiac at the beginning of the Kali Yuga, and consequently the Equinoctial point fell therein. At this time, also, Leo was in the summer solstice, Scorpio in the autumnal Equinox, and Aquarius in the winter solstice; and these facts form the astronomical key to half the religious mysteries of the world—the Christian scheme included. The Zodiac was known in India and Egypt for incalculable ages, and the knowledge of the sages (magi) of these countries, with regard to the occult influence of the stars and heavenly bodies on our earth, was far greater than profane astronomy can ever hope to reach to. If, even now, when most of the secrets of the Asuramayas and the Zoroasters

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are lost, it is still amply shown that horoscopes and judiciary astrology are far from being based on fiction, and if such men as Kepler and even Sir Isaac Newton believed that stars and constellations influenced the destiny of our globe and its humanities, it requires no great stretch of faith to believe that men who were initiated into all the mysteries of nature, as well as into astronomy and astrology, knew precisely in what way nations and mankind, whole races as well as individuals, would be affected by the so-called “signs of the Zodiac”.

Zohak, or Azhi Dâhaka. The personification of the Evil One or Satan under the shape of a serpent, in the Zend Avesta. This serpent is three-headed, one of the heads being human. The Avesta describes it as dwelling in the region of Bauri or Babylonia. In reality Zohak is the allegorical symbol of the Assyrian dynasty, whose banner had on it the purple sign of the dragon. (Isis Unveiled, Vol. II., p. 486, n.)

Zohar, or Sohar. A compendium of Kabbalistic Theosophy, which shares with the Sepher Yetzirah the reputation of being the oldest extant treatise on the Hebrew esoteric religious doctrines. Tradition assigns its authorship to Rabbi Simeon ben Jochai, A.D. 80, but modern criticism is inclined to believe that a very large portion of the volume is no older than 1280, when it was certainly edited and published by Rabbi Moses de Leon, of Guadalaxara in Spain. The reader should consult the references to these two names. In Lucifer (Vol. I., p. 141) will be found also notes on this subject: further discussion will be attainable in the works of Zunz, Graetz, Jost, Steinschneider, Frankel and Ginsburg. The work of Franck (in French) upon the Kabalah may be referred to with advantage. The truth seems to lie in a middle path, viz., that while Moses de Leon was the first to produce the volume as a whole, yet a large part of some of its constituent tracts consists of traditional dogmas and illustrations, which have come down from the time of Simeon ben Jochai and the Second Temple. There are portions of the doctrines of the Zohar which bear the impress of Chaldee thought and civilization, to which the Jewish race had been exposed in the Babylonish captivity. Yet on the other hand, to condemn the theory that it is ancient in its entirety, it is noticed that the Crusades are mentioned; that a quotation is made from a hymn by Ibn Gebirol, A.D. 1050; that the asserted author, Simeon ben Jochai, is spoken of as more eminent than Moses; that it mentions the vowel-points, which did not come into use until Rabbi Mocha (A.D. 570) introduced them to fix the pronunciation of words as a help to his pupils, and lastly, that it mentions a comet which can be proved by the evidence of the context to have appeared in 1264.

There is no English translation of the Zohar as a whole, nor even a Latin one. The Hebrew editions obtainable are those of Mantua, 1558;

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Cremona, 1560; and Lublin, 1623. The work of Knorr von Rosenroth called Kabbala Denudata includes several of the treatises of the Zohar, but not all of them, both in Hebrew and Latin. MacGregor Mathers has published an English translation of three of these treatises, the Book of Concealed Mystery, the Greater and the Lesser Holy Assembly, and his work includes an original introduction to the subject.

The principal tracts included in the Zohar are:—“The Hidden Midrash”, “The Mysteries of the Pentateuch”, “The Mansions and Abodes of Paradise and Gaihinnom”, “The Faithful Shepherd”, “The Secret of Secrets”, “Discourse of the Aged in Mishpatim” (punishment of souls), “The Januka or Discourse of the Young Man”, and “The Tosephta and Mathanithan”, which are additional essays on Emanation and the Sephiroth, in addition to the three important treatises mentioned above. In this storehouse may be found the origin of all the later developments of Kabbalistic teaching. [w.w.w.]

Zoroaster. Greek form of Zarathustra (q.v.).

Zumyad Yasht (Zend). Or Zamyad Yasht as some spell it. One of the preserved Mazdean fragments. It treats of metaphysical questions and beings, especially of the Amshaspends or the Amesha Spenta—the Dhyân Chohans of the Avesta books.

Zuñi. The name of a certain tribe of Western American Indians, a very ancient remnant of a still more ancient race. (Secret Doctrine, II., p. 628.)

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