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Chandogya Upanishad

Translated by Charles Johnston

See also: The Mukhya Upanishads, by C. Johnston

Chhandogya Upanishad

 

PART I, SECTIONS 1-6

THE POWERS OF THE LOGOS

THE DIVINE CREATIVE WORD

OM : As this unchanging Sound he should reverence the Loud Chant Song; for beginning with Om, he chants the Loud Song. This is its expansion:

Of manifested beings, elemental Earth is the essence.

Of elemental Earth, the Waters are the essence.

Of the Waters, the Growths are the essence.

Of the Growths, man is the essence.

Of Man, creative Voice is the essence.

Of creative Voice, the hymn of the Rig Veda is the essence.

Of the hymn of the Rig Veda, the chant of the Sama Veda is the essence.

Of the chant of the Sama Veda, the Loud Chant Song is the essence.

For the Loud Chant Song is of these essences the supreme essence, the spiritual antetype, the eighth in number.

Which is the Rig? Which is the Sama? Which is the Loud Chant Song?—thus it is considered.

Creative Voice, verily, is the Rig; Life-breath is the Sama; the unchanging Sound Om is the Loud Chant Song. These, then, are a creative pair: Voice and Life-breath; Rig and Sama. Then this creative pair is joined together in the unchanging Sound Om. For when the creative pair come together, they mutually fulfil desire.

He is a fulfiller of desires who, thus knowing this, reverences the Loud Chant Song as the unchanging Sound.

Then, verily, this unchanging Sound is affirmation. For when one affirms anything, he says “Om!” Affirmation is obtaining. He is an obtainer of desires who, thus knowing this, reverences the Loud Chant Song as the unchanging Sound.

Through this unchanging Sound the threefold wisdom acts. With Om, one calls aloud; with Om, one praises; with Om, one sings the Loud Chant, for the honour of this unchanging Sound, because of its might, because of its essence.

Therefore both accomplish work, he who thus knows and he who knows not. But different are wisdom and unwisdom; what he accomplishes through wisdom, through faith, through the secret teaching, that, verily, possesses greater virtue.

This, in truth, is the expansion of this unchanging Sound.

 

When the Bright Powers and the Dark Powers strove against each other, both coming forth from the Lord of beings, the Bright Powers laid hold on the Loud Chant Song, saying, “Through this we shall overcome them!”

Then they reverenced the Life-breath in the nostrils as the Loud Chant Song. Then the Dark Powers pierced it with evil. Therefore, through this, one smells both odorous and malodorous, for this is pierced with evil.

And so they reverenced creative Voice as the Loud Chant Song. Then the Dark Powers pierced it with evil. Therefore, through this, one speaks both truth and untruth, for this is pierced with evil.

And so they reverenced Vision as the Loud Chant Song. Then the Dark Powers pierced it with evil. Therefore, through this, one sees both seemly and unseemly, for this is pierced with evil.

And so they reverenced Hearing as the Loud Chant Song. Then the Dark Powers pierced it with evil. Therefore, through this, one hears both what should be heard and what should not be heard, for this is pierced with evil.

And so they reverenced Mind as the Loud Chant Song. Then the Dark Powers pierced it with evil. Therefore, through this, one imagines both what should be imagined and what should not be imagined, for this is pierced with evil.

And so this which is the principal Life they reverenced as the Loud Chant Song. Striking it, the Dark Powers fell in pieces, as one would fall in pieces striking against a firm rock. Just as, striking a firm rock, one would fall in pieces, so he falls in pieces who desires evil for one who thus knows, or who seeks to harm him, for such a one is a firm rock.

Nor, verily, through this principal Life does he discern odorous or malodorous, for this has cast away evil. Whatsoever through this he eats or drinks, through this he guards the lesser lives. So, verily, at the end, not finding this principal Life, he departs, at the time of the end he gives up the ghost.

Angiras, verily, reverenced the principal Life as the Loud Chant Song. Indeed they think that it is Angiras, for it is the essence of the members.

Therefore, verily, Brihaspati reverenced this as the Loud Chant Song. Indeed they think that it is Brihaspati, the Great Lord, for creative Voice is great, whereof this is lord.

Therefore, verily, Ayasya reverenced this as the Loud Chant Song. Indeed they think that it is Ayasya, because it proceeds from the mouth.

Therefore, verily, this Baka son of Dalbhya knew. He became master of chants for the people of Naimisha. Of old he sang for them their desires.

He, verily, is a singer of desires who, thus knowing this, reverences it as the Loud Chant Song. So far concerning the Self.

 

And so concerning the Bright Powers. He who gleams in the sky, him one should reverence as the Loud Chant Song. When he rises, verily, he sings aloud for beings. When he rises, he drives away darkness and fear. He, verily, drives away fear and darkness, who thus knows.

This principal Life and that Sun are alike. For this is fire and that is fire. This principal Life they designate as Sound, and that Sun as Sound and as returning Sound. Therefore, let him reverence the one and the other as the Loud Chant Song.

And so, in truth, one should reverence the distributive Life as the Loud Chant Song. When he breathes forth, this is the forward Life-breath; when he breathes downward, this is the downward Life-breath. And so that which is the binding together of the forward Life-breath and the downward Life-breath-this is the distributive Life-breath, this is creative Voice. Therefore, without breathing forward, without breathing downward, he sends forth creative Voice. That which is creative Voice, that is the Rig verse. Therefore, without breathing forward, without breathing downward, he sends forth the Rig verse. That which is the Rig verse, that is the Sama chant. Therefore, without breathing forward, without breathing downward, he sings the Sama chant. That which is the Sama, that is the Loud Chant Song. Therefore, without breathing forward, without breathing downward, he chants the Loud Chant Song.

And so, whatever other works there are possessing strong virtue, such as kindling fire with the fire-sticks, running a course, drawing a firm bow, these he accomplishes without breathing forward, without breathing downward. For this cause, one should reverence the distributive Life-breath as the Loud Chant Song.

And so, in truth, one should reverence the unchanging sounds of the Loud Chant Song: that is, the syllables Loud, Chant, Song. The forward Life-breath is “Loud”, for through the forward Life-breath one arises; creative Voice is “Chant”, for they call chants voices; the World-food is “Song”, for in the World-food all stands.

Heaven verily, is “Loud”; Interspace is “Chant”; Earth is “Song”. Sun, verily, is “Loud”; great Breath is “Chant”; Fire-lord is “Song”. Sama Veda, verily, is “Loud”; Yajur Veda is “Chant”; Rig Veda is “Song”. Creative Voice milks for him that milk which is the milk of Voice; food-possessing, a food-eater is he who, knowing thus, reverences these unchanging sounds of the Loud Chant Song; that is, the syllables Loud, Chant, Song.

And so, in truth, concerning the fulfilment of hopes. These one should reverence as refuges:

One should seek refuge in the Sama chant with which he is to chant a hymn of praise. He should seek refuge in the Rig hymn from which the Sama is formed, in the Seer who sang it, in the Divinity whom he is to praise,—in this Divinity be should seek refuge.

One should seek refuge in the measure with which he is to chant a hymn of praise. He should seek refuge in the song-form with which he is to chant a hymn of praise. He should seek refuge in the region toward which he is to chant a hymn of praise.

Finally, drawing close to the divine Self, he should sing praise, steadily meditating on his desire. Then there is good hope that that desire is fulfilled, desiring which he may sing praise,—desiring which he may sing praise.

 

Om: let him reverence this unchanging Sound as the Loud Chant Song. This is the expansion of it.

The Bright Powers, verily, fearing Death, went forth into the triune Wisdom of the Veda. They covered themselves with the musical measures. Because with these they covered themselves, this is the musical quality of the measures. But Death perceived them there as one may perceive a fish in the water. They then, discovering this, went forth from the Rig verse, the Sama chant and the Yajur sentence, and entered into the magical vibration.

When, verily, one completes a Rig verse, he adds the magical vibration, Om; so also the Sama. chant; so also the Yajur sentence. This magical vibration is that unchanging Sound, Om. Going forth into that, the Bright Powers were immortal, fearless.

He who, thus knowing this, intones that unchanging Sound, goes forth into that unchanging Sound, the magical vibration, immortal, fearless. Going forth into that, as the Bright Powers were immortal, so is he immortal.

 

And so, verily, that which is the Loud Chant Song, that is the intoned unchanging Sound; that which is the intoned unchanging Sound, that is the Loud Chant Song. That heavenly Sun is the Loud Chant Song, he is the intoned unchanging Sound; for intoning the magical vibration, Om, he goes onward.

Him, verily, I have praised in song, therefore thou, my son, art one only.”

Thus Kaushitaki addressed his son. “But do thou meditate upon the rays; then thine shall be many.” So far concerning the Bright Powers.

And so concerning the Self. He who is the principal Life, him one should reverence as the Loud Chant Song; for intoning the magical vibration, Om, he goes onward.

Him, verily, I have praised in song, therefore thou, my son, art one only.” Thus Kaushitaki addressed his son. “But do thou meditate upon the Lives as many; then mine shall be many.”

And so, verily, that which is the Loud Chant Song, that is the intoned unchanging Sound; that which is the intoned unchanging Sound, that is the Loud Chant Song. Thus knowing, that which has been ill chanted from the station of the sacrificial priest, he perfectly fulfils,—he perfectly fulfils.

 

This earth, verily, is the Rig verse; the fire of Life is the Sama chant. This Sama chant rests upon the Rig verse. Therefore, the Sama chant is sung resting upon the Rig verse. This earth is Sa; the fire of Life is Ama. This makes Sama.

The interspace, verily, is the Rig verse; the great Breath is the Sama. This Sama chant rests upon the Rig verse. Therefore, the Sama chant is sung resting upon the Rig verse. The interspace is Sa; the great Breath is Ama. This makes Sama.

The heavens, verily, are the Rig verse; the Sun is the Sama chant. This Sama chant rests upon the Rig verse. Therefore, the Sama chant is sung resting upon the Rig verse. The heavens are Sa; the Sun is Ama. This makes Sama.

The lunar mansions, verily, are the Rig verse; the Moon is the Sama chant. This Sama chant rests upon the Rig verse. Therefore, the Sama chant is sung resting upon the Rig verse. The lunar mansions are Sa; the Moon is Ama. This makes Sama.

And so that which is the white radiance of the Sun is the Rig verse; the indigo-coloured, very dark, is the Sama chant. This Sama chant rests upon the Rig verse. Therefore, the Sama chant is sung resting upon the Rig verse. The white radiance is Sa; the indigo-coloured, very dark, is Ama. This makes Sama.

And so this divine Man, golden-coloured, who is seen within the Sun, has a golden beard and golden hair, even to the tips of the nails he is all as bright gold. As is the golden lotus, so are his two eyes. His name is the Highest, for He is raised on high above all evils. He who thus knows, rises, verily, above all evils. The Rig verse and the Sama chant are His two songs. Therefore, the Loud Chant Song is His. Therefore, he who sings the Loud Chant Song is named Chanter, for he is the singer of this. He is Lord of the realms beyond that Sun, and of the desires of the Bright Powers. So far concerning the Bright Powers.

 

PART I, SECTIONS 7-13

INSTRUCTION AND ENTERTAINMENT

VESTURES OF DIVINITY

And so concerning the Self. The Voice, verily, is the Rig verse; the Life is the Sama chant. This Sama chant rests upon the Rig verse. Therefore, the Sama chant is sung resting upon the Rig verse. The Voice is Sa; the Life is Ama. This makes Sama.

The power of Vision is the Rig Verse; the Self is the Sama chant. This Sama chant rests upon the Rig verse. Therefore, the Sama chant is sung resting upon the Rig verse. The power of Vision is Sa; the Self is Ama. This makes Sama.

The power of Hearing is the Rig verse; the Mind is the Sama chant. This Sama chant rests upon the Rig verse. Therefore, the Sama chant is sung resting upon the Rig verse. The power of Hearing is Sa; the Mind is Arna. This makes Sama.

And so the white brightness that is in the Eye is the Rig verse; the indigo-coloured beyond the black is the Sama chant. This Sama chant rests upon the Rig verse. Therefore, the Sama chant is sung resting upon the Rig verse. And so the white brightness that is in the eye is Sa; the indigo-coloured beyond the black is Arna. This makes Sama.

And so this Person who is seen within the eye is the Rig verse, he is the Sama chant, this is the intoned Sentence, this is the Formula of sacrifice, this is the prayer of Aspiration. That which is the form of this, is also the form of That. The two songs of That are the two songs of this; the name of That is the name of this.

Those worlds which are below this world, of them he is Lord, and of the desires of the sons of Man. And they who sing here with the lute sing Him; therefore they are conquerors of wealth.

He who, thus knowing this, chants the Sama, sings the praise of both; through That, verily, be gains the worlds that are beyond that world, and the desires of the Bright Powers. And so through this he gains the worlds that are below this world, and the desires of the sons of Man.

Therefore, a Singer of the chant, thus knowing, might say: “What desire shall I sing for thee?” For he, verily, is Lord of the song of desires, who, thus knowing, sings the chant,—who sings the chant.

 

Once there were three who were excellent in singing the Loud Chant Song: Shilaka Shalavatya, Chaikitayana Dalbhya, and Pravahana, son of Jivala. They said : “We are excellent in singing the Loud Chant Song. Come then, let us engage in discourse concerning the Loud Chant Song!”

Let it be so!” they said. So they seated themselves together.

Thereupon Pravahana, son of Jivala, said: “You two, worthy Sirs, should speak first. When two Brahmans are speaking,I shall listen to their words.”

Thereupon Shilaka Shalavatya addressed Chaikitayana Dalbhya: “Come then, let me question thee!”

Question me!” said he.

What is the resting-place of the Sama chant?”

It rests in the Tone,” said he.

What is the resting-place of the Tone?”

It rests in the Life-breath,” said he.

What is the resting-place of the Life-breath?”

It rests in the Food,” said he.

What is the resting-place of the Food?”

It rests in the Waters,” said he.

What is the resting-place of the Waters?”

They rest in that World,” said he.

What is the resting-place of that World?”

One may not carry it beyond the heavenly World,” said he. “We firmly establish the Sama chant on the heavenly World, for as the heavenly World the Sama chant is praised.”

Thereupon Shilaka Shalavatya said to Chaikitayana Dalbhya: “Not firmly established, of a truth, Dalbhya, is thy Sama chant. If one were now to say, ‘Thy head will fall off!’—thy head would indeed fall off!”

Come then, let me know this from thee, worthy Sir!”

Know it!” said he.

What is the resting-place of that World?”

It rests in this World,” said he.

What is the resting-place of this World?”

One may not carry it beyond the World as foundation.” said he. “We firmly establish the Sama chant on the World, for as the foundation the Sama is praised.”

Thereupon Pravahana. son of Jivala, said to him: “Of a truth, Shalavatya, thy Sama has an end. If one were now to say, ‘Thy head will fall off!’—thy head would indeed fall off!”

Come then, let me know this from thee, worthy Sir!”

Know it!” said he.

What is the resting-place of this World?”

It rests in shining Ether,” said he. “All these beings, verily, come forth into manifestation from shining Ether; to shining Ether they go from manifestation; shining Ether, verily, is more potent than these beings; shining Ether is their highest home.” This, verily, is the most excellent Loud Chant Song, this has no end. The most excellent is his, most excellent worlds he conquers, who thus knowing this, reverences the most excellent Loud Chant Song.

When Atidhanvan Shaunaka declared this to his disciple Udarashandilya, he said: “As long as they shall know this Loud Chant Song among thy progeny, so long will their living in this World be most excellent, and so also in that World.” For he who thus knowing, reverences this, his living in this World is most excellent, and so also in that World,—he has a World in that World.

 

When the Kurus were devastated by hailstorms, a certain very poor man, Ushasti, son of Chakra, lived with his wife, Atiki, in the village of a man of great possessions. He sought alms of food of the rich man, who was eating stewed fruit. The rich man said, “I have none but these that are set before me!”

Then give me some of these!” said he. He gave them to him, saying: “Drink of this water also!”

Nay, for that would be for me to drink leavings!” said he.

Are not these also leavings?”

If I were not to eat these, I could not live,” said he. “But I can drink water at my desire.”

When he had eaten, he carried what was left to his wife, but she had already received alms; so taking them, she put them away. Rising early in the morning, he said: “If we could obtain food, we could gain a measure of wealth also. The Prince there is offering a sacrifice, and he might select me for all the ritual offices!”

His wife said to him: “Here, my lord, is this fruit.” Eating the fruit, he went to the place where the sacrifice was proceeding.

There approaching the priests of the chant, who were about to sing the opening praise, he said to the priest of the opening praise: “Priest, if thou shalt sing the opening praise, not knowing that Divinity which is correlated with the opening praise, thy head will fall off!”

In the same way, verily, he said to the priest of the chant:

Priest, if thou shalt sing the chant, not knowing that Divinity which is correlated with the chant, thy head will fall off!”

In the same way, verily, he said to the priest of the response:

Priest, if thou shalt sing the response, not knowing that Divinity which is correlated with the response, thy head will fall off!”

Thereupon they stopped and seated themselves in silence.

Then the master of the sacrifice said to him: “I desire to know thee, worthy Sir!”

I am Ushasti, son of Chakra!” said he.

He said: “I sought thee, worthy Sir, for all these ritual offices; when I was not able to find thee, I selected others! But, worthy Sir, I request thee to perform all these ritual offices for me!”

Let it be so! But let these now sing the chants with my permission; and as much wealth as thou wouldst give to them, so much shalt thou give to me!”

Let it be so!” said the master of the sacrifice.

Then the priest of the opening praise came up to him and said:

Thou saidst to me, ‘Priest, if thou shalt sing the opening praise, not knowing that Divinity which is correlated with the opening praise, thy head will fall off!’ Tell me, worthy Sir, what Divinity that is!”

It is the Life,” said he. “For all these beings enter into the Life; to the Life they go forth. This is the Divinity which is correlated with the opening praise. If thou hadst sung the opening praise, not knowing this Divinity, thy head would have fallen off, as I had so declared to thee!”

Then the priest of the chant came up to him and said: “Thou saidst to me, ‘Priest, if thou shalt sing the chant, not knowing that Divinity which is correlated with the chant, thy head will fall off!’ Tell me, worthy Sir, what Divinity that is!”

It is the Sun,” said he. “For all these beings sing the praise of the Sun on high. This is the Divinity which is correlated with the chant. If thou hadst sung the chant, not knowing this Divinity, thy head would have fallen off, as I had so declared to thee!”

Then the priest of the response came up to him and said: “Thou saidst to me, ‘Priest, if thou shalt sing the response, not knowing that Divinity which is correlated with the response, thy head will fall off!’ Tell me, worthy Sir, what Divinity that is!”

It is the Food,” said he. “For all these beings live by partaking of the Food. This is the Divinity which is correlated with the response. If thou hadst sung the response, not knowing this Divinity, thy head would have fallen off, as I had so declared to thee!”

 

Then follows the canine Loud Chant Song. There was a certain Baka Dalbhya, or Glava Maitreya, who went forth for sacred study. Before him a white dog appeared. Other dogs, gathering about this white dog, said: “Do thou, worthy Sir, sing food for us, for we would eat!”

To them he said: “Early in the morning ye shall assemble hither to me!”

So Baka Dalbhya, or Glava Maitreya, was on the watch for them.

Then, verily, as priests about to sing the chant of purification, join in a circle and wind about in serpentine dance, so did these dogs wind about in serpentine dance. Then they sat down together and intoned the opening verses thus:

Om! Let us eat! Om! Let us drink! Lord of the heavenly vault!

Lord of beings! Lord of the Sun! Bring ye food here! Lord of food, bring food here! Bring food, bring! Om!”

 

Now concerning the meaning of the tones. The tone Ha-u is this World. The tone Ha-i is the great Breath. The tone A-tha is the lunar Lord. The tone I-ha is the Self. The tone I is the Fire-lord. The tone U is the solar Lord. The tone E is the invocation. The tones Au-ho-i are the Bright Powers, the Host. The tone Hin is the Lord of Beings. The vibratory tone is the Life-breath. The tone Ya is the Food. The Voice is Viraj, the Radiant. The tone Hun is the undefined thirteenth interposed trill.

The Voice milks milk for him, that which is the milk of the Voice; he becomes possessed of the Food, and eater of the Food, who thus knows this hidden meaning of the Sama chants,—who knows this hidden meaning.

 

PART II, SECTIONS 1-24

CORRESPONDENCE AND EMANATION

FROM DISCIPLE TO MASTER

Om! Reverence of the Sama in totality (samasta) is good, in truth. For what is good, that, in truth, they name Sama (abundance). What is not good, they call not-Sama (lack).

So likewise they say: With Sama (graciousness) he came to him; the meaning is, With good will he came to him. Or they say, With not-Sama he came to him; that is, Without graciousness be came to him.

So likewise they say: Verily, we have Sama (that which is good), if it be good; the meaning is, This is good. Or they say, We have not-Sama, if it be not good; the meaning is, This is not good.

 

Among the Regions, let him reverence the Sama as having five forms:

Earth is the First Tone.
Fire is the Opening Praise.
Mid-space is the Loud Chant.
Sun is the Response.
Aether is the Closing Tone.

Thus among the Powers going upward. And so among the Powers returning:

Aether is the First Tone.
Sun is the Opening Praise.
Mid-space is the Loud Chant.
Fire is the Response.
Earth is the Closing Tone.

For him the Regions build, both the Powers going upward and the Powers returning, who, thus knowing this, among the Regions reverences the Sama as having five forms.

 

In the Rain, let him reverence the Sama as having five forms:

Rising wind is the First Tone.
Cloud forming is the Opening Praise.
Rain falling is the Loud Chant.
Lightning with Thunder is the Response.
Clearing after Rain is the Closing Tone.

For him comes Rain, he causes Rain, who, thus knowing this, reverences the Sama as having five forms in the Rain.

 

In all Waters, let him reverence the Sama as having five forms:

Cloud condensing is the First Tone.
Rain descending is the Opening Praise.
Waters rolling eastward are the Loud Chant.
Waters rolling westward are the Response.
Ocean is the Closing Tone.

In the Waters he goes not astray, of the Waters he is lord, who, thus knowing this, reverences the Sama as having five forms in the Waters.

 

In the Seasons of the year, let him reverence the Sama as having five forms:

Springtime is the First Tone.
Hot season is the Opening Praise.
Rains are the Loud Chant.
Autumn is the Response.
Winter is the Closing Tone.

For him the Seasons build, of the Seasons he is lord, who, thus knowing this, reverences the Sama as having five forms in the Seasons.

 

In Animals, let him reverence the Sama as having five forms:

Goats (aja) are the First Tone.
Sheep are the Opening Praise.
Cows are the Loud Chant.
Horses are the Response.
Man is the Closing Tone.

For him Animals are multiplied, of Animals he is lord, who, thus knowing this, reverences the Sama as having five forms in Animals.

 

In the Life-powers, let him reverence the Sama as having five forms, most excellent:

Life-breath is the First Tone.
Voice is the Opening Praise.
Seeing is the Loud Chant.
Hearing is the Response.
Mind (manas) is the Closing Tone.

Most excellent, verily, are these. His is the most excellent, most excellent worlds he wins, who, thus knowing this, reverences the Sama as having five forms in the Life-breaths.

 

And so concerning seven forms. Let him reverence the Sama as having seven forms in Voice:

Of Voice, whatever is hum, is the First Tone (hin-kāra).
Whatever is pra, is the Opening Praise (pra-stāva).
Whatever is a, is the Beginning (ā-di).
Whatever is ud, is the Loud Chant (ud-gītha).
Whatever is prati, is the Response (prati-hāra).
Whatever is upa, is the Diminution (upa-drava).
Whatever is ni, is the Closing Tone (ni-dhana).

For him Voice milks milk, which is the milk of Voice, of food he is lord, an eater of food is he, who, thus knowing this, reverences the Sama as having seven forms in Voice.

 

And so, of a truth, let him reverence yonder Sun as the Sama having seven forms. Because it is the same for all, it is the Sama. Toward me, toward me, it shines, they all say; because of this sameness it is the Sama. Let him know that all beings here are correlated with the Sun.

The time before sunrise is the First Tone. Animals are correlated with this, therefore they sound the First Tone; for they are partakers in the First Tone of this Sama.

And so sunrise is the Opening Praise. Men are correlated with this, therefore they are lovers of praise, lovers of laudation; for they are partakers in the Opening Praise of this Sama.

And so the time of the early gathering of kine is the Beginning. The birds of the air are correlated with this, therefore they fly hither and thither bearing themselves upward in mid-air without support; for they are partakers in the Beginning of this Sama.

And so when it is exactly mid-day, this is the Loud Chant. The Bright Powers are correlated with this, therefore they are best of the offspring of the Lord of Beings; for they are partakers in the Loud Chant of this Sama.

And so when it is past mid-day in the early afternoon, this is the Response.

Children unborn are correlated with this, therefore they are upborne, they descend not; for they are partakers in the Response of this Sama.

And so when the afternoon is past, before sunset, this is the Diminution.

The Forest Lives are correlated with this; therefore, seeing a man, they make themselves small in a hiding-place, a den; for they are partakers in the Diminution of this Sama.

And so when the Sun has just set, this is the Closing Tone. The Fathers are correlated with this, therefore they make offerings to the Fathers; for they are partakers in the Closing Tone of this Sama.

Thus, of a truth, he reverences yonder Sun as the Sama having seven forms.

 

And so let him reverence the Sama having seven forms, self-measured, passing beyond Death. The First Tone (hin-kāra) measures three syllables; the Opening Praise (pra-stāva) measures three syllables. This is the same measure.

The Beginning (ā-di) measures two syllables; the Response (prati-hara) measures four syllables. Moving one from this to that, makes the same measure.

The Loud Chant (ud-gītha) measures three syllables; the Diminution (upa-drava) measures four syllables. Three and three are the same, with one syllable remaining. Measuring three syllables, it is the same.

The Closing Tone (ni-dhana) measures three syllables; this is the same. These, verily, taken together measure two and twenty syllables.

With one and twenty he gains the Sun, for yonder Sun is one and twentieth from here. Through the two and twentieth he wins the realm beyond the Sun. This is Rest, for this is free from sorrow.

He gains, of a truth, the victory of the Sun, yea, his victory is beyond the victory of the Sun, who, thus knowing this, reverences the Sama having seven forms, self-measured, passing beyond Death,—reverences the Sama.

 

Mind is the First Tone.
Voice is the Opening Praise.
Seeing is the Loud Chant.
Hearing is the Response.
Life-breath is the Closing Tone.

This is the Sama of the Gāyatri, woven on the Life-breaths.

He who thus knows this Sama of the Gāyatri woven on the Life-breaths, is a lord of the Life-breaths, he fills his full span, he lives with power, he is rich in offspring and cattle, great in fame. Great in mind should he be: this is his vow.

 

He whirls the fire-stick; this is the First Tone.
Smoke is generated; this is the Opening Praise.
Flames arise; this is the Loud Chant.
Red embers are formed; this is the Response.
It sinks to quiescence; this is the Closing Tone.
It reaches complete quiescence; this is the Closing Tone.

This is the Rathantara Sama, woven upon Fire.

He who thus knows this Rathantara Sama woven upon Fire, is a lord of Divine Fire, he is an eater of food, he fills his full span, he lives with power, he is rich in offspring and cattle, great in fame. He should not sip water and spurt it upon the fire: this is his vow.

 

Sunrise is the First Tone.
The risen Sun is the Opening Praise.
High noon is the Loud Chant.
Afternoon is the Response.
Sunset is the Closing Tone.

This is the Brihat Sama, woven upon the Sun.

He who thus knows this Brihat Sama woven upon the Sun, is a lord of Radiance, he is an eater of food, he fills his full span, he Jives with power, he is rich in offspring and cattle, great in fame. He should not blame burning heat: this is his vow.

 

Vapours float together; this is the First Tone.
The rain cloud is born; this is the Opening Praise.
Rain descends; this is the Loud Chant.
It lightens, it thunders; this is the Response.
The sky clears; this is the Closing Tone.

This is the Vai-rupa Sama woven upon the Rain.

He who thus knows this Vai-rupa (variformed) Sama woven upon the Rain, gathers cattle of various form, of fair form, he fills his full span, he lives with power, he is rich in offspring and cattle, great in fame. He should not blame falling rain: this is his vow.

 

Springtime is the First Tone.
Hot season is the Opening Praise.
Rains are the Loud Chant.
Autumn is the Response.
Winter is the Closing Tone.

This is the Vai-rāja Sama woven upon the Seasons.

He who thus knows this Vai-rāja (radiating) Sama woven upon the Seasons, he radiates through offspring and cattle, through Divine Radiance, he fills his full span, he lives with power, he is rich in offspring and cattle, great in fame. Let him not blame the Seasons: this is his vow.

 

Earth is the First Tone.
Mid-space is the Opening Praise.
Aether is the Loud Chant.
Space-directions are the Response.
Ocean is the Closing Tone.

These are the parts of the Shakvari Sama woven upon the world-realms.

He who thus knows these parts of the Shakvari Sama woven upon the world-realms, he is lord of the world-realms, he fills his span, he lives with power, he is rich in offspring and cattle, great in fame. Let him not blame the world-realms: this is his vow.

 

Goats are the First Tone.
Sheep are the Opening Praise.
Cows are the Loud Chant.
Horses are the Response.
Man is the Closing Tone.

These are the parts of the Revati Sama woven upon Animals.

He who thus knows these parts of the Revati Sama woven upon Animals, he is lord of Animals, he fills his span, he lives with power, he is rich in offspring and cattle, great in fame. Let him not blame Animals: this is his vow.

 

Hair is the First Tone.
Skin is the Opening Praise.
Muscle is the Loud Chant.
Bone is the Response.
Marrow is the Closing Tone.

This is the Yajnāyajnīya Sama woven upon the parts of the body.

He who thus knows this Yajnāyajnīya Sama woven upon the parts of the body, he is lord of the parts, not through any part does he fall short, he fills his span, he lives with power, he is rich in offspring and cattle, great in fame. Through the year he should not eat the marrow: this is his vow. He should not eat the marrow, verily.

 

Fire is the First Tone.
Wind is the Opening Praise.
Sun is the Loud Chant.
Star-spaces are the Response.
Moon is the Closing Tone.

This is the Rājana Sama woven upon the Divine Potencies.

He who thus knows this Rājana Sama woven upon the Divine Potencies, successively advances to oneness of realm, oneness of power, oneness of being with the Divinities, he fills his span, he lives with power, he is rich in offspring and cattle, great in fame. He should not blame knowers of the Eternal: this is his vow.

 

The threefold Vedic wisdom is the First Tone.
These three realms are the Opening Praise.
Fire-lord, Wind-lord, Sun, this is the Loud Chant.
Star-spaces, winged birds, sun-rays, this is the Response.
Serpents, seraphs, the Fathers, this is the Closing Tone.

This is the Sama woven upon the All.

He who thus knows this Sama woven upon the All, he is one with the All. Therefore, there is this verse:

Whatsoever things have five forms, in threes each, than them naught else is greater, higher.

Who knows this, knows the All. All world-spaces carry the offering to him. Let him pay reverence, saying: I am the All: this is his vow. This is his vow.

 

I choose the loud-toned Sama like the voice of kine. This is the Loud Chant of the Fire-lord. The undefined tone is of the Lord of beings. The defined tone is of the Lunar lord. The soft and smooth tone is of the Wind-lord. The smooth and powerful tone is of Indra. The tone like the curlew’s call is of the Great Preceptor. The descending tone is of the Water-lord. Let him make use of all these, yet let him set aside that of the Water-lord.

Let me sing immortality for the Bright Powers (thus let him sing): oblation for the Fathers; fair hope for the sons of man; grass and water for kine; the heavenly world for the Sacrificer; food for myself, let me sing. Meditating these things in his heart, let him sing this praise unperturbed.

All vowels are selves of Indra. All breathings are selves of the Lord of beings. All contacts (consonants) are selves of the Lord of death.

If one reproach him concerning vowels, he should say: I have taken refuge with Indra, Lord of power; he will answer thee!

And so, if one reproach him concerning breathings, he should say: I have taken refuge with the Lord of beings; he will pulverize thee!

And so, if one reproach him concerning contacts, he should say: I have taken refuge with the Lord of death; he will consume thee!

All vowels are to be voiced with full sound, with power, saying: In Indra, Lord of power, let me give power! All breathings are to be voiced distinctly, not suppressed, open, saying: To the Lord of beings let me give myself over! All contacts are to be voiced clearly, unblurred, saying: From the Lord of death let me withdraw myself!

There are three branches of the law of righteousness: Sacrifice, study, giving,—this is the first. Fervour, verily,—this is the second. Service of the Eternal, dwelling in the family of a Master,—this is the third, entering and establishing himself perfectly in the family of a Master. All these lead to holy realms. He who stands firm in the Eternal goes to immortality.

 

The Lord of beings brooded with fervour upon the realms of life. From them, brooded upon with fervour, the threefold Wisdom emanated. On this Wisdom He brooded with fervour. From it, brooded upon with fervour, these imperishable syllables emanated: Earth, Mid-world, Heaven.

Upon these He brooded with fervour. From them, brooded upon with fervour, the sound Om emanated. Therefore, like as by the leaf-stalk all the leaflets are threaded together, so by the sound Om all Voice is threaded together. The sound Om, verily, is this All. The sound Om, verily, is this All.

Those who possess the Word of the Eternal declare that to the Powers of life belongs the morning sacrifice; to the Powers of force belongs the mid-day sacrifice; to the Sun-powers, the All-powers, belongs the third sacrifice.

Where, then, is the world of the sacrificer? If he know not this, how may he do it? So let him who knows do it.

 

Before beginning the early morning recitation, let him seat himself behind the household fire, facing the North, and intone the Sama to the Powers of life:

Open thou the door of the realm!
Let us behold thee for sovereignty!

So he makes the offering, saying: Obeisance to the Fire-lord, earth-indwelling, realm-indwelling! Discover the realm for me offering sacrifice! This is the realm of the sacrificer! I shall enter! I, the sacrificer, when my span is fulfilled. Adoration! Thrust aside the bar! Having said this, he rises. To him the Powers of life grant the morning libation.

 

Before beginning the mid-day recitation, let him seat himself behind the altar-fire, facing the North, and intone the Sama to the Powers of force.

Open thou the door of the realm!
Let us behold thee for wide sovereignty!

So he makes the offering, saying: Obeisance to the Wind-lord, mid-world-indwelling, realm-indwelling! Discover the realm for me offering sacrince! This is the realm of the sacrificer! I shall enter! I, the sacrificer, when my span is fulfilled. Adoration! Thrust aside the bar! Having said this, be rises. To him the Powers of force grant the mid-day libation.

 

Before beginning the third recitation, let him seat himself behind the fire of oblation, facing the North, and intone the Sama to the Sun-powers, the All-powers:

Open thou the door of the realm!
Let us behold thee for sovereignty of the Self!

Thus for the Sun-powers. So for the All-powers:

Open thou the door of the realm!
Let us behold thee for final sovereignty!

So he makes the offering, saying: Obeisance to the Sun-powers, to the All-powers, Heaven-indwelling, realm-indwelling! Discover the realm for me offering sacrifice! This is the realm of the sacrificer! I shall enter! I, the sacrificer, when my span is fulfilled. Adoration! The bar is thrust aside! Having said this, he rises. To him the Sun-powers, the All-powers, grant the third libation.

He, verily, knows the full measure of the sacrifice, who knows thus, who knows thus.

 

PART III, SECTIONS 1-11

THE PARABLE OF THE SUN

The sun yonder is the honey of the bright powers. The dome of the sky is the bent bamboo supporting it. The luminous air within the dome is the mass of honey combs. The sun’s rays are the brood.

The sun’s eastern rays, verily, are the eastern honey cells. The Rig verses are the honey gatherers. The Rig Veda, verily, is the blossom. The nectars are the currents. As honey gatherers, verily, the Rig verses brooded over the Rig Veda. From it, brooded over, were born fame, radiance, power, valour and food, its essence. The essence flowed; it wrapped itself about the sun. This, verily, is that red form of the sun.

And so the sun’s southern rays, verily, are the southern honey cells. The Yajur verses are the honey gatherers. The Yajur Veda, verily, is the blossom. The nectars are the currents. As honey gatherers, verily, the Yajur verses brooded over the Yajur Veda. From it, brooded over, were born fame, radiance, power, valour and food, its essence. The essence flowed; it wrapped itself about the sun. This, verily, is that luminous form of the sun.

And so the sun’s western rays, verily, are the western honey cells. The Sama verses are the honey gatherers. The Sama Veda, verily, is the blossom. The nectars are the currents. As honey gatherers, verily, the Sama verses brooded over the Sama Veda. From it, brooded over, were born fame, radiance, power, valour and food, its essence. The essence flowed; it wrapped itself about the sun. This, verily, is that dark form of the sun.

And so the sun’s northern rays, verily, are the northern honey cells. The Atharva-Angirasa verses are the honey gatherers. The histories and traditions are the blossom. The nectars are the currents. As honey gatherers, verily, the Atharva-Angirasa verses brooded over the histories and traditions. From them, brooded over, were born fame, radiance, power, valour and food, their essence. The essence flowed; it wrapped itself about the sun. This, verily, is the very dark form of the sun.

And so the sun’s rays which go upward are the upper honey cells. The Secret Instructions are the honey gatherers. The Eternal is the blossom. The nectars are the currents. As honey gatherers, verily, the Secret Instructions brooded over the Eternal. From the Eternal, brooded over, were born fame, radiance, power, valour and food, its essence. The essence flowed; it wrapped itself about the sun. This, verily, is that which throbs, as it were, in the heart of the sun.

These, verily, are the essences of the essences. For the Vedas are the essences, and these are their essences. These are the nectars of the nectars. For the Vedas are the nectars, and these are their nectars.

That which is the first nectar, on that the bright powers called Vasus live with Agni, the Fire-lord, as their leader. These bright powers, verily, do not eat or drink, but beholding that nectar they are sated. They, verily, enter into that red form and ascend from that red form. He, verily, who truly knows this nectar, becoming one of the Vasus with Agni, the Fire-lord, as his leader, beholding that nectar, verily, is sated. He, verily, enters into that red form, and from that red form he ascends.

As long as the sun shall rise from the east and shall go to his setting in the west, so long shall he fully possess overlordship and sovereignty over the Vasus.

And so that which is the second nectar, on that the bright powers called Rudras live, with Indra as their leader. These bright powers, verily, do not eat nor drink, but beholding that nectar they are sated. They, verily, enter into that luminous form and ascend from that luminous form. He, verily, who truly knows this nectar, becoming one of the Rudras with Indra as his leader, beholding that nectar, verily, is sated. He, verily, enters into that luminous form, and from that luminous form be ascends.

As long as the sun shall rise from the east and shall go to his setting in the west, twice as long shall the sun rise from the south and go to his setting in the north; so long shall he fully possess overlordship and sovereignty over the Rudras.

And so that which is the third nectar, on that the bright powers called Adityas live, with Varuna as their leader. These bright powers, verily, do not eat nor drink, but beholding that nectar they are sated. They, verily, enter into that dark form and ascend from that dark form. He, verily, who truly knows this nectar, becoming one of the Adityas with Varuna as his leader, beholding that nectar, verily, is sated. He, verily, enters into that dark form, and from that dark form he ascends.

As long as the sun shall rise from the south and shall go to his setting in the north, twice as long shall the sun rise from the west and go to his setting in the east; so long shall he fully possess overlordship and sovereignty over the Adityas.

And so that which is the fourth nectar, on that the bright powers called Maruts live, with Soma as their leader. These bright powers, verily, do not eat nor drink, but beholding that nectar they are sated. They, verily, enter into that very dark form and ascend from that very dark form. He, verily, who truly knows this nectar, becoming one of the Maruts with Soma as his leader, beholding that nectar, verily, is sated. He, verily, enters into that very dark form, and from that very dark form he ascends.

As long as the sun shall rise from the west and shall go to his setting in the east, twice as long shall the sun rise from the north and go to his setting in the south; so long shall he fully possess overlordship and sovereignty over the Maruts.

And so that which is the fifth nectar, on that the bright powers called Sadhyas live, with Brahma as their leader. These bright powers, verily, do not eat nor drink, but beholding that nectar they are sated. They, verily, enter into that form which throbs in the heart of the sun, and from that form they ascend. He, verily, who truly knows this nectar, becoming one of the Sadhyas with Brahma as his leader, beholding that nectar, verily, is sated. He, verily, enters into that form which throbs in the heart of the sun, and from that form he ascends.

As long as the sun shall rise from the north and shall go to his setting in the south, twice so long shall the sun rise above and go to his setting beneath; so long shall he fully possess overlordship and sovereignty over the Sadhyas. And so after that, rising above, the sun shall rise no more, nor go to his setting any more, but shall stand alone in the midst.

Therefore, there is this verse: There is no setting there, nor any rising for ever. O bright powers, through this truth may I never be divided from the Eternal!

For him, verily, there is neither rising nor setting, for him it is everlasting day, who knows this Secret Teaching of the Eternal.

That is that which Brahma declared to Prajapati, Prajapati to Manu, Manu to the descendants. This Eternal his father declared to Uddalaka Aruni, his eldest son. This, verily, should a father declare to his eldest son, or to a fully qualified disciple, but not to any other. Even if any should offer him this world which is surrounded by the waters, filled with wealth, this Teaching is greater than that. it is greater than that.

 

PART III, SECTIONS 12-19

MAN LINKED WITH THE LOGOS

THE DISCIPLE AS CHILD OF THE LOGOS

The Gayatri, verily, is all that is here, whatever here has come into being. The Voice, verily, is the Gayatri. For the Voice sings (gāyati) and saves (trāyate) whatever here has come into being.

What, verily, this Gayatri is, that, verily, this earth is; for in it is established whatever here has come into being, nor does aught transcend it.

What, verily, this earth is, that, verily, is this body in the man; for in it are these life-breaths established, nor does any transcend it.

What, verily, this body in man is, that, verily, is this Heart which is in the man within, for in it these life-breaths are established, nor does any transcend it.

That, verily, is this Gayatri with four parts, sixfold, concerning which it is declared by the Rig verse:

So great is the might of This,
And Spirit is still mightier;
One part of That is all beings,
Three parts of That are the Immortal in heaven.

For that which is named Brahma, the Eternal, is that radiant Ether which is outside the man. That radiant Ether which is outside the man is the same, verily, as the radiant Ether in the man within. That radiant Ether which is in the man within, that, verily, is the same as the radiant Ether in the inner Heart. That is the Fulness which goes not forth. Full Grace, which goes not forth, he gains who knows thus.

Of it, verily, of this Heart there are five channels for the Bright Powers.

That which is the channel of the East is the forward-breath, that is the power of vision, that is the Sun. Therefore, let him reverence it as fervour, as food to be eaten. Possessed of fervour and an eater of food he becomes, who knows thus.

And so that which is the channel of the South is the distributive-breath, that is the power of hearing, that is the Moon. Therefore, let him reverence it as grace and splendour. Gracious, splendid he becomes, who knows thus.

And so that which is the channel of the West is the downward-breath, that is the voice, that is the Fire-lord. Therefore, let him reverence it as the holy fire, as food to be eaten. Possessor of the holy fire, an eater of food he becomes, who knows thus.

And so that which is the channel of the North, that is the uniting-breath, that is mind, that is the Lord of fructifying rain. Therefore, let him reverence it as glory, and as the brightness of dawn. Possessed of glory, of the brightness of dawn he becomes, who knows thus.

And so that which is the channel of the Zenith is the upward-breath, that is the Great Breath, that is the radiant Ether. Therefore, let him reverence it as divine power and might. Possessed of divine power and might he becomes, who knows thus.

They, verily, these five Brahma-spirits are the doorkeepers of the heavenly world. He who knows thus these five Brahma-spirits as doorkeepers of the heavenly world, in his family a hero is born. He gains the heavenly world who knows thus these five Brahma-spirits as doorkeepers of the heavenly world.

And so the light which shines beyond this heaven, at the back of the whole world, at the back of all that is, in the supreme realms than which none is higher, that, verily, is the same as this light in the man within. This is the seeing of it, when through contact in this body he discerns its enkindling. This is the hearing of it, when, closing the two ears, he hears inwardly a rumbling, a lowing, the sound of a blazing fire. Therefore, let him reverence that as seen and heard. Worthy to be seen and heard he becomes, who knows thus,—who knows thus.

 

All this, verily, is the Eternal. Having attained to peace, let him reverence it as That from which all comes forth, That in which all is dissolved, That in which all breathes. And so, of a truth, man is formed of Will. According as a man’s will is in this world, such on going forth from this world he becomes. So let him direct his will.

Made of mind, with the life-breaths as body, radiant-formed, whose imagination is true, whose self is radiant Ether, possessing all works, possessing all desires, possessing all fragrances, possessing all essences, encompassing all this world, unspeaking, unconcerned,—this is my divine Self in the inner Heart, smaller than a grain of rice, or a grain of barley, or a grain of mustard-seed, or a grain of millet, or the kernel of a grain of millet,—this is my divine Self in the inner Heart, older and mightier than the earth, older and mightier than the mid-world, older and mightier than the heavens, older and mightier than these worlds.

Possessing all works, possessing all desires, possessing all fragrances, possessing all essences, encompassing all this world, unspeaking, unconcerned,—this is my divine Self in the inner Heart, this is the Eternal. In that divine Self I shall completely come to birth on going forth from this world. Whose this truly is, can doubt no more. Thus of old spoke Shandilya, thus spoke Shandilya.

 

The treasure-house containing the mid-world, with the earth as its floor, grows not old. Its corners are the four directions of space. The sky is its opening above. This treasure-house is the container of riches. In it rests all that is.

Its eastern quarter is named the sacrificial ladle. Its southern quarter is named the overcoming. Its western quarter is named the queen. Its northern quarter is named well-endowed. Of these quarters the Great Breath is the offspring. He who knows thus the Great Breath as the offspring, laments not with the lamentation for a son.

So I know thus the Great Breath as the offspring of the quarters. Let me not lament with the lamentation for a son.

In this invincible treasure-house I take refuge, through that, through that, through that.

In the Life-breath I take refuge, through that, through that, through that.

In this world I take refuge, through that, through that, through that.

In the mid-world I take refuge, through that, through that, through that.

In the heavenly world I take refuge, through that, through that, through that.”

When I said, “In the Life-breath I take refuge,” the Life-breath, verily is all here that has come into being, whatsoever there is; in that, verily, I have taken refuge.

And so, when I said, “In this world I take refuge,” this I said: “In the earth I take refuge, in the interspace I take refuge, in the sky I take refuge.”

And so, when I said, “In the mid-world I take refuge,” this I said: “In the Fire-lord I take refuge, in the Great Breath I take refuge, in the Sun I take refuge.”

And so, when I said, “In the heavenly world I take refuge,” this I said: “In the Rig Veda I take refuge, in the Yajur Veda I take refuge, in the Sama Veda I take refuge.”

 

Man, verily, is sacrifice. Of him, four-and-twenty years are the morning oblation. For the Gayatri measure has four-and-twenty syllables, and with the Gayatri is celebrated the morning oblation. With this oblation the Bright Powers called the Vasus are correlated. The life-breaths, verily, are the Vasus, for they uphold all that is here.

Should anything afflict him in this division of life, let him say: “Ye life-breaths, ye Vasus, let this morning oblation of mine be continued until the midday oblation. May I, the sacrifice, not be cut off in the midst of the life-breaths, of the Vasus!” He arises thence, he is freed from ill.

Then of him four-and-forty years are the midday oblation. For the Trishtubh measure has four-and-forty syllables, and with the Trishtubh the midday oblation is offered. With this oblation the Bright Powers called the Rudras are correlated. The life-breaths, verily, are the Rudras, for they bring lamentation to all that is here.

Should anything afflict him in this division of life, let him say: “Ye life-breaths, ye Rudras, let this midday oblation of mine be continued until the third libation. May I, the sacrifice, not be cut off in the midst of the life-breaths, of the Rudras!” He arises thence, he is freed from ill.

Then of him eight-and-forty years are the third oblation. For the Jagati measure has eight-and-forty syllables, and with the Jagati the third oblation is offered. With this oblation the Bright Powers called Sons of the Sun are correlated. The life-breaths, verily are the Sons of the Sun, for they take all that is here.

Should anything afflict him in this division of life, let him say: “Ye life-breaths, Sons of the Sun, let this third oblation of mine be continued to the full life-span. May I, the sacrifice, not be cut off in the midst of the life-breaths, Sons of the Sun!” He arises thence, he is freed from ill.

Knowing this in the olden times Mahidasa Aitareya said: “So why dost thou afflict me, since I shall not go forth because of this!”

He lived a hundred and sixteen years. He lives a hundred and sixteen years, who knows thus.

 

Mind, verily, as the Eternal let him reverence: thus with regard to the Self. And so with regard to the Divinities, radiant Ether is the Eternal. This is the twofold instruction, with regard to the Self and to the Divinities.

That, the Eternal, has four parts: voice is a part, life-breath is a part, seeing is a part, hearing is a part; thus with regard to the Self. And so with regard to the Divinities: Fire-lord is a part, Great Breath is a part, Sun is a part, the Spaces are a part. This, verily, is the twofold instruction, with regard to the Self and to the Divinities.

Voice, verily, is a fourth part of the Eternal; this through the Fire-lord as its light gleams and glows; he gleams and glows with glory, with splendour, with holy fire, who knows thus.

Life-breath, verily, is a fourth part of the Eternal; this through the Great Breath as its light gleams and glows; he gleams and glows with glory, with splendour, with the holy fire, who knows thus.

Seeing, verily, is a fourth part of the Eternal; this through the Sun as its light gleams and glows; he gleams and glows with glory, with splendour, with holy fire, who knows thus.

Hearing, verily, is a fourth part of the Eternal; this through the Spaces as its light gleams and glows: he gleams and glows with glory, with splendour, with holy fire, who knows thus.

 

The Solar Lord, verily, is the Eternal: this is the instruction. Its expansion is this:

Non-existence, verily, was this world in the beginning. It became existence; it came to birth; it took the form of the Egg; it lay quiescent for the measure of an æon; it was parted in twain; these two parts of the shell were the one silver, the other golden.

The half which was silver, that is this Earth; the half which was golden, that is the Heavens; what was the Chorion, that became the mountains; what was the Amnion, that became cloud and mist; what were the veins, these became the rivers; what was the liquid contained within, that became the ocean.

And so, that which came to birth is that Sun. Toward that, thus coming to birth, a great sound of triumphant song, all beings and all desires arose. Therefore, at the Sun’s rising, at every return, a great sound of triumphant song, all beings and all desires arise.

He who, thus knowing this, reverences the Sun as the Eternal, there is the hope that to him will come a great sound of rejoicing, filling him with joy, filling him with joy.

 

PART IV, SECTIONS 1-15

THREE PARABLES

RAIKVA OF THE CART

Janashruti, verily, great-grandson of Janashruta, was a faithful giver, bestowing much, preparing much food. On all sides he caused rest-houses to be built, saying, “On all sides let them eat of my food!”

And so it befell that swans were flying over in the night. Then one swan addressed another swan, saying, “Ho! Ho! Dim-eyes, dim-eyes! The light of Janashruti, great-grandson of Janashruta is bright as day! Be not fascinated by it, lest, approaching, thou bum thyself!”

To him the other swan made answer, “Who is he, indeed, of whom thou speakest as though he were Raikva of the cart?”

How is it, then, with Raikva of the cart?”

As by the highest Krita throw of the dice the others are taken, so to Raikva comes whatever good thing creatures do; and this is true also for whoever knows what Raikva knows! Therefore I say this.”

This janashruti, great-grandson of janashruta, overheard. In the morning, when he arose, he said to the attendant on guard, “Dost thou speak of me as equal to Raikva of the cart?”

How is it, then, with Raikva of the cart?”

As by the highest Krita throw of the dice the others are taken, so to Raikva comes whatever good thing creatures do; and this is true also for whoever knows what Raikva knows! Therefore I say this.”

The attendant went forth and sought for Raikva, but returned, saying, “I found him not.”

Janashruti said to him, “Where they seek a knower of the Eternal, seek him there!”

One sat beneath a cart scratching an itching skin. The attendant drew near to him and said, “Master, art thou Raikva of the cart?” He affirmed, “I am he!”

So he returned, saying, “I have found him!”

Thereupon Janashruti, great-grandson of Janashruta, taking six hundred head of cattle, a necklace of gold and a chariot drawn by mules, went forth to where Raikva was and said to him, “Raikva, here are six hundred head of cattle, here is a necklace of gold, here is a chariot drawn by mules! Now, Master, instruct me as to the Bright Power,—that Bright Power which thou approachest!“

The other said, “Thine, O Shudra, be the necklace, the chariot and the cattle!”

Then Janashruti, great-grandson of Janashruta, went and came again, bringing a thousand head of cattle, the necklace of gold, the chariot drawn by mules, and his daughter, and said to him, “Raikva. here are a thousand head of cattle, the necklace of gold, the chariot drawn by mules, this bride and the village in which thou sittest! Now, Master instruct me!”

Then Raikva, raising her face toward him said, “He has brought cattle! By this face alone thou wouldst make me speak!”

So the place is called Raikvapama, in the country of the Mahavrishas, where he dwelt at his request. So Raikva said to him:

Air, verily, is a receptacle; when Fire dies out, it enters into Air; when the Sun sets, it enters into Air; when the Moon sets, it enters into Air; when Water dries up, it enters into Air; Air, verily, receives them all; thus far of the outer Powers. So of the inner Powers; Life, verily, is a receptacle; when one sleeps, Voice enters into Life; Seeing enters into Life; Hearing enters into Life; Mind enters into Life; Life, verily, receives them all. So these two, verily, are receptacles; Air among the Powers, and Life among the Lives.”

 

A LOVER OF TRUTH

Satyakama, verily, son of Jabala. addressed his mother Jabala, saying, “Lady, I would live the life of a disciple! To what family do I belong?”

She answered him, “I know not, son, of what family thou art. I went about much in my youth as a servant, and at that time thou wast born to me. I know not of what family thou art. But my name is Jabala and thou art Satyakama; say, then, that thou art Satyakama, son of Jabala!”

So he went to Haridrumata, of the Gotama family, and said to him, “I will become a disciple, Master! I will seek wisdom from thee as my Master!” He said to him, “Of what family art thou, beloved?”

He answered him. “I know not, Sir, of what family I am. I asked my mother, and she answered me, ‘I went about much in my youth as a servant, and at that time thou wast born to me. I know not of what family thou art. But my name is Jabala and thou art Satyakama; say, then, that thou art Satyakama, son of Jabala.’ Thus, Sir, I am Satyakama son of Jabala!”

He said to him, “None but a lover of the Eternal could speak thus openly! Bring kindling wood, beloved, for I will take thee as a disciple, since thou hast not swerved from the truth!”

After he had accepted him as his disciple, he chose out four hundred cattle, lean and ill-favoured, and said to him. “Tend these, beloved!”

As he drove them before him, he said, “I may not return until they number a thousand!” So he dwelt afar off for a series of years.

So, when they had reached the thousand, the bull said to him, “Satyakama!”

He answering said, “Sir!”

We have reached the thousand, beloved; lead us to the home of the Teacher! And let me tell thee one-fourth of the Eternal!”

Let the Master tell it!” said he.

So he said to him, “East is one part. West is one part. South is one part. North is one part. This, beloved, is one-fourth of the Eternal, divided into four parts. Its name is Shining. He who, knowing this thus, approaches this one-fourth of the Eternal divided into four parts as the Shining, becomes a Shining one in this world. Shining worlds he wins, who, knowing this thus, approaches this one-fourth of the Eternal divided into four parts as the Shining. Fire will tell thee one-fourth!”

So, when the morning came, he drove the cattle onward. Where the cattle were in the evening, he kindled a fire, penned the cattle, laid on fuel, and sat down on the West side of the tire, facing the East.

Then the fire said to him, “Satyakama!”

He answering said, “Sir!”

Let me tell thee, beloved, one-fourth of the Eternal!”

Let the Master tell it!” said he.

So the fire said to him, “Earth is one part. Mid-space is one part. Heaven is one part. Ocean is one part. This, beloved, is one-fourth of the Eternal, divided into four parts. Its name is Unending. He who, knowing this thus, approaches this one-fourth of the Eternal divided into four parts as the Endless, becomes an Endless one in this world. Endless worlds he wins, who, knowing this thus, approaches this one-fourth of the Eternal as the Endless. A swan will tell thee one-fourth!”

So, when morning came, be drove the cattle onward. Where they were in the evening, he kindled a fire, penned the cattle, laid on fuel, and sat down on the West side of the fire, facing the East.

A swan, alighting beside him, addressed him saying, “Satyakama!”

He answering said, “Sir!”

Let me tell thee, beloved, one-fourth of the Eternal!”

Let the Master tell it” said he.

So the swan said to him, “Fire is one part. The Sun is one part. The Moon is one part. Lightning is one part. This, beloved, is one-fourth of the Eternal. divided into four parts. Its name is Luminous. He who, knowing this thus, approaches this one-fourth of the Eternal divided into four parts as the Luminous, becomes a Luminous one in this world. Luminous worlds he wins, who, knowing this thus, approaches this one-fourth of the Eternal as the Luminous. A cormorant will tell thee one-fourth!”

So, when morning came, he drove the cattle onward. Where they were in the evening, he kindled a fire, penned the cattle, laid on fuel, and sat down on the West side of the fire, facing the East.

A cormorant, alighting beside him, addressed him saying, “Satyakama!”

He answering said, “Sir!”

Let me tell thee, beloved, one-fourth of the Eternal!”

Let the Master tell it!” said he.

So the cormorant said to him, “Life is one part. Seeing is one part. Hearing is one part. Mind is one part. This, beloved, is one-fourth of the Eternal, divided into four parts. Its name is Having-a-home. He who, knowing this thus, approaches this one-fourth of the Eternal divided into four parts as Having-a-home, he becomes one having a home in this world. Worlds having a home he wins, who, knowing this thus, approaches this one-fourth of the Eternal as Having-a-home.”

So he came to the home of the Teacher. To him the Teacher said, “Satyakama!”

He answering said, “Master!”

Beloved, thou shinest as one knowing the Eternal! Who has imparted to thee the teaching?”

Others than men!” he affirmed. “But let the Master speak to my desire. For I have heard from those like the Master that wisdom gained from the Teacher gains the highest goal!”

To him he declared it. In it, naught was lacking, naught was lacking.

 

THE TEACHING OF THE FIRES

Upakosala, the descendant of Kamala, dwelt with Satyakama, son of Jabala, as a disciple. For twelve years he tended his fires. The teacher instructed others who dwelt with him as disciples, but Upakosala he instructed not.

Then the wife of Satyakama said to him, “This disciple is full of fervour. He has tended the fires well. Let not the fires be before thee in teaching him. Do thou teach him!”

But without teaching him he went forth on a journey.

He, because of sickness, abstained from food. Then the wife of the Teacher said to him, “Disciple, eat! Why dost thou not eat?”

He said, “Many desires are there in man here, of many kinds. I am full of sickness. I shall not eat!”

Then the fires spoke to ether, saying, “This disciple is full of fervour. He has tended us well. Come, let us instruct him!” So they said to him, “The Eternal is Life. The Eternal is Joy. The Eternal is the Expanse.”

He said, “I understand that the Eternal is Life. But joy and the Expanse, I do not understand!”

They said, “What, verily, is Joy, that, verily, is the Expanse; what, verily, is the Expanse. that, verily, is Joy.” Then they declared to him Life and the Shining Ether.

Then the household fire instructed him, saying, “Earth. Fire, Food, the Sun (these are my four forms). The Spirit who is seen in the Sun, I, verily, am He; I, verily, am He!

He who, knowing this thus, approaches Him, puts away evil; he is lord of the world: he lives his full life, he lives gloriously. His descendants fail not. We protect, in this world and in that world, him who knows this thus, and approaches Him!”

Then the southern sacrificial fire instructed him, saying, “The Waters, the directions of Space, the Lunar Mansions, the Moon (these are my four forms). The Spirit who is seen in the Moon, I, verily, am He; I, verily, am He!

He who, knowing this thus, approaches Him, puts away evil; he is lord of the world; he lives his full life, he lives gloriously. His descendants fail not. We protect, in this world and in that world, him who knows this thus, and approaches Him!”

Then the eastern sacrificial fire instructed him, saying, “Life, Shining Ether, Heaven, Lightning (these are my four forms). The Spirit who is seen in the Lightning, I, verily, am He; I, verily, am He!

He who, knowing this thus, approaches Him, puts away evil; he is lord of the world; he lives his full life, he lives gloriously. His descendants fail not. We protect, in this world and in that world, him who knows this thus, and approaches Him!”

They said, “Upakosala, this, beloved, is the knowledge of us, and the knowledge of the Self. But the Teacher will declare to thee the Way.”

His Teacher returned. The Teacher said to him, “Upakosala!”

He answering said, “Master!”

Beloved, thy face shines as the face of one who knows the Eternal. Who has instructed thee?”

Who should instruct me, Sir?” he said, as though denying. “These! They are of this appearance now, but they were of another appearance!” Thus he indicated the fires.

And what, beloved, did they say to thee?”

This!” he affirmed.

The worlds, verily, beloved, they have declared to thee. But I shall tell thee That. As the waters adhere not to the lotus leaf, so, verily, dark deeds adhere not to him who knows this thus!”

Let the Master tell me!” said he.

To him he said, “This Spirit that is seen in the eye, this is the Self, this is the immortal, the fearless, this is the Eternal. If oil or water be dropped into the eye, it flows to the eyelids. This Eternal they call the Uniter of Beauty, for to it come all beautiful things. All beauty comes to him who knows this thus. This is also the Bringer of Beauty, for he brings all beauties who knows this thus. This is also the Bringer of Brightness, for in all worlds it shines. In all worlds he shines who knows this thus.

And so, in the case of such a one, whether they perform the rites or no, such as he pass into the flame, from the flame to the day, from the day to the waxing moon, from the waxing moon to the six months of growing sunshine, from the months to the cycle of the year, from the year to the sun, from the sun to the moon, from the moon to the lightning. There is a Spirit not of the sons of men; He causes them to enter into the Eternal. This is the path of the Bright Powers, the path of the Eternal. Those who go forward on that path return not again to this world of men; they return not again.”

 

PART IV, SECTIONS 16-17; PART V, SECTIONS 1-2

THE LIFE OF THE DISCIPLE AS SACRIFICE

THE GREAT BREATH AS SACRIFICE

This, verily, is sacrifice, namely, the Great Breath, since it purifies all that is in the world. Because the Great Breath purifies all that is in the world, therefore it is sacrifice.

Of this the two paths are Mind and Voice.

Through Mind the Brahmâ priest, as overseer, perfects one. Through Voice the priest who makes the offering, the priest who prepares it, the priest who chants, perfect the other.

Where, after the morning invocation has begun, before the chant is ended, the Brahmâ priest breaks silence, he perfects but one of the two paths; the other is cut short.

And so, as a one-legged man walking, or as a chariot moving on one wheel, goes awry, thus, verily, his sacrifice goes awry. He who offers the sacrifice goes awry after his sacrifice has gone awry. Having begun the sacrifice, he becomes worse.

And so where, after the morning invocation has begun, the Brahmâ priest does not break silence before the chant is ended, they, verily, perfect both paths, nor is one of them cut short.

And so, as a two-legged man walking, or as a chariot moving on both wheels, is steady, thus, verily, his sacrifice is steady. He who offers the sacrifice is steady after his sacrifice is steady. Having begun the sacrifice, he becomes better.

 

The Lord of beings brooded with fervour over the worlds. Of them, brooded over with fervour, he drew forth the essences: from Earth, Fire: from the Mid-space, the Great Breath; from the Heavens, the Sun.

The Lord of beings brooded over these three divinities. Of them, brooded over with fervour, he drew forth the essences: from Fire, the Rig verses; from the Great Breath, the Yajur formulas; from the Sun, the Sama chants.

The Lord of beings brooded with fervour over this threefold Wisdom. Of it, brooded over with fervour, he drew forth the essences: from the Rig verses, Bhûr (Earth); from the Yajur formulas, Bhuvar (Mid-world); from the Sama chants, Svar (Heaven).

So, if aught should go awry with the Rig verses, he should make an oblation in the household fire, saying “Bhûr! Adoration!” Thus by the essence of the Rig verses, by the virtue of the Rig verses, he makes good the injury of the Rig verses to the sacrifice.

And so, if aught should go awry with the Yajur formulas, he should make an oblation in the southern fire, saying “Bhuvar! Adoration!” Thus by the essence of the Yajur formulas, by the virtue of the Yajur formulas, he makes good the injury of the Yajur formulas to the sacrifice.

And so, if aught should go awry with the Sama chants, he should make an oblation in the fire of oblation, saying “Svar! Adoration!” Thus by the essence of the Sama chants, by the virtue of the Sama chants, he makes good the injury of the Sama chants to the sacrifice.

Then, as through a flux one would join gold; through gold, silver; through silver, tin; through tin, lead; through lead, iron; through iron, wood; or wood through leather; even so through the virtue of these worlds, of the divinities, of this triple wisdom, he makes good what is astray in the sacrifice. Cured of weakness, verily, is that sacrifice, in which there is a Brahmâ overseer who thus knows.

That sacrifice leads northward in which there is a Brahmâ overseer who thus knows. This is the praise of the Brahmâ overseer who thus knows: Whithersoever he turns, that way follows the son of man;

The Brahma overseer alone guards the sacrificers like a steed.

The Brahmâ overseer who thus knows, verily, guards the sacrifice, the sacrificer and all the ministrants. Therefore let him make one who thus knows his overseer; not one who knows not thus,—not one who knows not thus.

 

He, verily, who knows the most venerable and the best becomes the most venerable and the best. The Great Breath, verily, is the most venerable and the best.

He, verily, who knows the most excellent becomes most excellent of his own people. Voice, verily, is the most excellent.

He, verily, who knows the firm foundation stands firm both in this world and in that. Seeing, verily, is the firm foundation.

He, verily, who knows the treasure, to him his desires bring treasure, and the Bright Powers, and men. Hearing, verily, is the treasure.

He, verily, who knows the abode becomes the abode of his own people. Mind, verily, is the abode.

And so the vital powers contended among themselves as to which of them was the better, each one saying, “I am the better! I am the better!”

The vital powers, going to the Lord of beings, to the Father, said, “Master which of us is the best?”

To them He said, “That one of you through whose going forth the body is seen to be most afflicted, that one is the best of you!”

So Voice went forth. Going forth for a cycle and then returning, Voice said, “How have ye been able to live without me?”

As those who are dumb, not speaking, yet breathing with the breath, seeing with sight, hearing through the power of hearing, thinking through the mind; thus.” Voice entered in again.

Then Seeing went forth. Going forth for a cycle and then returning, Seeing said, “How have ye been able to live without me?”

As those who are blind, not seeing, yet breathing with the breath, speaking with the voice, hearing through the power of hearing, thinking through the mind; thus.” Seeing entered in again.

Then Hearing went forth. Going forth for a cycle and then returning, Hearing said, “How have ye been able to live without me?”

As those who are deaf, not hearing, yet breathing with the breath, speaking with the voice, seeing with sight, thinking through the mind; thus.” Hearing entered in again.

Then Mind went forth. Going forth for a cycle and then returning, Mind said, “How have ye been able to live without me?”

As foolish children, mindless, yet breathing with the breath, speaking with the voice, seeing with sight, hearing through the power of hearing; thus.” Mind entered in again.

Then, when the Breath would have gone forth, as a strong horse might drag away his foot-ropes, so did the Breath drag away the lesser vital powers with him. Drawing near to the Breath, they said, “Master! Be thus here with us! Thou art the best of us! Go not forth!”

To the Breath, Voice then said, “If I am most excellent, then thou art most excellent!”

Then Seeing said to him, “If I am the firm foundation, then thou art the firm foundation!”

Then Hearing said to him, “If I am the treasure, then thou art the treasure!”

Then Mind said to him, “If I am the abode, then thou art the abode!”

Therefore they call them not Voices, nor Seeings, nor Hearings, nor Minds, but they call them Life-breaths. For the Breath is all these powers.

The Breath said, “What will be my food?”

The powers said, “Whatsoever there is, even to dogs and birds!”

Therefore this is the food of the Breath. For the Breath is obviously its name. Nor, of a truth, is there aught which is not food for him who thus knows.

The Breath said, ”What will be my vesture?” The powers said, “The waters!”

Therefore those who are about to eat invest the Breath both before and after with the waters. For the Breath tends to receive a vesture. It remains not naked.

Therefore Satyakama, son of Jabala, declaring this to Goshruti, son of Vyaghrapada, said, “If one should declare this to a dry stump, branches would be born from it, leaves would unfold themselves!”

 

And so, if he should desire to go to the Great One, performing the rite of Consecration at the new moon, let him on the night of the full moon mingle a potion of all herbs with curdled milk and honey.

To the most venerable and the best, adoration!”,—saying this, and making an oblation of melted butter in the altar fire, he should add what remains to the potion.

To the most excellent, adoration!”,—saying this, and making an oblation of melted butter in the altar fire, he should add what remains to the potion.

To the firm foundation, adoration!”,—saying this, and making an oblation of melted butter in the altar fire, he should add what remains to the potion.

To the treasure, adoration!”,—saying this, and making an oblation of melted butter in the altar fire, he should add what remains to the potion.

To the abode, adoration!”,—saying this, and making an oblation of melted butter in the altar fire, he should add what remains to the potion.

Then drawing back, taking the potion between his hands, he forms these words without uttering them aloud: “Thou art He by name, for all this universe is at home in Thee! Thou art most venerable and best, the Ruler, the Overlord ! The power which is most venerable and best, the power of Ruler and Overlord, let Him cause to come to me! Let me be all this universe!”

And so, of a truth, through this Rig verse, taken measure by measure, he tastes the potion:

“Of the spiritual Sun we choose—”
Saying this, he tastes the potion;

“—the food, of that Divinity—”
Saying this, he tastes the potion;

“—the best, the all-sustaining food,—”
Saying this, he tastes the potion;

“—let us meditate on the might of the Giver of all!”
Saying this, he drinks it all.

 

Then, when he has cleansed the drinking cup, or the vessel, he rests on the West side of the altar fire, on a skin or upon the earth, restraining the voice, self-controlled. If he should behold the Woman, let him know that the work has been completed.

Therefore there is this verse:

“When in work inspired by desire
He beholds the Woman in his vision,
Then he may know his success
By this appearance in his vision,
—by this appearance in his vision.”

 

PART V. SECTIONS 3-10

A KING-INITIATE

KING PRAVAHANA JAIVALI

Shvetaketu, verily, grandson of Aruni, went To the assembly of the Panchalas. Him Pravahana, son of Jivala, addressed:

Youth, has thy father instructed thee in the teaching handed Down?”

He has instructed me, Sire.”

”Knowest thou how these beings, going forth at death, go upward?”

No, Sire.”

Knowest thou how they return hither again?”

No, Sire.”

Knowest thou the parting of the two ways, Path of the Gods and Path of the Fathers?”

No, Sire.”

”Knowest thou how that world is not filled to overflowing?”

No, Sire.”

Knowest thou how, at the fifth offering, the Waters arise and speak with human voice?”

No, Sire.”

How, then, didst thou say that thou hast been instructed? For how could he, who knew not these things, say he had been instructed?”

He, verily, put to confusion, went to his father’s dwelling, and said to him: “Without having instructed me, verily, thou saidst, Sire, ‘I have instructed thee.’ The Rajanya has asked me five questions. I was not able to set forth one of them.”

He said:

As thou hast told them to me, I do not know even one of them. If I had known them, how should I not have told them to thee?”

So Gautama went to the King’s dwelling. When he had come thither, the King had due honour shown to him. On the morrow, he went up to the assembly. To him the King said:

Of the wealth of men, honoured Gautama, thou mayest choose a wish.”

He said:

Thine, verily, O King, be the wealth of men! But that word which thou saidst in the presence of the youth, declare that to me!”

This was difficult for him. He commanded him:

Abide thou here a certain time.”

He said to him:

As thou hast said to me, Gautama, as this Wisdom never previously, before thee, goes to the Brahmans, because of this, therefore, among all peoples it has been the rule of the Kshattriya.”

Then he said to him:

That world, verily. Gautama, is a sacrificial fire; of it. the son of Aditi is the fuel; his rays are the enveloping smoke; day is the flame; the moon, the embers; the lunar mansions among the stars are the parks. In it, in this sacrificial fire, the Bright Powers offer Faith; from it, thus offered, the Lunar Lord comes to birth.

The Rain-lord, verily, Gautama, is a sacrificial fire; of it, the Wind-lord is the fuel; cloud is the enveloping smoke; lightning is the flame; the thunder-bolt, the embers; the thunderings, the sparks. In it, in this sacrificial fire, the Bright Powers offer the Lunar Lord; from the Lunar Lord, thus offered, rain comes to birth.

The Earth-Power, verily, Gautama, is a sacrificial fire; of it, the circling year is the fuel; the radiant ether is the enveloping smoke; night is the flame; the directions of space, the embers; the intermediate directions, the sparks. In it. in this sacrificial fire, the Bright Powers offer the rain; from it, thus offered, food comes to birth.

Man, verily, Gautama, is a sacrificial fire; of him, the perceptive and active powers are the fuel, the enveloping smoke, the flame, the embers, the sparks. In him, in this sacrificial fire, the Bright Powers offer food; from it. thus offered , the power of generation comes to birth.

Woman, verily, Gautama, is a sacrificial fire; in her, the formative powers are the fuel, the smoke, the flame, the embers, the sparks. In her, in this sacrificial fire, the Bright Powers offer the power of generation; from it, thus offered, the embryo comes to birth. Thus, verily, at the fifth offering, the Waters arise and speak with human voice.

After he has lain within for ten lunar months, or for however long it be, as the embryo covered by the chorion, he comes to birth. Having been born, he lives his full life span. When he has gone forth from the body at the appointed time, the fires, verily, take him whence he has come, whence he came to birth.

Then those who truly know, and they who, in the forest, worship, saying, ‘Faith, fervour,’ they, verily, come to birth to the flame, from the flame to the day, from the day to the fortnight of increasing moonlight, from the fortnight of increasing moonlight to the six months when the sun goes northward, from these months to the circling year, from the circling year to the son of Aditi, from the son of Aditi to the moon, from the moon to the lightning; there is a Spiritual Man, not of the sons of men; he causes them to enter into the Eternal. This is the path, the Way of the Gods.

But they who, in the dwelling, worship, saying, ‘Sacrificial rites, purification, giving of gifts,’ they, verily, come to birth to the smoke, from the smoke to the night, from the night to the waning fortnight, from the waning fortnight to the six months when the sun goes southward, the months which do not attain the circling year; from there months to the realm of the Fathers, from the realm of the Fathers to the shining ether, from the shining ether to the moon; there is the Lunar Lord. That is the food of the: Bright Powers; him, the Bright Powers consume.

Having dwelt there so long as the accumulation lasts, they return again by the same road to the shining ether, from the shining ether to the wind; having become wind, he becomes smoke; having become smoke, he becomes mist; having become mist, he becomes rain-cloud; having become rain-cloud, he descends as rain; then in this world as rice or barley, herbs or trees, sesame or beans; thence, verily, it is difficult to come forth; when one eats this food and turns it into vital power, he comes to birth again.

Then they whose conduct here is righteous, the prospect for them is that they will enter a righteous birth, birth as a Brahman, a Kshattriya, a Vaishya; but they whose conduct is foul, the prospect for them is that they will enter a foul birth, birth as a dog, as a pig, as an outcast.

But they who go by neither of these paths, are these mean beings continually returning. ‘Be born. die!’ as they say; this is a third station. Therefore that world is not filled to overflowing. Therefore let him seek to guard himself from that. There is this verse:

He who steals gold, he who drinks intoxicating liquor, he who dishonours his teacher, he who slays a knower of the Eternal, these four fall, and, fifth, he who associates with them.

But he who knows these Five Fires, even though associating with these, is not stained by evil; clean, purified, possessing a holy world is he who knows thus, who knows thus.”

 

PART V, SECTIONS 11-24

A KING INITIATE AND HIS DISCIPLES

THE SPIRIT AND THE ETERNAL

Prachinashala, son of Upamanyu, Satyayajna, son of Pulusha, Indradyumna, grandson of Bhallava, Jana, son of Sharkaraksha, Budila, son of Ashvatarashva,—these were owners of great houses and great in the traditional lore. Meeting together, they entered into an investigation: What is our Spirit (Atma)? What is the Eternal (Brahma)?

They came to an agreement, saying: Sirs, this Uddalaka, son of Aruna, thoroughly knows this Spirit which is common to all. Let us betake ourselves to him!

They betook themselves to him. But he came to this conclusion: These owners of great houses, great in the traditional lore, will ask me questions, and I may not be able to answer everything. Let me recommend them to another!

So to them he said: Sirs, of a truth King Ashvapati, son of Kekaya, thoroughly knows this Spirit which is common to all. Let us betake ourselves to him!

They betook themselves to him. To them, when they had arrived, to each one of them, he caused due honours to be paid. Rising in the morning, thus he said: In my kingdom there is no thief, nor any avaricious, nor a drinker of spirits, nor one who offers no oblation, nor one without wisdom, nor any man or woman unchaste. Wherefore, Sirs, I am about to make an offering; so much wealth as I shall give to each priest, so much, Sirs, shall I give to you. Sirs, remain here with me!

They said: With what purpose a man may come, that, verily, let him declare! The Spirit, that which is common to all, thou knowest thoroughly. Declare that Spirit to us!

To them he said: In the morning I shall give you an answer. They, verily, came back to him again at the beginning of the day with fuel in their hands. Without subjecting them to the form of acceptance, he spoke to them thus:

Son of Upamanyu, whom dost thou reverence as Spirit?

The heavens, Sir King! said he.

That is, of a truth, a Spirit endowed with splendour, common to all, whom thou dost reverence as the Spirit. Therefore, in thy family the essence is seen distilled and increased. Thou eatest food, thou beholdest what is dear!

He eats food, he beholds what is dear, there is divine radiance in the family of him who thus reverences this Spirit common to all. But, said he, this Spirit of thine is only the head of the Spirit. Therefore, thy head would have fallen off, if thou hadst not come to me!

And so he said to Satyayajna, son of Pulusha:

Prachinayogya, whom dost thou reverence as Spirit?

The sun, Sir King! said he.

That is, of a truth, a Spirit of universal form, common to all, whom thou dost reverence as the Spirit. Therefore, in thy family much is seen, of every form, such as a chariot drawn by she-mules, a bondmaiden, a chain of gold.

Thou eatest food, thou beholdest what is dear! He eats food, he beholds what is dear, there is divine radiance in the family of him who thus reverences this Spirit common to all. But, said he, this Spirit of thine is only the eye of the Spirit. Therefore, thou wouldst have become blind, if thou hadst not come to me!

And so he said to Indradyumna, grandson of Bhallava:

Vaiyaghrapadya, whom dost thou reverence as Spirit?

The wind, Sir King! said he.

That is, of a truth, a Spirit of diverse ways, common to all, whom thou dost reverence as the Spirit. Therefore, offerings come to thee by diverse ways, ranks of chariots follow after thee by diverse ways. Thou eatest food, thou beholdest what is dear! He eats food, he beholds what is dear, there is divine radiance in the family of him who thus reverences this Spirit common to all. But, said he, this Spirit of thine is only the breath of the Spirit. Therefore, thy breath would have departed, if thou hadst not come to me!

And so he said to Jana, son of Sharkaraksha:

Son of Sharkaraksha, whom dost thou reverence as Spirit?

The shining ether, Sir King! said he.

That is, of a truth, a Spirit abounding, common to all, whom thou dost reverence as the Spirit. Therefore, thou art abounding in offspring and in wealth. Thou eatest food, thou beholdest what is dear! He eats food, he beholds what is dear, there is divine radiance in the family of him who thus reverences this Spirit common to all. But, said he, this Spirit of thine is only the bodily vesture of the Spirit. Therefore, thy body would have fallen away, if thou hadst not come to me!

And so he said to Budila, son of Ashvatarashva:

Vaiyaghrapadya, whom dost thou reverence as Spirit?

The waters, Sir King! said he.

That is, of a truth, a Spirit of wealth, common to all, whom thou dost reverence as the Spirit. Therefore, thou art possessed of wealth, well supplied. Thou eatest food, thou beholdest what is dear! He eats food, he beholds what is dear, there is divine radiance in the family of him who thus reverences this Spirit common to all. But, said he, this Spirit of thine is only the bladder of the Spirit. Therefore, thy bladder would have burst, if thou hadst not come to me!

And so he said to Uddalaka, son of Aruna:

Gotama, whom dost thou reverence as Spirit?

The earth, Sir King! said he.

That is, of a truth, a firm foundation, a Spirit common to all, whom thou dost reverence as the Spirit. Therefore, thou art firmly established in offspring and herds. Thou eatest food, thou beholdest what is dear! He eats food, he beholds what is dear, there is divine radiance in the family of him who thus reverences this Spirit common to all. But, said he, this Spirit of thine is but the feet of the Spirit. Therefore, thy feet would have withered, if thou hadst not come to me!

To them he said:

Ye, all of you, but partly perceiving the Spirit which is common to all, eat food. But he who rightly reverences this Spirit common to all, of the measure of a span, yet of infinite extent, he eats food in all worlds, among all beings, in all Spirits.

Of this Spirit common to all, the radiant heavens are, of a truth, the head; the sun of universal form is, of a truth, the eye; the wind of diverse ways is, of a truth, the breath; the shining ether is, of a truth, the bodily vesture; the abounding waters are, of a truth, the bladder; the firm earth is, of a truth, the feet; the breast is, of a truth, the place of the altar; the hairs are the sacrificial grass; the heart is the household fire; the mind is the fire of sacrifice; the mouth is the fire of oblation.

Therefore, the first food to which he may come, should be made an offering. The first oblation which he may make, let him make an oblation of that to the Forward-breath, saying: Adoration to the Forward-breath! The Forward-breath rejoices. When the Forward-breath rejoices, the eye rejoices; when the eye rejoices, the sun rejoices; when the sun rejoices, the heavens rejoice; when the heavens rejoice, whatsoever the heavens and the sun govern, rejoices; together with the rejoicing of this, he rejoices in offspring, in herds, in divine radiance.

And so the second oblation which he may make, let him make an oblation to the Distributive-breath, saying: Adoration to the Distributive-breath! The Distributive-breath rejoices. When the Distributive-breath rejoices, hearing rejoices; when hearing rejoices, the moon rejoices; when the moon rejoices, the spaces rejoice; when the spaces rejoice, whatsoever the spaces and the moon govern, rejoices; together with the rejoicing of this, he rejoices in offspring, in herds, in divine radiance.

And so the third oblation which he may make, let him make an oblation to the Downward-breath, saying: Adoration to the Downward-breath! The Downward-breath rejoices. When the Downward-breath rejoices, voice rejoices; when voice rejoices, fire rejoices; when fire rejoices, the earth rejoices; when the earth rejoices, whatsoever the earth and fire govern, rejoices; together with the rejoicing of this, he rejoices in offspring, in herds, in divine radiance.

And so the fourth oblation which he may make, let him make an oblation to the Uniting-breath, saying: Adoration to the Uniting-breath! The Uniting-breath rejoices. When the Uniting-breath rejoices, mind rejoices; when the mind rejoices, the rain-lord rejoices; when the rain-lord rejoices, lightning rejoices; when lightning rejoices, whatsoever lightning and the rain-lord govern, rejoices; together with the rejoicing of this, he rejoices in offspring, in herds, in divine radiance.

And so the fifth oblation which he may make, let him make an oblation to the Upward-breath, saying: Adoration to the Upward-breath! The Upward-breath rejoices. When the Upward-breath rejoices, touch rejoices; when touch rejoices, the wind rejoices; when the wind rejoices, shining ether rejoices; when shining ether rejoices, whatsoever the wind and shining ether govern rejoices; together with the rejoicing of this, he rejoices in offspring, in herds, in divine radiance.

He who, not knowing this, offers the Fire-invocation, it is as though he were to scatter the red embers and pour the oil on dead ashes. But he who, knowing this, offers the Fire-invocation, his offering is made in all worlds, among all beings, in all Spirits.

And so as the stem of a reed cast into the fire burns away, thus, verily, do all his sins burn away, who, knowing this thus, offers the Fire-invocation. Therefore, of a truth, should one who knows thus offer the leavings of his food to a Chandala, an outcast, nonetheless the offering would be made to the Spirit, common to all. And there is this verse:

Like as hungry children here wait upon their mother,
So all beings wait upon the Fire-invocation.

 

PART VI. SECTIONS 1-16

THE ETERNAL AND THE UNIVERSE

THE THREE WORLDS

There lived once Shvetaketu, Aruna’s grandson; his father addressed him, saying:

Shvetaketu, go, learn service of the Eternal; for no one in our family serves the Eternal in name only.

So going when he was twelve years old, he returned when he was twenty-four; he bad studied all the Vedas and was conceited, vain of his learning and proud. His father addressed him:

Shvetaketu, since you are conceited, dear, vain of your learning and proud, have you asked for that instruction through which the unheard becomes heard, the unthought becomes thought, the unknown becomes known?

What sort of instruction is that, Master? said he.

Just as, dear, by a single lump of clay everything made of clay may be known, for the difference is one of words and names only, and the reality is that it is clay; just as, dear, by a single jewel of gold everything made of gold may be known, for the difference is one of words and names only, and the reality is that it is gold; just as, dear, by a single knife-blade everything made of iron may be known, for the difference is one of words and names only, and the reality is that it is iron; just like this is that instruction.

But I am sure that those teachers of mine did not know this themselves; for if they had known it, how would they not have declared it to me? But let the Master tell it thus to me, said he.

Let it be so, dear, said he.

Being, dear, was in the beginning, one, without a second. But there are some who say that non-Being was in the beginning, one, without a second, so that from non-Being, Being would be born. But how, indeed, dear, could this be so? How from non-Being could Being be born? said he; but in truth Being was in the beginning, dear, one, without a second.

Then Being beholding said: Let me become great; let me give birth. Then it put forth Radiance.

Then Radiance beholding said : Let me become great; let me give birth. Then it put forth the Waters. Just as a man toils and sweats, so from Radiance the waters are born.

Then the Waters beholding said: Let us become great; let us give birth. Then they put forth the world-food, Earth. Just as when it rains, abundant food is produced, so from the Waters the world-food, Earth, is born.

Of all these, of beings, there are three germs: what is born of the Egg, what is born of Life, what is born of Division.

This Divinity beholding said: Let me enter these three divinities with this Life, with my Self, let me give them manifold names and forms. Let me make each of them threefold. So this Divinity, entering these three divinities, by the Life, by the Self, gave them manifold names and forms. That made each of them threefold. How, indeed, dear, these three divinities become each threefold, learn this of me.

In fire, the radiant form is from Radiance; the clear form is from the Waters; the dark form is from Earth. But the separate nature of fire is a thing of names and words only, while the reality is the three forms.

So of the sun, the radiant form is from Radiance; the clear form is from the Waters; the dark form is from Earth. But the separate nature of the sun is a thing of names and words only, while the reality is the three forms.

So of the moon, the radiant form is from Radiance; the clear form is from the Waters; the dark form is from Earth. But the separate nature of the moon is a thing of names and words only, while the reality is the three forms.

So of lightning, the radiant form is from Radiance; the clear form is from the Waters; the dark form is from Earth. But the separate nature of lightning is a thing of names and words only, while the reality is the three forms.

Therefore of old time those who knew this, the great lords and teachers of old, spoke thus: None of us may now speak of anything as unheard, unthought, unknown; for by these they knew. Whatever form was radiant, as it were, they knew it was from Radiance; whatever form was clear, as it were, they knew it was from the Waters; whatever form was dark, as it were, they knew it was from Earth. Whatsoever, verily, had been unknown, they knew that it was a union of these three divinities.

But, dear, how these three divinities, when they come to man, become each threefold, learn this of me.

Food that is eaten is divided threefold. Its grossest part becomes waste; its middle part becomes flesh; its finest part becomes Mind.

Waters that are drunk are divided threefold. The grossest part becomes waste; the middle part becomes blood; its finest part becomes vital Breath.

Things that produce radiant heat when eaten are divided threefold. The grossest part becomes bone; the middle part becomes marrow; the finest part becomes formative Voice.

For Mind, dear, is formed of food, of Earth; vital Breath is formed of the Waters; formative Voice is formed of Radiance.

Let the Master teach me further, said he. Be it so, dear, said he.

Of churned milk, dear, the finest part rises to the top and becomes butter.

Just so of food eaten, dear, the finest part rises to the top and becomes Mind. And so of the waters that are drunk, the finest part rises to the top and becomes vital Breath. And so when heat-giving things are eaten, the finest part rises to the top and becomes formative Voice.

For Mind, dear, is formed of Food; vital Breath is formed of the Waters; formative Voice is formed of Radiance.

Let the Master teach me further, said he.

Be it so, dear, said he.

Man, dear, is made of sixteen parts. Eat nothing for fifteen days, but drink as much water as you wish; for vital Breath, being formed of the Waters, will be cut off if you do not drink.

He ate nothing for fifteen days; then he approached him, saying: What shall I say, Sire?

Repeat verses of the Rig Veda, formulas of the Yajur Veda, chants of the Sama Veda, said he.

They do not come back to me, Sire, said he.

He said to him: As, dear, from a great fire, if one ember remain no bigger than a firefly, it will not burn much; just so, dear, of your sixteen parts but one remains, and by this one part you do not recall the Vedas. Eat, and you shall learn of me.

He ate, and then approached him; and whatever he asked him, be repeated it all.

The Master said to him: As, dear, from a great fire, if one ember remain no bigger than a firefly, if it be fed with grass. it will blaze up, and will then burn much; so, dear, of your sixteen parts one remained; being fed with food, it blazed up, and through it you recall the Vedas. For Mind, dear, is formed of Food; vital Breath is formed of the Waters; formative Voice is formed of Radiance. Thus he learned of him; thus verily he learned.

 

THAT THOU ART

Uddalaka, son of Aruna, addressed his son Shvetaketu, saying: Learn from me, dear, the reality regarding sleep. When a man sinks to sleep, as they say, dear, then he is wrapped by the Real; he has slipped back to the Self. And so they say of him, he sleeps, because he has slipped back to the Self. And just as a falcon tied by a cord, flying hither and thither, and finding no other resting place, comes to rest where he is tied, so indeed. Dear, the man’s mind, flying hither and thither, and finding no other resting place, comes to rest in vital Breath; for Mind, dear, is bound by vital Breath.

Learn from me, dear, the reality regarding hunger and thirst. When a man hungers, as they say, the Waters guide what he eats. And as there are guides of cows, guides of horses, guides of men, so they call the Waters guides of what is eaten. Know that the man grows up from this, dear, as a sprouting plant; and it cannot be without a root.

And where can the root be, save the Earth? Therefore, through Earth as outgrowth, seek the Waters as root; through the Waters as outgrowth, seek the Radiance as root; through the Radiance as outgrowth, seek Being as root; for all these beings, dear, are rooted in Being, abiding in Being, set firm in Being.

And so when the man thirsts, as they say, the Radiance guides what he drinks. As there are guides of cows, guides of horses, guides of men, so they call the Radiance the guide of what he drinks. Know that he grows up from this, dear, as a sprouting plant; and it cannot be without a root.

And where can the root be, save the Waters? Therefore, through the Waters as outgrowth, seek the Radiance as root; through the Radiance as outgrowth, seek Being as root; for all these beings, dear, are rooted in Being, abiding in Being, set firm in Being. And how these three divinities, coming to a man, become each threefold, that has been declared before.

And of him, dear, of the man when he goes forth, formative Voice sinks back into Mind, Mind into vital Breath, vital Breath into the Radiance, the Radiance into the higher Divinity. This is the fine essence, the Self of all that is, this is the Real, this the Self. That thou art, O Shvetaketu.

Let the Master teach me further, said he.

Be it so, dear, said he.

As the honey-makers, dear, gather the honey from many a tree, and weld the nectars together in a single nectar; and as these find no separateness there, nor say: Of that tree I am the nectar, of that tree I am the nectar; so, indeed, dear, all these beings, when they enter into Being, know not, nor say: We have entered into Being. But whatever they are here, whether tiger or lion or wolf or boar or worm or moth or gnat or fly, whatever they are, that they become again. This is the fine essence, the Self of all that is, this is the Real, this the Self. That thou art, O Shvetaketu.

Let the Master teach me further, said he. Be it so, dear, said he.

These eastern rivers, dear, roll eastward; and the western, westward. From the ocean to the ocean they go, and in the ocean they are united; as there they know no separateness, nor say: This am I, this am I; so, indeed, dear, all these beings, when they come forth from Being, know not, nor say: We have come forth from Being. But whatever they are here, whether tiger or lion or wolf or boar or worm or moth or gnat or fly, whatever they are, that they become again. This is the fine essence, the Self of all that is, this is the Real, this the Self. That thou art, O Shvetaketu.

Let the Master teach me further, said he.

Be it so, dear, said he.

If any one strike the root of this great tree, dear, it will flow and live; if any one strike the middle of it, it will flow and live; if any one strike the top, it will flow and live. So filled with Life, with the Self, drinking in and rejoicing, it stands firm. But if the life leave one branch, that branch dries up; if it leave a second, it will dry up; if it leave a third, it will dry up; if it leave the whole, the whole will dry up. Thus, indeed, dear, you must understand, said he. Abandoned by Life, verily, this dies; but Life dies not. This is the fine essence, the Self of all that is, this is the Real, this the Self. That thou art, O Shvetaketu.

Let the Master teach me further, said he.

Be it so, dear, said he.

Bring me a fruit of that fig-tree, said he.

Here is the fruit, Master.

Divide it, said he.

It is divided, Master.

What do you see in it? said he.

These atom-like seeds, Master.

Divide one of them, said he.

It is divided, Master.

What do you see in it? said he.

I see nothing at all, Master.

So he said to him: That fine essence that you perceive not at all, dear, from that fine essence the great fig-tree comes forth. Believe then, dear, that this fine essence is the Self of all that is, this is the Real, this the Self. That thou art, O Shvetaketu.

Let the Master teach me further, said he.

Be it so, dear, said he.

Put this salt in water, and come to me early in the morning.

He did so, and he said to him: The salt that you put in the water last night, bring it to me, beloved.

Seeking its appearance, he could not see it, as it was dissolved.

On this side taste it, said he; how is it?

It is salt, said he.

In the middle taste it, said he; how is it?

It is salt, said he.

On that side taste it, said he; how is it?

It is salt, said he.

Cast it away, then, and return to me.

He did so; but it exists forever. He said to him: You do not perceive Being in the world, yet in truth it is here. This fine essence is the Self of all that is, this is the Real, this the Self. That thou art, O Shvetaketu.

Let the Master teach me further, said be.

Be it so, dear, said he.

Just as if, dear, one were to blindfold a man, and lead him far from Gandhara, and were to leave him in the wilderness, and to the east, to the north, to the south he should cry: Blindfolded am I led here, blindfolded am I deserted. And just as if one should come, and loosing the bandage from his eyes, should say: In that direction is Gandhara; in that direction you must go. And he asking from village to village like a wise man and learned, should come safe to Gandhara; so, verily, the man who has found a Teacher knows: It is only until the time of my release; then I shall find my home. And this fine essence is the Self of all that is, this is the Real, this the Self. That thou art, O Shvetaketu.

Let the Master teach me further, said he.

Be it so, dear, said he.

When a man, dear, is near his end, his kin gather round him: Do you know me, do you know me? they say. So long as formative Voice sinks not back into Mind, and Mind into vital Breath, and vital Breath into the Radiance, and the Radiance into the higher Divinity, so long he knows. But when formative Voice sinks back into Mind, and Mind into vital Breath, and vital Breath into the Radiance, and the Radiance into the higher Divinity, he knows not. And this fine essence is the Self of all that is, this is the Real, this the Self. That thou art, O Shvetaketu.

Let the Master teach me further, said he.

Be it so, dear, said he.

As, dear, they seize a man and bring him: He has stolen, they say; he has committed theft. Heat the axe for him. And if he be the doer of it, he makes himself untrue; maintaining untruth, and wrapping himself in untruth, he grasps the heated axe; he is burned, and he is slain. But if he be not the doer of it, he makes himself true; maintaining truth, and wrapping himself in truth, he grasps the heated axe; he is not burned, and so he is set free. And the truth that saves him from burning, this is the Real, this the Self. That thou art, O Shvetaketu.

Thus he learned of him; thus, verily he learned.

 

PART VII. SECTIONS 1-26

SANATKUMARA AND NARADA

THE TEACHING OF SANATKUMARA

Teach me, Master!” Saying this, Narada came as a pupil to Sanatkumara.

Come to me with what thou knowest; then I shall tell thee that which is beyond that”; thus he answered.

The Rig Veda I know, Master, the Yajur Veda, the Sama Veda, and the Atharva as fourth; the histories and ancient lore as fifth; the science of the Vedas; what concerns the Fathers; the study of numbers; divine events; the knowledge of periods of time; philosophical reasoning; the rules of conduct; the science of the bright powers; the science of the Eternal; the science of those who have passed from life; the science of battle; the science of the stars; the lore of serpents; the arts of beauty; this, Master, I know! So, Master, I am a knower of the magical chants, but not a knower of the supreme Self. the Soul. For I have heard, Master, from those who are like unto thee, that he who knows the Soul crosses beyond sorrow; but I, Master, am one who sorrows; therefore, may the Master cause me to cross to the further shore of sorrow!”

To him he answered: “Whatever thou hast learned, that, verily, is but Name; for these are but Name: the Rig Veda, the Yajur Veda, the Sama Veda, and the Atharva as fourth; the histories and ancient lore as fifth; the science of the Vedas; what concerns the Fathers; the study of numbers; divine events; the knowledge of periods of time; philosophical reasoning; the rules of conduct; the science of the bright powers; the science of the Eternal; the science of those who have passed from life; the science of battle; the science of the stars; the lore of serpents; the arts of beauty. This is but Name. Do thou reverence Name. He who reverences Name as the Eternal, as far as is the reach of Name, so far is he lord of his desires who reverences Name as the Eternal.”

Master, is there aught beyond Name?”

Verily, there is that beyond Name.”

May the Master declare that to me!”

Voice verily, is beyond Name. For Voice makes known the Rig Veda, the Yajur Veda, the Sama Veda, and the Atharva as fourth; the histories and ancient lore as fifth; the science of the Vedas; what concerns the Fathers; the study of numbers; divine events; the knowledge of periods of time; philosophical reasoning; the rules of conduct; the science of the bright powers; the science of the Eternal; the science of those who have passed from life; the science of battle; the science of the stars; the lore of serpents; the arts of beauty; and also heaven and earth, the air, shining ether, water and fire, the bright powers and mankind; beasts and birds, herbs and trees, lords of the forest, all living things down to worms, butterflies and ants; the law of right and what is against the law; truth and untruth; good and evil; that which delights the heart, and that which delights not. If, verily, there were no Voice, neither the law of right nor what is against the law would be made known, nor truth nor untruth, nor good nor evil, nor that which delights the heart or delights not; Voice, verily, makes all this known. Do thou reverence Voice. He who reverences Voice as the Eternal, as far as is the reach of Voice, so far is he lord of his desires who reverences Voice as the Eternal.”

Master, is there aught beyond Voice?”

Verily, there is that beyond Voice.”

May the Master declare that to me!”

Mind, verily, is beyond Voice. For, as the closed fist encompasses two Amalaka fruits, two Kola fruits, two Aksha fruits, so, verily, Mind encompasses Voice and Name. When through Mind he thinks, ‘Let me learn the magical chants!’ he learns them; ‘Let me perform the works!’ he performs them; ‘Let me desire sons and cattle!’ he desires them; ‘Let me desire this world and the other world!’ he desires them; for the Soul is Mind, the world is Mind, the Eternal is Mind. Do thou reverence Mind. He who reverences Mind as the Eternal, as far as is the reach of Mind, so far is he lord of his desires who reverences Mind as the Eternal.”

Master, is there aught beyond Mind?”

Verily, there is that beyond Mind.”

May the Master declare that to me!”

Creative Will, verily, is beyond Mind; for when he exercises Will, he holds in Mind; then he sends forth Voice; he sends it forth in Name; in Name, the magical chants are one; in the magical chants the works are one. They, verily, are made one in Will; Will is their Soul; in Will they stand firm; through Will, heaven and earth came into being; through Will, air and shining ether came into being; through Will, the waters and fire came into being; through the Will of these, rain comes into being; through the Will of rain, food comes into being; through the Will of food, the lives come into being; through the Will of the lives, the magical chants come into being; through the Will of the magical chants, the works come into being; through the Will of the works, the world comes into being; through the Will of the world, all comes into being. Do thou reverence creative Will. He who reverences Will as the Eternal, attains worlds formed through Will; steadfast, he attains steadfast worlds; established, he attains established worlds; unshaken, he attains unshaken worlds; as far as is the reach of Will, so far is he lord of his desires who reverences Will as the Eternal.”

Master, is there aught beyond Will?”

Verily, there is that beyond Will.”

May the Master declare that to me!”

Imagination, verily, is beyond Will; for when he exercises Imagination, then he evokes Will, then he holds in Mind, then he sends forth Voice; he sends it forth in Name; in Name, the magical chants are one; in the magical chants, the works are one. These, verily, become one in Imagination; Imagination is their Soul; in Imagination are they set firm; therefore, if anyone, even though knowing much, is without Imagination, they say of him, ‘He is naught; if he knew, if he were wise, he would not be thus without Imagination.’ But if anyone, even though not knowing much, is possessed of Imagination, they desire to listen to him. For Imagination is the meeting-place of these; Imagination is the Soul; Imagination is the support. Do thou reverence Imagination. He who reverences Imagination as the Eternal, attains worlds formed through Imagination; steadfast, he attains steadfast worlds; established, he attains established worlds; unshaken, he attains unshaken worlds; as far as is the reach of Imagination, so far is he lord of his desires who reverences Imagination as the Eternal.”

Master, is there aught beyond Imagination?”

Verily, there is that beyond Imagination.”

May the Master declare that to me!”

Meditation, verily, is beyond Imagination. The earth meditates, as it were; the mid-space meditates, as it were; heaven meditates, as it were; the waters meditate, as it were; mountains meditate, as it were; the bright powers and men meditate, as it were; therefore, they who, here among men, attain to greatness, are partakers in the reward of Meditation. Those who are small, are quarrelsome, traitors, tale-bearers; but those who are great are partakers in the reward of Meditation. Do thou reverence Meditation. He who reverences Meditation as the Eternal, as far as is the reach of Meditation, so far is he lord of his desires who reverences Meditation as the Eternal.”

Master, is there aught beyond Meditation?“

Verily, there is that beyond Meditation.”

May the Master declare that to me!”

Discernment, verily, is beyond Meditation. Through Discernment, he knows the Rig Veda, the Yajur Veda, the Sama Veda, and the Atharva as fourth; the histories and ancient lore as fifth; the science of the Vedas; what concerns the Fathers; the study of numbers; divine events; the knowledge of periods of time; philosophical reasoning; the rules of conduct; the science of the bright powers; the science of the Eternal; the science of those who have passed from life; the science of battle; the science of the stars; the lore of serpents; the arts of beauty; heaven, earth, air, shining ether, the waters, fire, the bright powers and men, beasts and birds, herbs and trees, the lords of the forest, all living things down to worms, butterflies and ants; the law of right and what is against the law; truth and untruth; good and evil; that which delights the heart and that which delights not; food and essence; this world and that world; through discernment, verily, he knows them. Do thou reverence Discernment as the Eternal. He who reverences Discernment as the Eternal, attains the worlds of Discernment, the worlds of Wisdom; as far as is the reach of Discernment, so far is he lord of his desires who reverences Discernment as the Eternal.”

Master, is there aught beyond Discernment?”

Verily, there is that beyond Discernment.”

May the Master declare that to me!”

Power, verily, is beyond Discernment; for one man possessing Power causes a hundred men possessing Discernment to tremble. So, when he possesses Power, he becomes one who rises; rising, he becomes one who serves; serving, he becomes a disciple; a disciple, he becomes a seer, he becomes a hearer, he becomes a thinker, he becomes a knower, he becomes a doer, he becomes a discerner. For through Power stands the earth, through Power the mid-space, through Power the heavens, through Power the bright powers and men, through Power beasts and birds, herbs and trees, the lords of the forest, all living things down to the worms, butterflies and ants; through Power the world stands. Do thou reverence Power.”

Master, is there aught beyond Power?”

Verily, there is that beyond Power.”

May the Master declare that to me!”

Food, verily, is beyond Power. Therefore, if he should not eat during ten nights, if he should live, he becomes a non-seer, a non-hearer, a non-thinker, a non-knower, a non-doer, a non-discerner; but when Food comes to him, he becomes a seer, he becomes a hearer, he becomes a thinker, he becomes a knower, he becomes a doer, he becomes a discerner. Do thou reverence Food as the Eternal. He who reverences Food as the Eternal, attains worlds rich in Food and Drink. As far as is the reach of Food, so far is he lord of his desires who reverences Food as the Eternal.”

Master, is there aught beyond Food?”

Verily, there is that which is beyond Food.”

May the Master declare that to me!”

The Waters, verily, are beyond Food. Therefore, when there is no good rain, the lives sicken: ‘Food will become less!’ they say. And so, when there is good rain, the lives rejoice: ‘Food will become abundant!’ they say. The Waters, verily, taking form, become this earth, the mid-space, heaven, the mountains, the bright powers and men, beasts and birds, herbs and trees, the lords of the forest, all living things down to the worms, butterflies and ants; the Waters taking form become these. Do thou reverence the Waters. He who reverences the Waters as the Eternal, attains all desires, he becomes full of content. As far as is the reach of the Waters, so far is he lord of his desires who reverences the Waters as the Eternal.”

Master, is there aught beyond the Waters?”

Verily, there is that beyond the Waters.”

Let the Master declare that to me!”

The Radiance, verily, is beyond the Waters. That, verily, laying hold of the air, heats the shining ether; then they say: ‘It is oppressive, it is hot, it will rain.’ The Radiance, verily, first showing this, then puts forth the Waters; then, with lightnings flashing up and across, thunderings come. Therefore, they say: ‘It tightens, it thunders, it will rain.’ The Radiance, first showing this, puts forth the Waters. Do thou reverence the Radiance. He who reverences the Radiance as the Eternal, possesses Radiance, he wins worlds possessing Radiance, luminous, whose darkness is driven away. As far as is the reach of the Radiance, so far is he lord of his desires who reverences the Radiance as the Eternal.”

Master, is there aught beyond the Radiance?”

Verily, there is that beyond the Radiance.”

May the Master declare that to me!”

Shining Ether is beyond the Radiance. In shining Ether are both sun and moon, lightning, the starry mansions, fire. Through shining Ether, he calls; through shining Ether, he hears; through shining Ether, he responds; in shining Ether, he finds delight; in shining Ether, he finds not delight; in shining Ether, he is born; into shining Ether, he is born again. Do thou reverence shining Ether. He who reverences shining Ether as the Eternal, wins worlds possessing shining Ether, possessing radiant light, boundless, wide-extending. As far as is the reach of shining Ether, so far is he lord of his desires who reverences shining Ether as the Eternal.“

Master, is there aught beyond shining Ether?”

Verily, there is that beyond shining Ether.”

May the Master declare that to me!”

Memory, verily, is beyond shining Ether. For if many should gather together not possessing Memory, they would bear no one, they would not think, they would not discern; for through Memory he discerns his sons, through Memory his cattle. Do thou reverence Memory. He who reverences Memory as the Eternal, as far as is the reach of Memory, so far is he lord of his desires who reverences Memory as the Eternal.”

Master, is there aught beyond Memory?”

Verily, there is that beyond Memory.”

May the Master declare that to me!”

Hope, verily, is beyond Memory. Kindled by Hope, verily, he learns the magical chants, he performs the works, he desires sons and cattle, he desires this world and that. Do thou reverence Hope. He who reverences Hope as the Eternal, by Hope all his desires are enriched, not vain are his expectations. As far as is the reach of Hope, so far is he lord of his desires who reverences Hope as the Eternal.”

Master, is there aught beyond Hope?”

Verily, there is that beyond Hope.”

May the Master declare that to me!”

Life, verily, is beyond Hope. As the spokes are set firm in the nave, so in this Life is all set firm; through Life, life goes forward; Life gives life, to life it gives; for Life is father, Life is mother, Life is brother, Life is sister, Life is teacher, Life is the knower of the Eternal. So, if to father, mother, brother, sister, teacher, or knower of the Eternal he as answered aught too harshly, ‘Shame on thee!’ they say to him, ‘thou art a slayer of father, thou art a slayer of mother, thou art a slayer of brother, thou art a slayer of sister, thou art a slayer of teacher, thou art a slayer of a knower of the Eternal!’ But if, after life has gone from them, he should thrust them on the pyre with a bar of iron and should burn their bodies to ashes, they would not say to him: ‘Thou art a slayer of father, thou art a slayer of mother, thou art a slayer of brother, thou art a slayer of sister, thou art a slayer of teacher, thou art a slayer of a knower of the Eternal!’ For Life is all these. He, verily, who sees thus, thinks thus, discerns thus, becomes an excellent speaker. If they should say to him: ‘An excellent speaker art thou!’ he should say: ‘An excellent speaker am I'; he should not deny it. But he is an excellent speaker who through Truth excels in speaking.”

May I, then, Master, through Truth excel in speaking!”

Truth must be sought and discerned.”

Master, I would discern Truth!”

If he discerns, he speaks Truth; not without discerning does he speak Truth; discerning, he speaks Truth; Discernment is to be sought and discerned.”

”Master, I would seek Discernment!”

When he thinks, he discerns; not without thinking does he discern; with thinking he discerns; Thought is to be sought and discerned.”

Master, I would know Thought!”

When he has Faith, he thinks; without Faith, he thinks not; having Faith, he thinks; Faith is to be sought and discerned.”

Master, I would know Faith!”

When he is steadfast, he has Faith; not without steadfastness can he have Faith; steadfast, he has Faith; Steadfastness is to be sought and discerned.”

Master, I would know Steadfastness!”

When he does the works, then he is steadfast; not without doing the works is he steadfast; doing the works, verily, he is steadfast; Working, verily, is to be sought and discerned.”

Master, I would know Working!”

When he gains Happiness, he does the works; not without gaining Happiness does he work; gaining Happiness, verily, be works. Happiness, verily, is to be sought and discerned.”

Master, I would know Happiness!”

The Great is Happiness; not in the little is Happiness; the Great, verily, is Happiness. The Great is to be sought and discerned.”

Master, I would know the Great!”

Where he sees no other, hears no other, discerns no other, that is the Great. Where he sees other, hears other, discerns other, that is the little. The Great is immortal. The little is mortal.”

In what, Master, does the Great stand firm?”

In its own greatness; or, verily, not in greatness. Cattle and horses they call greatness here, elephants and gold, slaves and wives, lands and houses; but I say not so, for each of these is set firm in another. This, verily, is beneath, this is above, this is behind, this is before, this is in the South, this is in the North; this, verily, is all that is.

Then, from this, the instruction concerning the thought of ‘I'; I, verily, beneath, I above, I behind, I before, I in the South, I in the North, I all that is.

Then, from this, the instruction concerning the supreme Self, the Soul; the Soul, verily, beneath, the Soul above, the Soul behind, the Soul before, the Soul in the South, the Soul in the North, the Soul all that is. So, verily, he, seeing thus, thinking thus, discerning thus, delighting in the Soul, rejoicing in the Soul, wedded to the Soul, joying in the Soul, is self-ruled; in all worlds he is lord of his desires. But they who see otherwise are ruled by another; they are of perishable worlds; in all worlds they win not their desires.

For him, verily, who sees thus, who thinks thus, who discerns thus, from the Soul is Life, from the Soul is Hope, from the Soul is Memory, from the Soul is the shining Ether, from the Soul is the Radiance, from the Soul are the Waters, from the Soul are evolution and involution, from the Soul is Food, from the Soul is Power, from the Soul is Discernment, from the Soul is Meditation, from the Soul is Imagination, from the Soul is Will, from the Soul is Mind, from the Soul is Voice, from the Soul is Name, from the Soul are the magical chants, from the Soul are the works; from the Soul is all that is.”

Then there is this verse:

The Seer sees not death, sickness, nor any sorrow;
The Seer sees all, in all ways attaining all.

This is onefold, threefold, fivefold, sevenfold, ninefold, and again it is recorded as elevenfold, a hundred and elevenfold, and also twenty thousand-fold.

In pure food is pure being, in pure being the teaching stands firm, in gaining the teaching, there is a loosing of all knots; him whose stains are wiped away the Master Sanatkumara guides to the shore beyond the darkness; him they call the Warrior, him they call the Warrior.

 

PART VIII

INSTRUCTIONS FOR DISCIPLES

THE LOTUS OF THE HEART

And so, that which is in this city of the Eternal, a small lotus, is a dwelling; in it is a small space, radiant ether; that which is in this within, that is to be sought out, that is what you should seek to discern.

If the disciples should say to him, “That which is in this city of the Eternal, a small lotus, is a dwelling; in it is a small space, radiant ether; what is it that exists in it, that should be sought out, that we should seek to discern?”

He should say, “As great as is this shining ether of space, so great is this shining ether in the heart within; within this are concentrated both heaven and earth, both fire and wind, both sun and moon, lightning and the stellar realms; whatsoever of the Self is in this world and whatsoever is not, all this is concentrated in this dwelling.”

If the disciples should say to him, “If in this city of the Eternal all is concentrated, and all beings, and all desires, when old age overcomes this, or it falls into decay, what then remains of it?”

He should say, “Not through the fading of this does that grow old, nor by the slaying of this is that slain; this city of the Eternal is the Real, in it are concentrated desires, this is the Self, from which evil has been driven away, ageless, deathless, beyond sorrow, beyond hunger and thirst, true in desire, true in creative imagination; for it is as if people here should betake themselves to a new territory according to a decree, on whatsoever portion they should set their desires, whatever region, whatever part of the land, on that they would dwell, drawing a living from it. Then, just as here the region won by work is exhausted, so, verily, over there the region won by good works is exhausted. Therefore, they who in this world go forth, without having sought and found the divine Self and the true desires of the Self, for them there is in all the worlds no true fulfilment of desire; so they who in this world go forth, having sought and found the divine Self and the true desires of the Self, for them there is in all worlds the true fulfilment of desire.

So if he be desirous of the world of the Fathers, through his creative power the Fathers arise and stand before him; endowed with the world of the Fathers, he is mighty.

And so if he be desirous of the world of the Mothers, through his creative power the Mothers arise and stand before him; endowed with the world of the Mothers, he is mighty.

And so if he be desirous of the world of the Brothers, through his creative power the Brothers arise and stand before him; endowed with the world of the Brothers, he is mighty.

And so if he be desirous of the world of the Sisters, through his creative power the Sisters arise and stand before him; endowed with the world of the Sisters, he is mighty.

And so if he be desirous of the world of the Companions, through his creative power the Companions arise and stand before him; endowed with the world of the Companions, he is mighty.

And so if he be desirous of the world of fragrance and garlands, through his creative power fragrance and garlands arise and stand before him; endowed with the world of fragrance and garlands, he is mighty.

And so if he be desirous of the world of food and drink, through his creative power food and drink arise and stand before him; endowed with the world of food and drink, he is mighty.

And so if he be desirous of the world of song and music, through his creative power song and music arise and stand before him; endowed with the world of song and music, he is mighty.

And so if he be desirous of the world of fair women, through his creative power fair women arise and stand before him; endowed with the world of fair women, he is mighty.

Whatsoever realm he is desirous of, whatever desire he desires, through his creative power it arises and stands before him; endowed with it, he is mighty.

These true desires here are overlaid with false; of these true desires there is a covering of false. Whoever, belonging to him, should go forth in death, he cannot reach him to behold him in this world. And so whoever there are belonging to him, living in this world, or who have gone forth in death, and whatever else he desires and cannot attain, entering into the divine Self he finds all this, for in the divine Self are all these his true desires which were overlaid with false. Therefore, even as those who know not the place where a treasure of gold is buried, even though they walk over it again and again, would not find it, so, verily, all these beings here go day by day to the world of the Eternal and do not find it, led in captivity by the false.

This divine Self is in the heart. This is the definition of it, ‘He in the Heart.’ Therefore it is named the Heart. Day by day he who knows thus goes to the heaven world. And so he who is this Lord of peace, rising up from this body, attaining to the higher Light, is endowed with his own form; this is the divine Self,” said he; “this is the immortal, the fearless; this is the Eternal; and of him, of this Eternal, the name is Satyam, Truth.

These are the three syllables: Sat-ti-yam; Sat is the immortal; Ti is the mortal; Yam joins the two, uniting the mortal to the immortal. Therefore, he who knows thus goes day by day to the heaven world.

And so, that which is the divine Self, that is the bridge, holding the worlds apart, that they may not blend together. Day and night cross not this bridge, nor age and death, nor good nor ill works; all evil deeds turn back from this, for all evil is driven away from this world of the Eternal. Therefore, when he has crossed this bridge, the blind is no longer blind, nor the maimed maimed, nor the afflicted afflicted. Therefore, crossing this bridge, night is transformed to day, for this world of the Eternal is radiance everlasting.

Therefore, they who seek and find this world of the Eternal through service of the Eternal, theirs is this world of the Eternal; in all worlds theirs is the fulfilment of true desire.

And so what they name sacrifice is service of the Eternal, for he who through service of the Eternal has attained wisdom, finds that world. And so what they name offering is service of the Eternal, for making the offering through service of the Eternal, he finds the divine Self. And so what they name the continued sacrifice is service of the Eternal, for through service of the Eternal he finds the continuing home of the true divine Self. And so what they name silent meditation is service of the Eternal, for through service of the Eternal seeking and finding the divine Self, he meditates. And so what they name fasting is service of the Eternal, for the divine Self which he finds through service of the Eternal stands fast. And so what they name dwelling in the forest is service of the Eternal; for the forest is Aranya, and Ara and Nya are the two seas in the world of the Eternal, in the third heaven above this world. There are the Lake of Joy and the Tree of Life, distilling nectar; there is the invincible stronghold of the Eternal, the golden dwelling of the Lord. Therefore, they who seek and find these two seas in the world of the Eternal through service of the Eternal, theirs is the world of the Eternal; theirs in all worlds is the fulfilment of true desire.

And so there are these channels of the heart which arise from the subtile essence, orange and bright and deep blue and yellow and red; that sun is orange, bright, deep blue, yellow and red. Therefore, as a highway stretched out goes between two villages, this and that, so, verily, these rays of the sun go between two worlds, this and that; they radiate from that sun and penetrate into these channels; they radiate from these channels and penetrate into the sun.

Therefore, where one is sunk in sleep, altogether entered into quietude, so that he discerns no dream, then he has entered into these channels; him no evil touches, for he is then endowed with the radiance.

And so when one has fallen into weakness, they who are seated about him say, ‘Knowest thou me? Knowest thou me’ He, so long as he has not risen from this body, knows them. And so when he rises from this body, by these rays he mounts upward. Repeating, Om, verily, he ascends; as swiftly as he could send a thought, so swiftly he goes to the sun; this, truly, is the door of the world, the entrance of the wise, but a barrier to the unwise.”

Therefore, there is this verse:

A hundred and one are the channels of the heart; of them one mounts upward to the crown; ascending by that, he goes to immortality; the others lead in all directions.

 

DEVA AND ASURA

That divine Self from which all evil is driven away, ageless, deathless, beyond sorrow, beyond hunger and thirst, whose desire is true, whose creative power is true, that is to be sought after, that is to be discerned; he wins all worlds and all desires who, seeking that divine Self, discerns it:” thus spake Prajapati, Lord of beings.

This both Devas and Asuras, Gods and Demons, heard. They said “That divine Self we desire to know, that Self seeking which one wins all worlds and all desires.”

Indra, verily, of the Gods, and Virochana of the Demons set forth toward him; these two, not making it known to each other, drew near to Prajapati with fuel in their hands.

They two dwelt in service of the Eternal thirty-two years. To them Prajapati said, “Seeking what have ye dwelt here?”

They two said, “’That Self from which all evil is driven away, ageless, deathless, beyond sorrow, beyond hunger and thirst, Whose desire is true, whose creative power is true, that is to be sought after, that is to be discerned; he wins all worlds and all desires who, seeking that Self, discerns it': thus they report the Master’s word; seeking this, we have dwelt here.”

To them Prajapati said, “This person who is seen in the eye, this is the Self, said he, this is the immortal, fearless, this is the Eternal!”

But that one, Master, who is perceived in water, and that one in a mirror, which is he?”

It is he, verily; in all these places he is perceived. When ye have considered the Self in a vessel of water, whatever of the Self ye understand not, declare ye that to me.”

They two observed in the vessel of water. To them, Prajapati said, “What see ye?” They said, “We see the whole Self of our two selves, Master, answering even to the hair, even to the nails.”

To them Prajapati said, “Adorning yourselves well, with fair garments well decked, observe in the vessel of water.” They two, adorning themselves well, with fair garments, well decked, observed in the vessel of water.

To them Prajapati said, “What see ye?” They said, “Just as we two, Master, are well adorned, with fair garments, well decked, so are these two, Master, well adorned, with fair garments, well decked!”

This is the Self,” said he, “this is the immortal, fearless, this is the Eternal!”

They two went forth with peaceful heart. Following them with his eyes, Prajapati said, “Without understanding the Self, without finding, they two have departed! Whosoever shall hold this to be the true teaching, Gods or Demons, they shall go astray and fall!”

With peaceful heart Virochana went to the Demons. To them he declared this as the true doctrine, “Self, verily, in this world is to be reverenced, Self is to be served; reverencing Self, verily, in this world, serving Self, he wins both worlds, this and the other world.”

Therefore, even to-day in this world they say, of him who gives no gifts, who has no faith, who makes no sacrifice, “He is as a Demon!” For this is the doctrine of Demons. They deck the body of one who has gone forth with begged garlands and perfumes, robes and ornaments, thinking that with this they will win the other world.

But Indra, even before he had reached the Gods, saw this fear: “Verily, just as when the body is well adorned, this is well adorned; when the body is well clad, this is well clad; when the body is well decked, this is well decked; in just the same way, when the body is blind, this is blind; when the body is halt, this is halt; when the body is maimed, this is maimed; when the body is destroyed, this is destroyed. I see nothing enjoyable in this!”

So with fuel in his hand he came back again. To him Prajapati said, “O Masterful One, with peaceful heart thou hast departed with Virochana; seeking what hast thou come back?”

He said, “Just as, Master, when the body is well adorned, this is well adorned; when the body is well clad, this is well clad; when the body is well decked, this is well decked; in just the same way, when the body is blind, he is blind, when halt, halt, when maimed, maimed, and when the body is destroyed, this is destroyed. I see nothing enjoyable in this!”

He is so, in truth, O Masterful One,” said he. “But I shall make him further manifest to thee. Dwell here other two and thirty years!”

He dwelt there other two and thirty years. To him the Lord of beings said, “He who moves and acts in dreams, putting on greatness, he is the Self; this is the immortal, the fearless, this is the Eternal.”

He set forth with peaceful heart, but even before he had reached the Gods, he saw this fear: “Even though it be true that, when the body is blind, this Self of dream is not blind, when the body is halt, he is not halt, nor is he impaired through the defect of the body; not by the slaying of this is he slain, nor by the maiming of this is he maimed; nevertheless they seem to slay him, they seem to pursue him; he feels what is painful, he laments, as it were. I see nothing enjoyable in this!”

So with fuel in his hand he came back again. To him Prajapati said, “O Masterful One, with peaceful heart thou hast departed; seeking what hast thou come back?”

He said, “Even though it be true, Master, that, when the body is blind, this Self of dream is not blind, when the body is halt, he is not halt, nor is he impaired through the defect of the body; not by the slaying of this is he slain, nor by the maiming of this is he maimed; nevertheless they seem to slay him, they seem to pursue him; he feels what is painful, he laments, as it were. I see nothing enjoyable in this!”

He is so, in truth, O Masterful One,” said he. “But I shall make him further manifest to thee. Dwell here other two and thirty years.”

He dwelt there other two and thirty years. To him the Lord of beings said, When one is sunk in sleep, altogether entered into quietude, so that he discerns no dream, this is the Self, said he; this is the immortal, the fearless, this is the Eternal.”

He set forth with peaceful heart, but even before he had reached the Gods, he saw this fear: “Verily, this Self in dreamlessness does not completely know himself, so as to say, ‘I am he,’ nor does he know these beings; he has gone to surcease. I see nothing enjoyable in this!”

So with fuel in his hand he came back again. To him Prajapati said, “O Masterful One, with peaceful heart thou hast departed; seeking what hast thou come back?”

He said, “Verily, this Self in dreamlessness does not completely know himself, so as to say, I am he, nor does he know these beings; he has gone to surcease. I see nothing enjoyable in this!”

He is so, in truth, O Masterful One,” said he. “But I shall make him further manifest to thee, for there is nothing other than this. Dwell here other five years.”

He dwelt there other five years. This completed one hundred and one years. This is why they say, One hundred and one years Indra the Masterful One dwelt with Prajapati in service of the Eternal.

To him the Lord of beings said, “O Masterful One, mortal, verily, is this body, seized and held by death, yet it is the standing place of the immortal, bodiless, divine Self. This Self, when united with the body, is enthralled by pleasure and pain, for there is no driving away of pleasure and pain for him who is united with the body, but pleasure and pain do not touch the bodiless.

Bodiless are the wind, cloud, lightning, thunder, bodiless are these. Therefore, as these, ascending from that expanse of ether, entering into the higher Light, return to their own form, so, verily, this Perfect Peace, ascending from this body, entering into the higher Light, returns to his own form. This is the highest Spiritual Man. There he rejoices, as those rejoice who laugh, disporting themselves, finding delight in fair women, in cars, in friends, not remembering the burden of this body. For as a horse is yoked to a wagon, so is this Life yoked to the body.

And so, when the eye is fixed on aught in space, it is the Spirit that sees, the eye is but the means of seeing; and so, when he says, ‘Let me smell this,’ it is the Self, the sense of smell is but the means; and so, when he says, ‘Let me utter this,’ it is the Self, voice is but the means of utterance; and so, when he says, ‘Let me hear this,’ it is the Self, the sense of hearing is but the means; and so, when he says, ‘Let me think this,’ it is the Self, the mind is the radiant eye of the Self; with this radiant eye, the mind, the Self sees these desires and is full of joy.

Those who are in the world of the Eternal, the Radiant Ones, worship the divine Self. Therefore, by them all worlds are possessed and all desires. All worlds he wins and all desires who, seeking after the divine Self, discerns it.” Thus spake Prajapati; thus spake Prajapati.

 

PART VIII, SECTIONS 13-15

From the dark, go forward to the many-coloured; from the many-coloured, I go forward to the dark. Just as a horse shakes off loose hairs, so I rid myself of sin; ridding myself of this body, as the moon escapes from the mouth of the Demon of eclipse, I, a Spirit completely formed, am born into the uncreate world of the Eternal, I am born into the world of the Eternal.

That which is named the shining ether is the moulder of name and form, of separate life. That within which these dwell is the Eternal, that is the Supreme Spirit. To the assembly of the Lord of beings, to His dwelling I go forward. I become the glory of knowers of the Eternal, the glory of kings, the glory of the people. Glory have I attained. Therefore may I, the glory of glories, not fall into hoary and toothless days, into toothless and hoary and decrepit days. May I escape decrepit days.

This teaching Lord Brahma imparted to the Lord of beings, the Lord of beings imparted it to Manu, and Manu to his descendants. He who, following the rule, has learned this Wisdom from the family of a Master, in the time left over from doing the Master’s work, turns again home. Nor does such a one return again.

See Also


Chhandogya Upanishad

Translated from the Sanskrit with Interpretations

By Charles Johnston

Full Text Online

Translated by Swāmi Nikhilānanda

Chandogya Upanishad

Part One

Chapter I

MEDITATION ON OM

1

The syllable Om, called the Udgitha, should be meditated upon; for people sing the Udgitha, beginning with Om.

Now follows the [detailed] explanation [of the syllable]:

2

The essence of [all] these beings is the earth; the essence of the earth is water; the essence of water is plants; the essence of plants is a person; the essence of a person is speech; the essence of speech is the Rig-Veda; the essence of the Rig-Veda is the Sāma-Veda; the essence of the Sāma-Veda is the Udgitha [which is Om].

3

That Udgitha (Om) is the best of all essences, the supreme, deserving the highest place, the eighth.

4

What, then, is the Rik? What is the Sāman? What is the Udgitha? This is to be considered.

5

Speech, indeed, is the Rik; the vital breath (prāna) is the Sāman; the syllable Om is the Udgitha. Speech and the prāna, or the Rik and the Sāman, form a couple.

6

And that couple become united in the syllable Om. When a pair come together they fulfill each other’s desire.

7

He who knows this [as stated above] and meditates on the syllable Om, the Udgitha, becomes, indeed, a fulfiller of desires.

8

This syllable Om is used to give assent, for wherever one assents to something, one says Om (yes). Now, what is assent is gratification. He who knows this and meditates on the syllable Om, the Udgitha, becomes, indeed, a gratifier of desires.

9

By means of this [syllable] the threefold knowledge proceeds. When the [adhvaryu] priest gives an order [in a sacrifice], he says Om. When the [hotri] priest recites [the hymn], he says Om. When the [udgātri] priest sings [the Sāman], he says Om. All this is done for the glory of the Imperishable [Ātman] by the greatness of that syllable and by its essence.

10

[It may be contended] that he who knows this [true meaning of the syllable Om] and he who does not, perform the same sacrifice [and therefore must reap the same fruit]. But [this is not so]. [The results of] knowledge and ignorance are different. Work that is done with knowledge, faith, and the Upanishad (i.e. meditation on the deities) produces the more powerful fruit.

This is, verily, the [detailed] explanation of the syllable Om.

 

Chapter II

MEDITATION ON OM AS THE PRĀNA

1

When the gods and the demons, both offspring of Prajāpati, fought with each other, the gods took hold of the Udgitha, thinking that with this they would vanquish the demons.

2

They (i.e. the gods) meditated on the Udgitha (Om) as the prāna, which functions through the nose. But the demons pierced it (i.e. the prāna) with evil. Therefore with it (i.e. the breath) one smells both what is pleasant-smelling and what is foul-smelling. For the breath is pierced by evil.

3

Then they meditated on the Udgitha as speech. But the demons pierced it with evil. Therefore one speaks both truth and falsehood. For speech is pierced by evil.

4

Then they meditated on the Udgitha as the eye. But the demons pierced it with evil. Therefore one sees both what is sightly and what is unsightly. For the eye is pierced by evil.

5

Then they meditated on the Udgitha as the ear. But the demons pierced it with evil. Therefore one hears both what is worth hearing and what is not worth hearing. For the ear is pierced by evil.

6

Then they meditated on the Udgitha as the mind. But the demons pierced it with evil. Therefore one thinks both proper and improper thoughts. For the mind is pierced by evil.

7

Then they meditated on the Udgitha as the principal (mukhya) prāna. But as a clod of earth hitting a stone is scattered, even so the demons were destroyed when they hit it.

8

As a clod of earth is scattered when hitting a stone, thus will he be scattered who wishes evil to one who knows this or who injures him; for he is a solid stone.

9

With this (i.e. the principal vital breath) one does not discern what is pleasant-smelling and what is foul-smelling; for it is unsmitten by evil. Whatever a person eats or drinks with it (the principal vital breath) supports the other prānas. That is why they depart when, at the time of death, it no longer supports them [by eating and drinking]. It opens the mouth at the time of death [as if the dying man wished to eat].

10-13

Angirā meditated on the Udgitha as the principal prāna. People call it (i.e. the prāna) Angiras, because it is the essence (rasa) of the limbs (anga)

Brihaspati meditated on the Udgitha as the principa1 prāna. Peop1e call it (the prāna) Brihaspati, because speech is great (brihat) and it is the lord (pati) of speech.

Āyāsya meditated on the Udgitha as the principal prāna. People regard it (the prāna) as Āyāsya; because it comes (ayatē) from the mouth (āsya).

Vaka, the son of Dalbhya, knew it (the prāna); he became the udgātri priest of the sacrificers dwelling in the Naimisha forest. By singing (the Udgitha) he fulfilled all their desires.

14

He who knows this [as described above] and meditates upon the imperishable Udgitha (Om) obtains all his desires by singing [the Udgitha].

So much [for the Udgitha as meditated on] with reference to the body.

 

Chapter III

MEDITATION ON THE UDGITHA AS THE SUN AND THE VYĀNA

1

Now [is described] the meditation on the Udgitha with reference to the gods:

One should meditate on the Udgitha as [the sun] Who gives warmth. When he (the sun) rises he sings [the Udgitha] for [the benefit of] all creatures. When he rises he destroys darkness and fear. He who knows this becomes the destroyer of darkness and fear.

2

This [prāna] and that [sun] are the same. This is warm and that is warm. This they call svara (what goes out), and that, pratyāsvara (what returns). Therefore one should meditate on the Udgitha as this and that.

3

One should meditate on the Udgitha as the vyāna. That which one breathes out is the prāna, and that which one breathes in is the apāna. That which is the junction of the prāna and the apāna is the vyāna. This vyāna is speech. Therefore when one utters speech one stops the prāna and the apāna.

4

That which is speech is the Rik. Therefore when a man utters a Rik he neither breathes out nor breathes in. That which is the Rik is the Sāman. Therefore when a man sings a Sāman, he neither breathes out nor breathes in. That which is the Sāman is the Udgitha. Therefore when a man sings the Udgitha he neither breathes out nor breathes in.

5

And other works also which require strength, such as the kindling of fire by rubbing, running a race, and stringing a strong bow, are performed without breathing out or breathing in. Therefore one should meditate on the Udgitha as the vyāna.

6

One should meditate on the letters of the word Udgitha (i.e. ut, gi,and tha). Ut is the prāna, for a man rises (uttishthati) by means of the prāna. Gi is speech, for speeches are called girah. Tha is food, for all this subsists (sthita) on food.

7

Ut is heaven, gi the mid-region, and tha the earth. Ut is the sun, gi the air, and tha fire. Ut is the Sāma-Veda, gi the Yajur-Veda, and tha the Rig-Veda. [To him who thus meditates] speech yields milk, and milk is speech. He who knows this and meditates on the letters of the Udgitha becomes the possessor of food and the eater of food.

8

Next follows the fulfilment of prayers. One should thus meditate on the object one wishes to obtain through meditation: he (i.e. the udgātri priest) should meditate on the Sāman with which he is going to chant the praise.

9

He (the udgātri priest) should meditate on the Rik in which that Sāman occurs, on the rishi to whom it was revealed, and on the deity whom he is going to praise.

10

He (the udgātri priest) should meditate on the metre in which he is going to chant the praise; he should meditate on the hymn by which he is going to chant the praise.

11

He (the udgātri priest) should meditate on the quarter of space facing which he is going to chant the praise.

12

Finally, he (the udgātri priest) should meditate on himself, and then on the object desired, and chant the praise correctly. [Thus] will be quickly fulfilled for him the desire, desiring which he may offer the hymn of praise, yea, desiring which he may offer the hymn of praise.

 

Chapter IV

MEDITATION ON OM AS FEARLESSNESS AND IMMORTALITY

1

The syllable Om, called the Udgitha, should be meditated upon; for people sing the Udgitha, beginning with Om.

Now follows the [detailed] explanation [of this syllable].

2

The gods, afraid of death, entered upon the threefold knowledge. They covered themselves with the metrical hymns. Because they covered (acchādayan) themselves with the hymns, the hymns are called chhandas.

3

As a fisherman might observe a fish in [shallow] water, so death observed the gods in the Rik, the Yajus, and the Sāman. They too came to know this, rose from the Rik, the Yajus, and the Sāman, and entered the Svara (Om) alone.

4

When a man has mastered the Rig-Veda he loudly utters Om; he does the same when he has mastered the Sāma-Veda and theYajur Veda. The Svara is the syllable [Om]; it is immortal and fearless. The gods, by entering it, became immortal and fearless.

5

He who, knowing this, sings the praise of the syllable [Om] enters this same syllable, called the Svara, which is immortal and fearless. Having entered it, he becomes immortal as the gods are immortal.

 

Chapter V

MEDITATION ON OM AS THE SUN AND THE PRĀNA

1

Now, verily, that which is the Udgitha is the Pranava; that which is the Pranava is the Udgitha. Yonder sun is the Udgitha. It is the Pranava, because it moves along uttering Om.

2

Kaushitaki [in olden times] said to his son: “I sang the praise of the sun [regarding it as one with its rays]; therefore you are my only [son]. Meditate [on the rays and the sun as different from each another], and you will have many sons.”

So much with reference to the gods.

3

Now with reference to the body:

One should meditate on the Udgitha as the principal prāna, for it (i.e. the prāna) moves [in the body] uttering Om.

4

Kaushitaki [in olden times] said to his son: “I sang the praise [of the principal prāna alone]; therefore you are my only [son]. Meditate on the Udgitha as the manifold prāna, and you will have many sons.”

5

Now, verily, that which is the Udgitha is the Pranava; that which is the Pranava is the Udgitha. He (i.e. the udgātri priest) who knows this, rectifies from the seat of the hotri priest any mistake committed by him (the udgātri priest), yea he rectifies it.

 

Chapter VI

THE LUMINOUS PERSON IN THE SOLAR ORB

1

This [earth] is the Rik, and fire is the Sāman. This Sāman (i.e fire) rests on that Rik (i.e. the earth). Therefore the Sāman is sung resting on the Rik. is the earth, ama is fire; thus they (the earth and fire) are designated as Sāma.

2

The mid-region is the Rik, and the air is the Sāman. This Sāman (i.e. the air) rests on that Rik (i.e. the mid-region). Therefore the Sāman is sung, resting on the Rik. is the mid-region, ama is the air; thus they (the mid-region and the air) are designated as Sāma.

3

Heaven is the Rik, and the sun is the Sāman. This Sāman (i.e. the sun) rests on that Rik (i.e. heaven). Therefore the Sāman is sung, resting on the Rik. is heaven, ama is the sun; thus they (heaven and the sun) are designated as Sāma.

4

The stars are the Rik, and the moon is the Sāman. This Sāman (i.e. the moon) rests on that Rik (i.e. the stars). Therefore the Sāman is sung, resting on the Rik. is the stars, ama is the moon; thus they (the stars and the moon) are designated as Sāma.

5

Now, the white radiance of the sun is the Rik, and its blue intense darkness is the Sāman. This Sāman (i.e. the darkness) rests on that Rik (i.e. the radiance). Therefore the Sāman is sung, resting on the Rik.

6-7

is the white radiance of the sun, ama is its blue intense darkness; thus they (the radiance and the darkness) are designated as Sāma.

Now, the golden person who is seen in the sun, who has a golden beard and golden hair, who is golden to the very tips of his nails—his eyes are like a lotus flower, red as the rump of a monkey.

His name is Ut, for he has risen (udita) above all evil. He, too, who knows this rises above all evil.

8

The Rik and the Sāman are his joints, and therefore he is the Udgitha. And therefore [the udgātri priest is called] the udgātā; for he is the singer (gātā) of this [person named Ut]. He (i.e. the golden person) is the lord of the worlds beyond that [sun], and of all the wishes of the gods [inhabiting those worlds].

So much with reference to the gods.

 

Chapter VII

THE PERSON IN THE EYE

1

Now with reference to the body:

Speech is the Rik and the prāna is the Sāman. This Sāman (the prāna) rests on that Rik (speech). Therefore the Sāman is sung, resting on the Rik. is speech, ama is the prāna; thus they (speech and the prāna) are designated as Sāma.

2

The eye is the Rik and the ātman is the Sāman. This Sāman (the ātman) rests on that Rik (the eye). Therefore the Sāman is sung, resting on the Rik. is the eye, ama is the ātman; thus they (the eye and the ātman) are designated as Sāma.

3

The ear is the Rik and the mind is the Sāman. This Sāman (the mind) rests on that Rik (the ear). Therefore the Sāman is sung, resting on the Rik. is the ear, ama is the mind; thus they (the ear and the mind) are designated as Sāma.

4

Now, the white radiance of the eye is the Rik and its blue intense darkness is the Sāman. This Sāman (darkness) rests on that Rik (radiance). Therefore the Sāman is sung, resting on the Rik. is the white radiance of the eye, ama is its blue intense darkness; thus they (the radiance and the darkness) are designated as Sāma.

5

Now, the person who is seen in the eye is the Rik, he is the Sāman, he is the Uktha, he is the Yajus, he is Brahman. The form of this person [in the eye] is the same as the form of that person [in the sun]. The joints of this person [in the eye] are the same as the joints of that person [in the sun]; the name of this one (Ut) is the same as the name of that one.

6

He is the lord of the worlds which spread beneath that (i.e. the eye) and also of all the wishes of men. Therefore all who sing to the vinā sing of him, and from him they obtain wealth.

7

He who, knowing this (i.e. the Udgitha), sings the Sāman, sings to both. Through that (i.e, the person in the sun) he obtains the world beyond that (i.e. the sun) and the wishes of the gods.

8-9

Likewise, through this (i.e. the person in the eye), he obtains the worlds that spread beneath that (i.e. the eye) and all the wishes of men.

Therefore an udgātri priest who knows this may say [to the sacrificer for whom he acts as priest]:

“What desire of yours shall I fulfill by singing?”

For he who, knowing this, sings the Sāman is able to fulfill wishes through his singing of the Sāman, yea, through his singing of the Sāman.

 

Chapter VIII

THE STORY OF PRAVĀHANA (I)

1

There were three men versed in the Udgitha: Śilaka the son of Śalāvat, Chaikitāyana of the line of Dalbhya, and Pravāhana the son of Jivala. They said: “We are indeed versed in the Udgitha. Let us have a discussion of the Udgitha.”

2

“Let it be so,” they said and sat down. Then Pravāhana the son of Jivala said: “Revered Sirs, you speak first, and I shall listen to what the two brāhmins have to say.”

3

Then Śilaka the son of Śalāvat said to Chaikitāyana of the line of Dalbhya: “Well, may I question you?”

“Do ask,” he said.

4-5

“What is the support of the Sāman?”

“Tone (svara),” he replied.

“What is the support of tone?”

“The prāna (vital breath),” he replied.

“What is the support of the prāna?”

“Food,” he replied.

“What is the support of food?”

“Water,” he replied.

“What is the support of water?”

“Yonder world (heaven),” he replied.

“What is the support of yonder world?”

“Let no one carry the Sāman beyond the heavenly world. We place the Sāman in the heavenly world, for the Sāman is praised as heaven.”

6

Then Śilaka the son of Śalāvat said to Chaikitāyana of the line of Dalbhya: “O Dālbhya your Sāman is not firmly established. If at this time anyone [who knew the support of the Sāman] were to say: ‘Your head shall fall off,’ surely your head would fall off.”

7

“Well then, revered Sir, let me learn it from you,” said Chaikitāyana.

“Learn it,” replied Śilaka.

“What is the support of that world?”

“This world,” he replied.

“What is the support of this world?”

“Let no one carry the Sāman beyond this world, which is its support. We place the Sāman in this world as its support, for the Sāman is praised as the support (i.e. this world).”

8

Then said Pravāhana the son of Jivala: “O son of Śalāvat, your Sāman (i.e. this earth) has an end. If at this time anyone [who knew the support of the Sāman] were to say: ‘Your head shall fall off,’ surely your head would fall off.”

“Well then, let me learn this from you, revered Sir,” said Śilaka.

“Learn it,” said Pravāhana.

 

Chapter IX

THE STORY OF PRAVĀHANA (II)

1

“What is the support of this world?” asked Śilaka.

“The ākāśa,” said Pravāhana. “For all these beings are created from the ākāśa and return to the ākāśa. The ākāśa is greater than these; therefore the ākāśa is the supreme support.”

2

This is the Udgitha (Om), the most excellent; this is endless.

He who, knowing this, meditates on the Udgitha obtains the most excellent [life] and wins the most excellent worlds.

3-4

Atidhanvan the son of Śunaka, having taught this [Udgitha] to Udaraśāndilya, said: “As long as any of your descendants know this Udgitha, their life shall be the most excellent in this world, and likewise in the other world.”

He who thus knows the Udgitha and meditates on it—his life shall be he most excellent in this world, and likewise in the other world, yea, in the other world.

 

Chapter X

THE STORY OF USHASTI (I)

1

When the crops of the Kurus were destroyed by thunderstorms, Ushasti the son of Chakra, with his child-wife, lived in a deplorable condition in the village of a man who owned an elephant.

2

He (Ushasti) begged food from the owner of the elephant, who was eating some wretched beans. He (the owner of the elephant) said: “I have nothing but what is set before me.”

3

Ushasti said: “Give me these.”

He gave the beans and said: “Here is some water [left over from my drinking].”

Ushasti said: “If I drink this, I will then be drinking what has been left by another.”

4

The owner of the elephant said: “Were not those beans also left over [and therefore unclean]?”

Ushasti replied: “I should not have lived if I had not eaten them; but I can get water wherever I like.”

5

Having himself eaten, Ushasti gave his wife what was left. But she, having eaten before, took them (i.e. the beans) and put them away.

6

Next morning, on awaking, he said: “Alas, if I could get even a little to eat, I might earn some money. The king over here is going to perform a sacrifice; he would choose me for all the priestly offices.”

7

His wife said to him: “Here, my husband, are the beans.” After eating them, he went to the sacrifice that was about to be performed.

8

He saw there the assembled udgātri priests and sat near them in the place where they would sing the hymns. He said to the prastotri priest:

9

“O prastotri priest, if without knowing the deity that belongs to the Prastāva, you sing the Prastāva, your head will fall off.”

10-11

In the same manner he addressed the udgātri priest: “O udgātri priest, if without knowing the deity that belongs to the Udgitha, you sing the Udgitha, your head will fall off.”

In the same manner he addressed the pratihārtri priest: “O pratihārtri priest, if without knowing the deity that belongs to the Pratihāra, you sing the Pratihāra, your head will fall off.”

They all stopped [performing their duties] and sat in silence.

 

Chapter XI

THE STORY OF USHASTI (II)

1

Then the sacrificer said to him (Ushasti): “I should like to know who you are, revered Sir.”

“I am Ushasti the son of Chakra,” he replied.

2

He (the sacrificer) said: “Revered Sir, I looked for you to perform all these priestly offices, but not finding you, Sir, I have chosen others.”

3

“But now, Sir, please take up all the priestly offices.”

“So be it,” said Ushasti, “but let these [priests], with my permission, sing the hymns of praise. You will, however, give me as much wealth as you give them.”

“So be it,” said the sacrificer.

4

Thereupon the prastotri priest approached him and said: “Sir, you said to me: ‘O prastotri priest, if without knowing the deity that belongs to the Prastāva, you sing the Prastāva, your head will fall off.’ Which is that deity?”

5

Ushasti said: “The prāna [is that deity]. For all these beings merge in the prāna alone, and from the prāna alone do they rise. This is the deity which belongs to the Prastāva. If without knowing him you had chanted the Prastāva after having been cursed by me, your head would have fallen off.”

6

Then the udgātri priest approached him and said: “Sir, you said to me: ‘O udgātri priest, if without knowing the deity that belongs to the Udgitha, you sing the Udgitha, your head will fall off.’ Which is that deity?”

7

Ushasti said: “The sun [is that deity]. For all these beings praise the sun which is high up. This is the deity which belongs to the Udgitha. If without knowing him you had chanted the Udgitha after having been cursed by me, your head would have fallen off.”

8

Then the pratihārtri priest approached him and said: “Sir, you said to me: ‘O pratihārtri priest, if without knowing the deity that belongs to the Pratihāra, you sing the Pratihāra, your head will fall off.’ Which is that deity?”

9

Ushasti said: “Food [is that deity]. For all these beings take food and live. This is the deity that belongs to the Pratihāra. If without knowing him you had chanted the Pratihāra after having been cursed by me, your head would have fallen. off.”

 

Chapter XII

THE UDGITHA OF THE DOGS

Now follows the Udgitha of the dogs:

One day, Vaka the son of Dalbhya, or as he was also called, Glāva the son of Mitrā went forth to study the Vedas.

2

A white dog appeared before him. Other dogs, gathering around, said to him (i.e. the white dog) : “Revered Sir, please sing for us, so that we may obtain food; we are hungry.”

3

He (the white dog) said to them: “Come to me here tomorrow morning.” Vaka the son of Dalbhya, or as he was also called, Glāva the son of Mitrā, kept watch.

4

Just as the priests move along, holding to one another, when they are about to sing praises with the Vahishpavamana hymn, so did the dogs move along. Then they sat down and uttered [the syllable] Him.

5

Om. Let us eat! Om. Let us drink! Om. Let the sun, who is the luminous deity (deva), the giver of rain (Varuna), the lord of creatures (Prajāpati), bring food here!

[Now a prayer to the sun:] O lord of food, bring food here, bring it here. Om.

 

Chapter XIII

THE MYSTICAL MEANING OF THE STOBHA SYLLABLES

1

This earth is verily the syllable hāu; the air is the syllable hāi; the moon is the syllable atha; the self is the syllable iha; the fire is the syllable i.

2

The sun is the syllable u; the invocation is the syllable e; the Viśvedevas are the syllable au-ho-i; Prajāpati is the syllable him; the prāna is the syllable svara; food is the syllable ; Virat is the syllable vāk.

3

Indefinable is the thirteenth stobha, namely, the variable syllable hum.

4

To him who knows this secret knowledge of the Samans, speech yields milk, and milk is speech. He becomes the possessor of food and the eater of food—he who knows this, yea, he who knows this.

 

Part Two

Chapter I

MEDITATION ON THE FIVEFOLD SĀMAN (I)

1

OM. Meditation on the whole of the Sāman is good. Whatever is good, people say it is Sāman; and whatever is not good, people say it is not Sāman.

2

Thus people say: “He approached him with Sāman,” that is to say, “He approached him in a becoming manner.” Again they say: “He approached him without Sāman,” that is to say, “He approached him in an unbecoming manner.”

3

And they also say: “Truly this is Sāman for us,” that is to say, “It is good for us,” when it is good. Again, they say: “Truly this is not Sāman for us,” that is to say, “It is not good for us,” when it is not good.

4

He who, knowing this, meditates on the Sāman as good—all good qualities will approach him quickly, ay, they will accrue to him.

 

Chapter II

MEDITATION ON THE FIVEFOLD SĀMAN (II)

1

One should meditate on the fivefold Sāman as the [five] worlds. The syllable Him is the earth, the Prastāva fire, the Udgitha the sky, the Pratihāra the sun, the Nidhana heaven. This is with reference to the ascending order.

2

Now with reference to the descending order:

The syllable Him is heaven, the Prastāva the sun, the Udgitha the sky, the Pratihāra fire, the Nidhana the earth.

3

The worlds in the ascending and descending orders belong to him who, knowing this, meditates on the fivefold Sāman as the worlds.

 

Chapter III

MEDITATION ON THE FIVEFOLD SĀMAN AS RAIN

1

One should meditate on the fivefold Sāman as rain. The syllable Him is the wind that blows from the east, the Prastāva is the cloud that forms, the Udgitha is what rains, the Pratihāra is the lightning and the thunder.

2

The Nidhana is the cessation. It rains for him [whenever he desires] and he brings rain for others [even when there is no rain] who, knowing this, meditates on the fivefold Sāman as rain.

 

Chapter IV

MEDITATION ON THE FIVEFOLD SĀMAN AS WATER

1

One should meditate on the fivefold Sāman in all the waters. When the clouds gather, that is the syllable Him; when it rains, that is the Prastāva; [the rivers] which flow to the east, these are the Udgitha; [the rivers] which flow to the west, these are the Pratihāra; the ocean is Nidhana.

2

He does not die in water and he becomes rich in water who, knowing this, meditates on the fivefold Sāman in all the waters.

 

Chapter V

MEDITATION ON THE FIVEFOLD SĀMAN AS THE SEASONS

1

One should meditate on the fivefold Sāman as the seasons. The syllable Him is the spring, the Prastāva the summer, the Udgitha the rainy season, the Pratihāra the autumn, the Nidhana the winter.

2

The seasons belong to him and he becomes rich in seasons who, knowing this, meditates on the fivefold Sāman as the seasons.

 

Chapter VI

MEDITATION ON THE FIVEFOLD SĀMAN IN ANIMALS

1

One should meditate on the fivefold Sāman in animals. The syllable Him is goats, the Prastāva sheep, the Udgitha cows, the Pratihāra horses, the Nidhana man.

2

Animals belong to him [as objects of enjoyment] and he becomes rich in animals who, knowing this, meditates on the fivefold Sāman in animals.

 

Chapter VII

MEDITATION ON THE FIVEFOLD SĀMAN AS THE SENSES

1

One should meditate on the fivefold Sāman, which is the most excellent, as the prānas (senses). The syllable Him is smell (i.e. the nose), the Prastāva speech (the tongue), the Udgitha sight (the eye), the Pratihāra hearing (the ear), the Nidhana the mind. These are each greater than the preceding.

2

The most excellent [objects] belong to him, nay, he conquers the most excellent worlds who, knowing this, meditates on the fivefold Sāman, which is the most excellent, as the senses,

 

Chapter VIII

MEDITATION ON THE SEVENFOLD SĀMAN IN SPEECH

1

Now for the sevenfold Sāman:

One should meditate on the sevenfold Sāman in speech. Whenever there is the syllable Hum in speech, that is the syllable Him; [likewise] Pra is the Prastāva, A is the Ādi.

2

Ud is the Udgitha, Pra the Pratihāra, Upa the Upadrava, Ni the Nidhana.

3

For him speech yields milk, which is the milk of speech, and he becomes rich in food and the eater of food who, knowing this, meditates on the sevenfold Sāman in speech.

 

Chapter IX

MEDITATION ON THE SEVENFOLD SĀMAN AS THE SUN

1

One should meditate on the sevenfold Sāman as yonder sun. The sun is the Sāman because he is always the same (sama). He is the Sāman because he makes everyone cherish the same thought: “He faces me,” “He faces me.”

2

One should know that all beings depend upon him (i.e. the sun). What he is before his rising is the syllable Him. The animals depend upon it (i.e. Him). Therefore the animals say “Him” [before the sunrise], for they partake of the syllable Him of the Sāman (sun).

3

What he (the sun) is just after he has risen, that is the Prastāva. Men depend upon it. Therefore men love praise (prastuti) and eulogy, for they partake of the Prastāva of that Sāman.

4

What he is when the rays go forth, that is the Ādi. Birds depend upon it. Therefore birds hold themselves without support in the sky and fly about, for they partake of the Ādi of that Sāman.

5

What he is just at midday, that is the Udgitha. The devas (gods) are dependent upon it. Therefore they are the best of the offspring of Prajāpati, for they partake of the Udgitha of that Sāman.

6

What he is after midday and before afternoon, that is the Pratihāra. The foetuses depend upon it. Therefore they are held in the womb [after being conceived] and do not fall, for they partake of the Pratihāra of the Sāman.

7

What he is after the afternoon and before sunset, that is the Upadrava. The animals of the forest depend upon it. Therefore they run (upadravanti) to the forest and their caves when they see a man, for they partake of the Upadrava of that Sāman.

8

What he is just after the sunset, that is the Nidhana. The Manes depend upon it. Therefore they put them (i.e. the Manes) down (nidadhati), for they partake of the Nidhana of that Sāman.

Thus a man meditates on the sevenfold Sāman as the sun.

 

Chapter X

MEDITATION ON THE SEVENFOLD SĀMAN THROUGH THE NUMBER OF SYLLABLES

1

Next one should meditate on the sevenfold Sāman which has a uniform number of syllables and which leads beyond death: The word Himkāra has three syllables, the word Prastāva has three syllables. Hence they are equal (sama).

2

The word Ādi has two syllables, and the word Pratihāra has four syllables. [If we take] one [syllable] from here (i.e. from Pratihāra) and join it [to Ādi], they become equal (sama).

3-4

The word Udgitha has three syllables, and the word Upadrava has four syllables. With three and three syllables they should be equal. One syllable being left out, it becomes trisyllabic. Hence the equality (sama).

The word Nidhana has three syllables; therefore it is equal. These make twenty-two syllables [of the sevenfold Sāman].

5

With twenty-one syllables he reaches the sun; for the sun is the twenty-first from here. With the twenty-second he conquers what is beyond the sun; that [plane] is blessed and free from grief.

6

He obtains here victory over the sun (death); and to him comes a victory higher than the victory over the sun who, knowing this, meditates on the sevenfold Sāman which has a uniform number of syllables, and which leads beyond death, yea, who meditates upon the [sevenfold] Sāman.

 

Chapter XI

MEDITATION ON THE GAYATRA SĀMAN

1

The syllable Him is the mind, the Prastāva speech, the Udgitha sight, the Pratihāra hearing, the Nidhana breath (the prāna). This is the Gayatra Sāman, as interwoven in the [five] prānas.

2

He who thus knows this Gayatra Sāman interwoven in the prānas preserves his sense-organs intact, reaches the full length of life, lives brightly, becomes great in children and cattle, great in fame. For him [who meditates on the Gayatra Sāman] the injunction is: “Be high-minded.”

 

Chapter XII

MEDITATION ON THE RATHANTARA SĀMAN

1

The rubbing [of the fire-sticks] is the syllable Him; the rising of the smoke is the Prastāva; the burning is the Udgitha; the forming of embers is the Pratihāra; the going out is the Nidhana. This is the Rathantara Sāman as interwoven in fire.

2

He who thus knows this Rathantara Sāman as interwoven in fire becomes radiant with the light of Brahman and endowed with a good appetite; he reaches the full length of life, lives brightly, becomes great in children and cattle, great in fame. For him the injunction is: “Do not sip water or spit before the fire.”

 

Chapter XIII

MEDITATION ON THE VĀMADEVYA SĀMAN

1

A man’s beckoning [to a woman] is the syllable Him; his gratifying [her] is the Prastāva; his lying with her is the Pratihāra; his spending time [with her] is the Nidhana; and the finishing [of the sexual act] is also the Nidhana. This is the Vamadevya Sāman as interwoven in sexual intercourse.

2

He who thus knows the Vamadevya Sāman as interwoven in sexual intercourse does not suffer from the pang of separation, and procreates from every intercourse; he reaches the full length of life, lives brightly, becomes great in children and cattle, great in fame. For him the injunction is: “Do not reject a woman [who comes to you seeking intercourse]”.

 

Chapter XIV

MEDITATION ON THE BRIHAT SĀMAN

1

The rising of the sun is the syllable Him; the risen sun is the Prastāva; the midday sun is the Udgitha; the afternoon sun is the Pratihāra; the setting sun is the Nidhana. This is the Brihat Sāman as interwoven in the sun.

2

He who thus knows the Brihat Sāman as interwoven in the sun becomes radiant and endowed with a good appetite; he reaches the full length of life, lives brightly, becomes great in children and cattle, great in fame. For him the injunction is: “Do not decry the burning sun.”

 

Chapter XV

MEDITATION ON THE VAIRUPA SĀMAN

1

The gathering of the mists is the syllable Him; the forming of clouds is the Prastāva; the raining is the Udgitha; the flashing and thundering are the Pratihāra; the ceasing of the rain is the Nidhana. This is the Vairupa Sāman as interwoven in the clouds.

2

He who thus knows the Vairupa Sāman as interwoven in the clouds obtains cattle of various forms and of beautiful form; he reaches the full length of life, lives brightly, becomes great in children and cattle, great in fame. For him the injunction is: “Do not decry the rain.”

 

Chapter XVI

MEDITATION ON THE VAIRĀJA SĀMAN

1

The syllable Him is the spring, the Prastāva the summer, the Udgitha the rainy season, the Pratihāra the autumn, the Nidhana the winter. This is the Vairāja Sāman as interwoven in the seasons.

2

He who thus knows the Vairaja Sāman as interwoven in the seasons shines through children, cattle, and the light of Brahman; he reaches the full length of life, lives brightly, becomes great in children and cattle, great in fame. For him the injunction is: “Do not decry the seasons.”

 

Chapter XVII

MEDITATION ON THE SAKVARI SĀMAN

1

The syllable Him is the earth, the Prastāva the sky, the Udgitha heaven, the Pratihāra the quarters, the Nidhana the sea. This is the Sakvari Sāman as interwoven in the worlds.

2

He who thus knows the Sakvari Sāman as interwoven in the worlds becomes the possessor of the worlds; he reaches the full length of life, lives brightly, becomes great in children and cattle, great in fame. For him the injunction is: “Do not decry the worlds.”

 

Chapter XVIII

MEDITATION ON THE REVATI SĀMAN

1

The syllable Him is goats, the Prastāva sheep, the Udgitha cows, the Pratihāra horses, the Nidhana man. This is the Revati Sāman as interwoven in animals.

2

He who thus knows these Revati Samans as interwoven in animals becomes the possessor of animals; he reaches the full length of life, lives brightly, becomes great in children and cattle, great in fame. For him the injunction is: “Do not decry animals.”

 

Chapter XIX

MEDITATION ON THE YAJNĀYAJNIYA SĀMAN

1

The syllable Him is hair, the Prastāva skin, the Udgitha flesh, the Pratihāra bone, the Nidhana marrow. This is the Yajnayajniya Sāman as interwoven in the members of the body.

2

He who thus knows the Yajnayajniya Sāman as interwoven in the members of the body becomes possessed of limbs; he is not crippled in any limb, he reaches the full length of life, lives brightly, becomes great in children and cattle, great in fame. For him the injunction is: “For one year do not eat meat” or “Do not eat meat at all.”

 

Chapter XX

MEDITATION ON THE RĀJANA SĀMAN

1

The syllable Him is fire, the Prastāva air, the Udgitha the sun, the Pratihāra the stars, the Nidhana the moon. This is the Rājana Sāman as interwoven in the gods.

2

He who thus knows the Rājana Sāman as interwoven in the gods obtains the same world as the gods, acquires the same prosperity as theirs and realizes union with them; he reaches the full length of life, lives brightly, becomes great in children and cattle, great in fame. For him the injunction is: “Do not decry the brāhmins.”

 

Chapter XXI

MEDITATION ON THE SĀMAN AS INTERWOVEN IN EVERYTHING

1

The syllable Him is the three Vedas; the Prastāva is these three worlds; the Udgitha is fire (Agni), air (Vāyu), and the sun (Āditya); the Pratihāra is the stars, the birds, and the rays; the Nidhana is the serpents, the gandharvas, and the Manes. This is the Sāman as interwoven in everything.

2

He who thus knows this Sāman as interwoven in everything becomes everything.

3

On this there is the following verse: “There are the fivefold three. Greater than these or besides these there is nothing.”

4

He who knows this, knows everything. All regions bring him gifts.

 

Chapter XXII

THE DIFFERENT NOTES EMPLOYED IN THE CHANTING OF THE SĀMAN

1

[An udgātri priest thinks thus:] “I choose the deep-sounding note of the Sāman, which is good for the cattle and which belongs to fire (Agni). The undefined note belongs to Prajāpati, the defined note to Soma (the moon), the soft and smooth note to Vāyu (the air), the smooth and strong note to Indra, the heron-like note to Brihaspati, and the dull note to Varuna.” Let a man cultivate all these, avoiding, however, the note of Varuna.

2

A man should sing,wishing that by his song he may secure immortality for the gods: “May I obtain by my song oblations (svadhā) for the Manes, hope for men, grass and water for cattle, heaven for the sacrificer, and food for myself.” Thus reflecting on all these in his mind, he (the udgātri priest) should chant the praises without making mistakes [in pronunciation etc.].

3

All vowels belong to the different parts of Indra’s body, all sibilants to Prajāpati, all consonants to Mrityu (death). If someone should reprove him (i.e. the udgātri priest who knows this) regarding [the pronunciation of] vowels, let him say: “I went to Indra for my refuge [when pronouncing my vowels]. He will answer you.”

4

And if someone should reprove him for his sibilants, let him say: “I went to Prajāpati for my refuge. He will smash you.”

And if someone should reprove him for his consonants, let him say: “I went to Mrityu for my refuge. He will burn you to ashes.”

5

All vowels should be pronounced with resonance and strength [and with the thought on the part of the singer]: “May I impart strength to Indra (the prāna).” All the sibilants should be pronounced full—without being swallowed or thrown out [and with the thought]: “May I give myself to Prajāpati.” All consonants should be pronounced slowly and without mixing them with the others [and with the thought]: “May I withdraw myself from death.”

 

Chapter XXIII

PRAISE OF OM UNASSOCIATED WITH ANY RITUAL

1

There are three divisions of dharma: Sacrifice, study, and charity form the first. Austerity is the second. Dwelling in the house of the teacher as a brahmachārin, always mortifying the body in the house of the teacher, is the third. All those [who practise these dharmas] attain the worlds of the virtuous. But one who is established in Brahman obtains Immortality.

2

Prajāpati brooded on the worlds. From them, thus brooded upon, there was revealed [in His heart] the threefold knowledge. He brooded on it, and from it, thus brooded upon, there issued forth these syllables: Bhuh, Bhuvah, and Svah.

3

He brooded on them (the three syllables), and from them, thus brooded upon, there issued forth Om. As all leaves are held together by a midrib, so is all speech held together by Om (Brahman). Om is all this, yea, Om is all this.

 

Chapter XXIV

THE DIFFERENT PLANES ATTAINED BY THE SACRIFICER

1-2

The expounders of Brahman (i.e. the Vedas) ask: “Since the morning oblation belongs to the Vasus, the midday oblation to the Rudras, and the third (i.e. evening) oblation to the Ādityas and the Viśve-devas,

“Where, then, is the world of the sacrificer?” He who does not know this, how can he perform the sacrifice? Only he who knows should perform it.

3-4

Before beginning the morning chant, the sacrificer, sitting behind the Gārhapatya Fire and facing the north, sings the Sāman addressed to the Vasus:

“O Fire! Open the door of the earth-world. Let us see thee, that we may rule [this earth].”

5-6

Then the sacrificer offers an oblation, reciting thus: “Adoration to Agni, who dwells in the earth-world! Secure this world for me, the sacrificer. That is the world for the sacrificer.

“I, the sacrificer, will go thither when this life is over. Svāhā!”

[Afterwards the sacrificer chants:] “Cast away the bolt [of the earth-world].” Having said this, he rises. To him the Vasus offer the world connected with the morning oblation.

7-8

Before beginning the midday oblation, the sacrificer, sitting behind the Dakshina Fire and facing the north, sings the Sāman addressed to the Rudras:

“O Fire! Open the door of the sky-world. Let us see thee, that we may rule wide [in the sky-world].”

9-10

Then the sacrificer offers an oblation, reciting thus: “Adoration to Vāyu, who dwells in the sky-world! Secure this world for me, the sacrificer. That is the world for the sacrificer.

“I, the sacrificer, will go thither when this life is over. Svāhā!“ [Afterwards the sacrificer chants:] “Cast away the bolt [of the sky-world].” Having said this, he rises. To him the Rudras offer the world connected with the midday oblation.

11-13

Before beginning the third (i.e. evening) oblation, the sacrificer, sitting behind the Āhavaniya Fire and facing the north, sings the [two] Sāmans addressed to the Ādityas and the Viśve-devas:

“O Fire! Open the door of the heaven-world. Let us see thee, that we may rule supreme [in heaven].” This is addressed to the Ādityas.

Next the Sāman addressed to the Viśve-devas: “O Fire! Open the door of the heaven-world. Let us see thee, that we may rule supreme [in heaven].”

14-15

Then the sacrificer offers an oblation, reciting thus: “Adoration to the Adityas and the Viśve-devas, who dwell in the heaven-world! Secure this world for me, the sacrificer. That is the world for the sacrificer.

“I, the sacrificer, will go thither when this life is over. Svāhā!”

[Afterwards the sacrificer chants:] “Cast away the bolt [of the heaven-world].” Having said this, he rises.

16

To him the Ādityas and the Viśve-devas offer the world connected with the third oblation. He (the sacrificer) who knows this knows the full measure of the sacrifice, yea, he knows it.

 

Part Three

Chapter I

THE HONEY-DOCTRINE (RIG-VEDA)

1

Yonder sun is, verily, the honey of the gods. Heaven is the cross-beam. The mid-region is the hive. The [particles of] water-vapours (drawn by the sun through its rays] are the eggs.

2-3

The eastern rays of the sun are the eastern honey-cells. The Rik-verses are the bees. [The ritual laid down in] the Rig-Veda is the flower. The water [of the sacrificial libations] is the nectar [of the flower].

These Riks heated the Rig-Veda. From it, thus heated, issued forth—as its essence—fame, radiance [of the body], [vigour of] the senses, virility, and the food that is eaten.

4

That [essence] flowed forth and went toward the sun, and that forms what is called the red colour [of the rising sun].

 

Chapter II

THE HONEY-DOCTRINE (YAJUR-VEDA)

1

The southern rays of the sun are the southern honey-cells. The Yajus-verses are the bees. [The ritual laid down in] the Yajur-Veda is the flower. The water [of the sacrificial libation] is the nectar [of the flower].

2

These Yajus-verses heated the Yajur-Veda. From it, thus heated, issued forth—as its essence—fame, radiance [of the body], [vigour of] the senses, virility, and the food that is eaten,

3

That [essence] flowed forth and went toward the sun. That forms what is called the white colour of the sun.

 

Chapter III

THE HONEY-DOCTRINE (SĀMA-VEDA)

1

The western rays of the sun are the western honey-cells. The Sāman-verses are the bees. The Sāma-Veda is the flower. The water is the nectar.

2

The Sāmans heated the Sāma-Veda. From it, thus heated, issued forth-as its essence-fame, radiance, [vigour of] the senses, virility, and the food that is eaten.

3

That flowed forth and went toward the sun. That forms what is called the dark colour of the sun.

 

Chapter IV

THE HONEY-DOCTRINE (ATHARVA-VEDA)

1

The northern rays of the sun are the northern honey-cells. The [verses of the] Atharvāngirasa are the bees. The Itihāsa-purāna is the flower. The water is the nectar.

2

These very hymns of the Atharvāngirasa heated the Itihāsa-purāna. From it, thus heated, issued forth—as its essence—fame, radiance, [vigour of] the senses, virility, and the food that is eaten.

3

That flowed forth and went toward the sun. That forms what is called the extremely dark colour of the sun.

 

Chapter V

THE HONEY-DOCTRINE (Continued)

1

Now, the upward rays of the sun are the honey-cells above. The secret teachings [of the Upanishads] are the bees. Brahman (Om) is the flower. The water is the nectar.

2

These secret teachings [as the bees] heated Brahman (Om). From It, thus heated, issued forth—as Its essence—fame, radiance, [vigour of] the senses, virility, and the food that is eaten.

3

That flowed forth and went towards the sun. That forms what appears to stir in the centre of the sun.

4

These [different colours in the sun] are the essences of the essences; for the Vedas are the essences and these [colours] are, again, their essences. These are the nectars of the nectars; for the Vedas are the nectars (i.e. immortal), and of them these [colours in the sun] are the nectars.

 

Chapter VI

MEDITATION ON THE VASUS

1

On the first of these nectars the Vasus live, with Agni (fire) at their head. Truly, the gods do not eat or drink. They are satisfied by merely looking at the nectar.

2

They retire into that [red] colour and rise up from that colour.

3

He who thus knows this nectar becomes one of the Vasus, with Agni (fire) at their head; he is satisfied by merely looking at the nectar. He retires into that [red] colour and again rises up from that colour.

4

As long as the sun rises in the east and sets in the west, so long does he, like the Vasus, enjoy rulership and sovereignty.

 

Chapter VII

MEDITATION ON THE RUDRAS

1

On the second of these nectars the Rudras live, with Indra at their head. Truly, the gods do not eat or drink. They are satisfied by merely looking at the nectar.

2

They retire into that [white] colour and rise up from that colour.

3

He who thus knows this nectar becomes one of the Rudras, with Indra at their head; he is satisfied by merely looking at the nectar. He retires into that [white] colour and again rises up from that colour.

4

As long as the sun rises in the east and sets in the west, twice as long does it rise in the south and set in the north, and just so long does he, like the Rudras, enjoy rulership and sovereignty.

 

Chapter VIII

MEDITATION ON THE ĀDITYAS

1

On the third of these nectars the Ādityas live, with Varuna at their head. Truly, the gods do not eat or drink. They are satisfied by merely looking at the nectar.

2

They retire into that [dark] colour and rise up from that colour.

3

He who thus knows this nectar becomes one of the Ādityas, with Varona at their head; he is satisfied by merely looking at the nectar. He returns into that [dark] colour and again rises up from that colour.

4

As long as the sun rises in the south and sets in the north, twice as long does it rise in the west and set in the east, and just so long does he, like the Adityas, enjoy rulership and sovereignty.

 

Chapter IX

MEDITATION ON THE MARUTS

1

On the fourth of these nectars the Maruts live, with Soma at their head. Truly, the gods do not eat or drink. They are satisfied by merely looking at the nectar.

2

They retire into that [extremely dark colour] and rise up from that colour.

3

He who thus knows this nectar becomes one of the Maruts, with Soma at their head; he is satisfied by merely looking at the nectar. He retires into that [extremely dark] colour and again rises up from that colour.

4

As long as the sun rises in the west and sets in the east, twice as long does it rise in the north and set in the south, and just so long does he, like the Maruts, enjoy rulership and sovereignty.

 

Chapter X

MEDITATION ON THE SĀDHYAS

1

On the fifth of these nectars the Sadhyas live, with Brahma at their head. Truly, the gods do not eat or drink. They are satisfied by merely looking at the nectar.

2

They retire into that form and rise up from that form.

3

He who thus knows this nectar becomes one of the Sadhyas, with Brahma at their head; he is satisfied by merely looking at the nectar. He retires into that form and again rises up from that form.

4

As long as the sun rises in the north and sets in the south, twice as long does it rise above and set below, and just so long does he, like the Sadhyas, enjoy rulership and sovereignty.

 

Chapter XI

THE RESULT OF THE MEDITATION ON THE HONEY

1

Now, after having risen thence upwards, it (i.e. the sun) rises and sets no more. It remains alone in the centre. And on this there is the following verse:

2

“There (i.e. in Brahmaloka) the sun neither rises nor sets at any time. O ye gods, if this is true, may I never fall from Brahman!”

3

Verily, for him who thus knows this Brahma-Upanishad, the sun does not rise or set. For him it is day for ever.

4

This doctrine Brahma told to Prajāpati, Prajāpati to Manu, Manu to his offipring. And to Uddalaka Aruni this doctrine of Brahman was narrated by his father.

5

A father may therefore tell that doctrine of Brahman to his eldest son or to a worthy disciple.

6

It must not be told to anyone else, even if he should offer one the whole sea-girt earth, full of treasure; for this [doctrine] is worth more than that, yea, it is worth more.

 

Chapter XII

MEDITATION ON THE GĀYATRI

The Gāyatri is everything, whatever here exists. Speech is verily the Gāyatri, for speech sings forth (gāya-ti) and protects (trāya-tē) everything, whatever here exists.

2

That Gāyatri is also the earth; for everything that exists here rests on this earth and does not go beyond.

3

In man, that Gāyatri is also the body; for the prānas exist in this body and do not go beyond.

4

That body, in man, is again the heart within a man; for the prānas exist in it and do not go beyond.

5

That Gāyatri has four feet and is sixfold. The same is also declared by a Rik-verse:

6

“Such is its greatness (i.e. of Brahman as known through the symbol of the Gāyatri). Greater than it is the Person (Brahman). One of Its feet covers all beings; the immortal three feet are in heaven (i.e. in Itself).”

7-9

The Brahman which has been thus described is the same as the [physical] ākāśa outside a person. The ākāśa which is outside a person is the same as that which is inside a person. The ākāśa which is inside a person is the ākāśa within the heart. The ākāśa which is within the heart is omnipresent and unchanging. He who knows this obtains full and unchanging prosperity.

 

Chapter XIII

MEDITATION ON THE DOOR-KEEPERS

1

Of that heart there are five doors controlled by the devas. That which is the eastern door is the prāna—that is the eye, that is Āditya (the sun). One should meditate on that as brightness and the source of food. He who knows this becomes bright and an eater of food.

2

That which is the southern gate is the vyāna—that is the ear, that is Chandramā (the moon). One should meditate on that as prosperity and fame. He who knows this becomes prosperous and famous.

3

That which is the western gate is the apāna—that is speech, that is Agni (fire). One should meditate on that as the radiance of Brahman and the source of food. He who knows this becomes radiant and an eater of food.

4

That which is the northern gate is the samāna—that is the mind, that is Parjanya (the rain-god). One should meditate on that as fame and beauty. He who knows this becomes famous and beautiful.

5

That which is the upper gate is the udāna—that is Vāyu, that is the ākāśa. One should meditate on that as strength and greatness. He who knows this becomes strong and great.

6

These are the five servants of Brahman, the door-keepers of the world of heaven. He who thus knows these five servants of Brahman, the door-keepers of the world of heaven—in his family a hero is born. He who thus knows the five servants of Brahman, the door-keepers of the world of heaven, himself attains the world of heaven.

7-8

Now, the light which shines above this heaven, above all the worlds, above everything, in the highest worlds not excelled by any other worlds, that is the same light which is within man. There is this visible proof [of this light]: when we thus perceive by touch the warmth in the body. And of it we have this audible proof: when we thus hear, by covering the ears, what is like the rumbling of a carriage, or the bellowing of an ox, or the sound of a blazing fire. One should worship [as Brahman] that [inner] light which is seen and heard. He who knows this becomes conspicuous and celebrated, yea, he becomes celebrated.

 

Chapter XIV

THE ŚĀNDILYA DOCTRINE

1

All this is Brahman. From It the universe comes forth, in It the universe merges, and in It the universe breathes. Therefore a man should meditate on Brahman with a calm mind.

Now, verily, a man consists of will. As he wills in this world, so does he become when he has departed hence. Let him [with this knowledge in mind] form his will.

2-3

He who consists of the mind, whose body is subtle, whose form is light, whose thoughts are true, whose nature is like the ākāśa, whose creation is this universe, who cherishes all [righteous] desires, who contains all [pleasant] odours, who is endowed with all tastes, who embraces all this who never speaks, and who is without longing—

He is my Self within the heart, smaller than a grain of rice, smaller than a grain of barley, smaller than a mustard seed, smaller than a grain of millet; He is my Self within the heart, greater than the earth, greater than the mid-region, greater than heaven, greater than all these worlds.

4

He whose creation is this universe, who cherishes all desires, who contains all odours, who is endowed with all tastes, who embraces all this, who never speaks, and who is without longing—He is my Self within the heart, He is that Brahman. When I shall have departed hence I shall certainly reach Him: one who has this faith and has no doubt [will certainly attain to that Godhead]. Thus said Śāndilya, yea, thus he said.

 

Chapter XV

MEDITATION ON THE UNIVERSE AS A CHEST

1

The chest [of the universe], with the mid-region for its inside and the earth for its bottom, does not decay. The quarters are its [different] corners, and heaven is its lid, which is above. This chest is the storehouse of treasures. Inside it are all things.

2

The eastern quarter is called Juhu, the southern quarter Sahamānā, the western quarter Rājni, and the northern quarter Subhutā. Vāyu (the air) is their child. He who knows this Vāyu as the child of the quarters never weeps for his sons.

I know the air to be the child of the quarters; may I never weep for my sons.

3

I take refuge in the imperishable chest with this one and this one and this one. I take refuge in the prāna with this one and this one and this one. I take refuge in Bhuh with this one and this one and this one. I take refuge in Bhuvah with this one and this one and this one. I take refuge in Svah with this one and this one and this one.

4

When I said: “I take refuge in the prāna,” prāna meant everything that exists here—in that I take refuge.

5

When I said: “I take refuge in Bhuh,” what I [really] said was: “I take refuge in the earth, the mid-region, and heaven.”

6

When I said: ”I take refuge in Bhuvah,” what I said was: “I take refuge in fire, the air, and the sun.”

7

When I said: “I take refuge in Svah,” what I said was: “I take refuge in the Rig-Veda, Yajur-Veda, and Sāma-Veda.” That is what I said, yea, that is what I said.

 

Chapter XVI

MAN AS A SACRIFICE (I)

1

A person, indeed, is a sacrifice. His [first] twenty-four years constitute the morning libation. The Gāyatri [metre] has twenty-four syllables, and the morning-libation is offered with Gāyatri hymns. The Vasus are connected with that part of the sacrifice. The prānas are the Vasus; for, verily, they make everything abide (vāsayanti) in this body.

2

If anything ails him during that period, he should recite [the following mantra]: “O ye prānas, ye Vasus, unite this morning libation with the midday libation. May I, who am a sacrifice, not disappear in the midst of the prānas, who are the Vasus.” Thus he rises from his illness and becomes free of it.

3

His next forty-four years constitute the midday libation. The Tristubh [metre] has forty-four syllables, and the midday libation is offered with Tristubh hymns. The Rudras are connected with that part of the sacrifice. The prānas are the Rudras; for, verily, they make everything weep (rodayanti).

4

If anything ails him during that [second] period, he should recite [the following mantra]: “O ye prānas, ye Rudras, unite this midday libation with the third libation. May I, who am a sacrifice, not disappear in the midst of the prānas, who are the Rudras.” Thus he rises from his illness and becomes free of it.

5

His next forty-eight years constitute the third oblation. The Jagati [metre] has forty-eight syllables, and the third oblation is offered with Jagati hymns. The Ādityas are connected with that part of the sacrifice. Te prānas are the Ādityas; for, verily, they take up (ādadatē) everything.

6

If anything ails him during that [third] period, he should recite [the following mantra]: “O ye prānas, ye Ādityas, extend this my third libation to the full age. May I, who am a sacrifice, not disappear in the midst of the prānas, who are the Ādityas.” Thus he rises from his illness and becomes free of it.

7

Mahidāsa, the son of Itarā, knew this and said [addressing a disease]: “O you [disease]! Why do you afflict me? I shall not die of this [pain].” He lived a hundred and sixteen years. He, too, who knows this lives on to a hundred and .sixteen years.

 

Chapter XVII

MAN AS A SACRIFICE (II)

1

When a man hungers, thirsts, and abstains from pleasures—these are his initiatory rites.

2

When he eats, drinks, and enjoys pleasures, he then participates in the Upasadas.

3

When a man laughs, eats, and enjoys sexual intercourse—these are the Stuta and Śastra.

4

Austerity, almsgiving, uprightness, non-violence, and truthfulness—these are the gifts (dakshinā) for the priests.

5

[Because the life of a man is a sacrifice] therefore they say that his mother will give birth (soshyati) to him, or his mother has given birth (asoshtā) to him. [The same words are used in the Soma-sacrifice and mean: “He will pour out the Soma-juice” and “He has poured out the Soma-juice.”] This is his birth. His death is the Avabhritha.

6

Ghora, of the line of Angirasa, communicated this [teaching] to Krishna, the son of Devaki—and it quenched Krishna’s thirst [for any other knowledge]—and said: “When a man approaches death he should take refuge in these three [thoughts]: ‘Thou art indestructible (akshata),’ ‘Thou art unchanging (aprachyuta),’ and ‘Thou art the subde prāna.’”

On this subject there are two Rik-verses:

7

“They (i.e. the knowers of Brahman) see everywhere the Supreme Light, which shines in Brahman, which is all-pervading like the light of day, and which belongs to the primeval Seed.

“Perceiving the higher light [in the sun]—which is above the darkness [of ignorance]—as the higher light in the heart, [perceiving] the Supreme Light which is higher than all lights, we have reached the Highest Light, the Sun, the most luminous among the gods, yea, we have reached the Highest Light, the Sun, the most luminous among the gods.”

 

Chapter XVIII

THE MIND AND THE ĀKĀŚA AS SYMBOLS OF BRAHMAN

1

One should meditate on the mind as Brahman—this is said with reference to the body. One should meditate on the ākāśa as Brahman—this is said with reference to the gods. Thus both—the meditation with reference to the body and the meditation with reference to the gods—are being taught.

2

That Brahman has four feet (quarters): speech is one foot, the prāna (the nose) is one foot, the eye is one foot, the ear is one foot—this is said with reference to the body. Now with reference to the gods: Agni (fire) is one foot, Vāyu (air) is one foot, Āditya (the sun) is one foot, and the quarters (diśāh) are one foot. This is the twofold meditation with reference to the body and with reference to the gods.

3

Speech is, indeed, a fourth foot (quarter) of Brahman [of which the mind is a symbol]. It shines and warms with the light of fire. He who knows this shines and warms with fame, with renown, and with the radiance of Brahman.

4

Prāna (the nose) is, indeed, a fourth foot of Brahman. It shines and warms with the light of the air. He who knows this shines and warms with fame, with renown, and with the radiance of Brahman.

5

The eye, indeed, is a fourth foot of Brahman. It shines and warms with the light of the sun. He who knows this shines and warms with fame, with renown, and with the radiance of Brahman.

6

The ear, indeed, is a fourth foot of Brahman. It shines and warms with the light of the quarters. With fame, with renown, and with the radiance of Brahman he shines and warms who knows this, yea, who knows this.

 

Chapter XIX

MEDITATION ON THE SUN AS BRAHMAN

1

The sun is Brahman: this is the teaching. An explanation thereof follows:

In the beginning this [universe] was non-existent. It became existent. It grew. It turned into an egg. The egg lay for the period of a year. Then it broke open. Of the two halves of the egg-shell, one half was of silver, the other of gold.

2

That which was of silver became the earth; that which was of gold, heaven. What was the thick membrane [of the white] became the mountains; the thin membrane [of the yolk], the mist and the clouds. The veins became the rivers; the fluid in the bladder, the ocean.

3

And what was born of it was yonder Āditya, the sun. When it was born shouts of “Hurrah!” arose, together with all beings and all objects of desire. Therefore at its rise and its every return shouts of “Hurrah!” together with all beings and all objects of desire arise.

4

He who, knowing this, meditates on the sun as Brahman—pleasant sounds will quickly approach him and continue to delight him, yea; will continue to delight him.

 

Part Four

Chapter I

THE STORY OF JĀNAŚRUTI AND RAIKVA

There once lived [a king named] Jānaśruti, who was a great-grandson of Janaśruta. He bestowed his gifts with respect, gave away liberally, and cooked much food [for the hungry]. He built rest-houses everywhere with the thought that people everywhere would eat his food.

2

One night some flamingos were flying along. One flamingo said to another: “Hey! Ho! Short-sighted, Short-sighted! The radiance of Jānaśruti, the great-grandson of Janaśruta, has spread to the sky. Do not touch it, lest it should burn you.”

3

The other replied: “Say, who is this person about whom you have spoken as though he were like Raikva, the man with the cart?”

“What sort of person is this Raikva, the man with the cart?”

4

[The short-sighted flamingo replied:] “As [in a game of dice], when the krita is won, the lower ones also are won, so whatever merits people acquire all accrue to that Raikva. As Raikva I describe him, too, who knows what Raikva knows.”

5-6

Jānaśruti the great-grandson of Janaśruta overheard this [conversation]. Immediately after getting out of bed, he said to his attendant: “Friend, did you speak of me as though I were Raikva, the man with the cart?”

“What sort of person is Raikva, the man with the cart?”

“As [in a game of dice], when the krita is won; the lower ones also are won, so whatever merits people acquire all accrue to that Raikva. As Raikva I describe him, too, who knows what Raikva knows.”

7

The attendant searched for him and returned without finding him. Then the king said to him: “Listen, where a knower of Brahman is to be searched for, look for him there.”

8

[After proper search] the attendant came upon a person who, lying underneath his cart, was scratching an itch. [Humbly] he took his seat near him and said: “Revered Sir, are you Raikva, the man with the cart?”

“Oh yes, I am he,” he answered.

Then the attendant returned, saying to himself: “I have found him out.”

 

Chapter II

DIALOGUE OF RAIKVA AND JANASRUTI (I)

1-2

Then Jānaśruti the great-grandson of Janaśruta took with him six hundred cows, a necklace, and a chariot with mules, and went to Raikva and said:

“Raikva, here are six hundred cows, a necklace, and a chariot with mules. Pray, revered Sir, teach me the deity whom you worship.”

3

To him the other said: “Ah, may the necklace and the chariot remain with you, O Śudra, along with the cows.”

Thereupon Jānaśruti the great-grandson of Janaśruta took with him a thousand cows, a chariot with mules, a necklace, and his own daughter, too, and went to Raikva.

4

Jānaśruti said to him: “Raikva, here are a thousand cows, a necklace, Chariot with mules, this wife, and this village where you shall dwell. Revered Sir, teach me.”

5

Then considering her (the princess) as the door for imparting knowledge, Raikva said: “O Sudra! You brought these [cows and other presents; this is good]. But you will make me speak now only through this means (i.e. the princess).

These are the villages named Raikvapama, in the country of Mahavrishas, where Raikva lived. Now Raikva said to the king:

 

Chapter III

DIALOGUE OF RAIKVA AND JĀNAŚRUTI (II)

1

“Verily, Vāyu (the air) is the swallower (samvarga). For when fire goes out it is indeed swallowed by the air. When the sun sets it is swallowed by the air. When the moon sets it is swallowed by the air.

2

“When water dries up it is swallowed by the air. For indeed the air absorbs them all. So much with reference to the gods.

3

“Now with reference to the body: Verily, the prāna is the swallower. When a man sleeps, speech goes into the prāna, sight goes into the prāna, hearing goes into the prāna, and the mind goes into the prāna. For indeed the prāna absorbs them all.

4

“These are the two swallowers: the air among the gods, the prāna among the senses.”

5

Once Śaunaka of the line of Kapi, and Abhipratārin son the of Kakshasena, were being waited upon at their meal, when a brahmachārin begged food of them. They did not give him anything.

6

He said: “One God, Prajāpati, swallowed the four great ones. He is the Guardian of the world. O descendant of Kapi, O Abhipratārin, mortals do not see Him though he abides in manifold forms. Verily, this food has not been given to Him to whom it belongs.”

7

Śaunaka of the line of Kapi, pondering on those words, went to the brahmachārin [and said]: “He is the self of the gods, the creator of all beings, with unbroken teeth, the eater, the truly wise one. They speak of His magnificence as great, because without being eaten, He eats even what is not [common] food. O brahmachārin, we meditate upon this [Brahman].”

Then he said [to the attendants]: “Give him food.”

8

They gave [food] to him. Now these five (i.e. the eater vāyu, and fire, the sun, the moon, and water, which are its food) and those five (i.e. the eater prāna, and the organs of speech, the eye, the ear, and the mind, which are its food) make ten. These together constitute the krita (the highest throw in a game of dice). [On account of this similarity of ten,] these ten are the food in the [ten] quarters, and further, they are Virat, the eater of food, by which all this becomes seen. All this he sees, and the eater of food he becomes, who knows this, yea, who knows this.

 

Chapter IV

THE STORY OF SATYAKĀMA

1

Once upon a time, Satyakāma the son of Jabālā addressed his mother and said.: “[Revered] Mother, I wish to become a brahmachārin. Of what ancestry am I?”

2

She said to him: “I do not know, my child, of what ancestry you are. In my youth I was preoccupied with many [household] duties and with attending [on guests] when I conceived you. I do not know of what ancestry you are. I am Jabālā by name, and you are Satyakāma. So you may speak of yourself as Satyakāma Jabālā (the son of Jabālā).

3

He [came to] Gautama the son of Haridrumata and said: “Revered S r, I wish to live with you as a brahmachārin. May I approach you, Sir [as a pupil]?”

4

Gautama said to him:“Of what ancestry are you, dear friend?“ Satyakāma said: “I do not know, Sir, of what ancestry I am. I asked my mother about it, and she replied: ‘In my youth I was preoccupied with many [household] duties and with attending [on guests] when I conceived you. I do not know of what ancestry you are. I am Jabālā by name, and you are Satyakāma.’ I am therefore, Sir, Satyakāma Jabālā.”

5

Gautama said: “None but a [true] brāhmin would thus speak out. Fetch the fuel, dear friend; I shall initiate you. You have not departed from truth.”

He initiated Satyakāma. Having separated out four hundred lean and weak cows [from his herd], he said: “Dear friend, go with these.”

Driving them away [toward the forest], Satyakāma said: “I shall not return until they become a thousand.” He lived a number of years [in the forest].

When the cows had become a thousand—

 

Chapter V

INSTRUCTION BY THE BULL

1

The bull [of the herd], addressing him, said: “Satyakāma!”

“Revered Sir!” Satyakāma replied.

The bull said: “Dear friend, we have become a thousand, take us to the teacher’s house.

2

“I will declare to you one foot of Brahman.”

“Declare it, Revered Sir.”

The bull said to him: “The east is one quarter, the west is one quarter, the south is one quarter, the north is one quarter. This, dear friend, is one foot of Brahman, consisting of four quarters, and this foot is called Prakasavat (shining).

3

“He who knows this and meditates on the foot of Brahman consisting of four quarters as shining, becomes shining on this earth. He conquers shining worlds—he who knows this and meditates on the foot of Brahman consisting of four quarters as shining.”

 

Chapter VI

INSTRUCTION BY FIRE

1

[The bull further said:] “Agni (fire) will declare to you another foot of Brahman.”

Satyakāma then, when it was the morrow, drove the cows [in the direction of the teacher's house]. And when they came together toward evening, he lighted a fire, penned the cows, laid fuel [on the fire], and sat down behind the fire, facing the east.

2

Agni (fire), addressing him, said: “Satyakāma!”

“Revered Sir!” Satyakāma replied.

3

“Dear friend, I will declare to you one foot of Brahman.”

“Declare it, revered Sir.”

Agni said to him: “The earth is one quarter, the sky is one quarter, heaven is one quarter, the ocean is one quarter. This, dear friend, is one foot of Brahman, consisting of four quarters, and this foot is called Anantavat (endless).

4

“He who knows this and meditates on the foot of Brahman consisting of four quarters as endless, becomes endless on this earth. He conquers endless worlds—he who knows this and meditates on the foot of Brahman consisting of four quarters as endless.”

 

Chapter VII

INSTRUCTION BY THE SWAN

1

[Agni further said:] “A hamsa (swan) will declare to you another foot.”

Satyakāma then, when it was the morrow, drove the cows [in the direction of the teacher's house]. And when they came together toward evening, he lighted a fire, penned the cows, laid fuel [on the fire], and sat down behind the fire, facing the east.

2

Then a swan flew to him and said: “Satyakāma!”

“Revered Sir!” Satyakāma replied.

3

“Dear friend, I will declare to you one foot of Brahman.”

“Declare it, revered Sir.”

The swan said to him: “Fire is one quarter, the sun is one quarter, the moon is one quarter, lightning is one quarter. This, dear friend, is one foot of Brahman, consisting of four quarters, and this foot is called Jyotishmat (luminous).

4

“He who knows this and meditates on the foot of Brahman consisting of four quarters as luminous, becomes luminous on this earth. He conquers luminous worlds—he who knows this and meditates on the foot of Brahman consisting of four quarters as luminous.

 

Chapter VIII

INSTRUCTION BY THE DIVER-BIRD

1

[The swan further said:] “A madgu (diver-bird) will declare to you another foot.”

Satyakāma then, when it was the morrow, drove the cows [in the direction of the teacher's house]. And when they came together toward evening, he lighted a fire, penned the cows, laid fuel [on the fire], and sat down behind the fire, facing the east.

2

Then a diver-bird flew to him and said: “Satyakāma!”

“Revered Sir!” Satyakāma replied.

3

“Dear friend, I will declare to you one foot of Brahman.”

“Declare it, revered Sir.”

The diver-bird said to him:“The prāna is one quarter, the eye is one quarter, the ear is one quarter, the mind is one quarter. This, dear friend, is one foot of Brahman, consisting of four quarters, and this foot is called Āyatanavat (having support).

4

“He who knows this and meditates on the foot of Brahman consisting of four quarters as Āyatanavat, possesses a support (i.e. home) on this earth. He conquers the worlds which offer a home—he who knows this and meditates on the foot of Brahman consisting of four quarters as Āyatanavat.”

 

Chapter IX

INSTRUCTION BY THE TEACHER

1

Satyakāma reached the teacher’s house. The teacher said to him: “Satyakāma!”

“Revered Sir!” Satyakāma replied.

2

The teacher said: “Dear friend, you shine like one who knows Brahman. Who has taught you?”

“Others than men,” he replied. “But I wish, revered Sir, that you alone should teach me.”

3

“For I have heard from persons like your good self that only knowledge which is learnt from a teacher (āchārya) leads to the highest good.”

Then he (Gautama) taught him the same knowledge. Nothing whatsoever was left out, yea, nothing whatsoever was left out.

 

SA.\lE KNOWLEDGE: That is to say, what he had learnt from the gods in the shape of the bull, fire, etc., namely, the doctrine of Brahman as endowed with four parts and sixteen quarters.

 

Chapter X

THE STORY OF UPAKOŚALA

1

Upakośala the son of Kamala dwelt as a brahmachārin (religious student) with Satyakāma the son of Jabālā. He tended his [teacher's] fires for twelve years. Satyakāma allowed his other pupils to return to their homes [after they had finished their Vedic studies] but did not allow Upakośala to depart.

2

Then his wife said to him: “This brahmachārin, practising austerities, has intelligently tended your fires. Give him instruction lest the fires should blame you.” The teacher, however, went away on a journey without teaching him.

3

The brahmachārin out of [mental] grief began to fast. Then the teacher’s wife said to him: “Brahmacharin, why do you not eat?”

He said: “There are in a man [like me] many desires directed to various objects. I am full of sorrows. I will not eat.”

4

Thereupon the fires said among themselves: “This brahmachārin, practising austerities, has intelligently tended us. Come, let us teach him.”

They said to him: “The prāna is Brahman, ka (joy) is Brahman, kha (the ākāśa) is Brahman.”

5

He said: “I understand that the prāna is Brahman, but I do not understand ‘joy’ (ka) and ‘the ākāśa’ (kha).”

They said: “What is joy (ka) is the ākāśa (kha), what is the ākāśa (kha) isjoy (ka).”

They taught him the prāna (i.e. Brahman) and the ākāśa related to it.

 

Chapter XI

INSTRUCTION BY THE HOUSEHOLD FIRE

1

Next the Gārhapatya Fire taught him: “The earth, fire, food, and the sun [are my forms]. The person that is seen in the sun—I am he, I am he indeed.

2

“He who, knowing this, meditates [on the fire] frees himself from sinful actions, obtains the World [of the Gārhapatya Fire], reaches his full age, and lives brightly. His descendants do not perish. We support him in this world and in the other who, knowing this, meditates [on the fire].”

 

Chapter XII

INSTRUCTION BY THE SOUTHERN FIRE

1

Then the Anvāhārya (Southern) Fire taught him: “Water, the quarters, the stars, and the moon [are my forms]. The person that is seen in the moon—I am he, I am he indeed.

2

“He who, knowing this, meditates [on the fire] frees himself from sinful actions, obtains the World [of the Anvāhārya Fire], reaches his full age, and lives brightly. His descendants do not perish. We support him in this world and in the other who, knowing this, meditates [on the fire].”

 

Chapter XIII

INSTRUCTION BY THE ĀHAVANIYA FIRE

1

Then the Āhavaniya Fire taught him: “The prāna, the ākāśa, heaven, and lightning [are my forms]. The person that is seen in lightning—I am he, I am he indeed.

2

“He who, knowing this, meditates [on the fire] frees himself from sinful actions, obtains the World [of the Āhavaniya Fire], reaches his full age, and lives brightly. His descendants do not perish. We support him in this world and in the other who, knowing this, meditates [on the fire].”

 

Chapter XIV

DIALOGUE BETWEEN THE TEACHER AND THE PUPIL

1

Then they (i.e. all the fires) said: “Upakośala, dear friend, thus we have taught you the knowledge of ourselves and the knowledge of the Self. But the teacher will teach you the way.”

The teacher returned and said to him: “Upakośala!”

2-3

He replied: “Revered Sir!”

“Dear friend, your face shines like that of one who knows Brahman. Who has taught you?”

“Who should teach me, Sir?”

Here he conceals [the fact], as it were.

And he said [pointing to the fires]: “For this reason they are of this form now, though they were of a different form before.”

“Dear friend, what did they teach you?”

“This,” Upakośala replied [and repeated some of what the fires had told him].

The teacher said: “They told you, dear friend, only about the worlds, but I shall tell you [about Brahman]. As water does not cling to the lotus leaf, so no evil clings to one who knows this.”

Upakośala said to him: “Revered Sir, please tell me.”

 

Chapter XV

INSTRUCTION BY THE TEACHER

1

He said: “The person that is seen in the eye—that is the Self. This is the immortal, the fearless; this is Brahman. That is why, if one drops melted butter or water in the eye, it flows away on both sides.

2

“The seers call him Samyadvāma, for all blessings (vāma) go towards him (samyanti). All blessings go towards him who knows this.

3

“He is also Vāmani, for he carries to living beings (nayati) all blessings (vāma). He who knows this carries all blessings.

4

“He is also called Bhāmani, for he shines (bhāti) in all the worlds. He who knows this shines in all the worlds.

5

“Now whether or not they perform the funeral rites for such person: he goes to light, from light to day, from day to the bright half of the moon, from the bright half of the moon to the six months during which the sun goes to the north, from [those] months to the year, from the year to the sun, from the sun to the moon, from the moon to lightning. There a person who is not a human being meets him and leads him to Brahman. This is the Path of the Gods (Devayāna), the path leading to Brahman. Those who travel by it do not return to the whirl of humanity, yea, they do not return.”

 

Chapter XVI

THE SILENCE OF THE BRAHMA PRIEST

1

Verily, he who moves along (i.e. the air) is the sacrifice; for he, moving along, purifies everything. And because, moving along, he purifies everything, he is the sacrifice. Of that sacrifice, the mind and speech are the [two] ways.

2-3

The Brahmā priest purifies one of the two (i.e. the mind) by his mind. The other (i.e. speech) is purified through words by the hotri priest, the adhvaryu priest, and the udgātri priest.

If the Brahmā priest, after the Prātaranuvāka hymn has begun and before the recitation of the Paridhāniya hymn, [breaks his silence and] speaks, he purifies only one of the ways (i.e. speech), but the other (i.e. the mind) is injured. As a man walking on one leg, or a carriage going on one wheel, is injured, likewise the sacrifice is injured. Following the injury to the sacrifice, the sacrificer too is injured. By performing [the defective] sacrifice he becomes more sinful.

4

But if the Brahma priest, after the Prātaranuvāka hymn has begun and before the recitation of the Paridhāniya, does not [break his silence and] speak, he purifies both the ways, and neither of them is injured. As a man walking on two legs or a carriage going on two wheels goes on [without obstacle], likewise the sacrifice goes on [without obstacle]. Following the success of the sacrifice, the sacrificer too fares well. Having performed the sacrifice he becomes better.

 

Chapter XVII

PENANCES FOR MISTAKES IN THE SACRIFICE

1

Prajāpati brooded over the worlds; from them, thus brooded over, he squeezed the essences: agni (fire) from the earth, vāyu (air) from the mid-region, and āditya (the sun) from heaven.

2

He brooded over these three deities; from them, thus brooded over, he squeezed the essences. The Rik-verses from fire, the Yajus-verses from the air, and the Sāman-verses from the sun.

3

He brooded over the threefold knowledge (i.e. the three Vedas); from them, thus brooded over, he squeezed the essences: Bhuh from the Rik-verses, Bhuvah from the Yajus-verses, and Svah from the Sāman-verses.

4

If the sacrifice is injured with regard to the Rik-verses, one should then offer a libation in the Gārhapatya Fire, saying: “Bhuh Svāhā!” Thus is healed the injury with regard to the Rik-verses by means of the essence and the power of the Rik-verses themselves.

5

If the sacrifice is injured with regard to the Yajus-verses, one should then offer a libation in the Southern (Dakshina) Fire, saying: “Bhuvah Svāhā!” Thus is healed the injury with regard to the Yajus-verses by means of the essence and the power of the Yajus-verses themselves.

6

If the sacrifice is injured with regard to the Sāman-verses, one should then offer a libation in the Ahavaniya Fire, saying: “Svah Svāhā!” Thus is healed the injury with regard to the Sāman-verses by means of the essence and the power of the Sāman-verses themselves.

7-8

As one binds gold by means of borax, and silver by means of gold, and tin by means of silver, and lead by means of tin, and iron by means of lead, and wood by means of iron or leather. Likewise one heals any injury done to the sacrifice with the power of these worlds, these gods, and these three Vedas. That sacrifice is well healed in which there is a Brahmā priest who knows this.

9-10

That sacrifice is inclined to the north in which there is a Brahmā priest who knows this. And with regard to such a Brahmā priest, there is the following gāthā: “Wherever it is injured, thither he (the Brahmā priest) goes.”

The silent Brahmā alone, as one of the priests, protects the sacrificer, as a mare protects a warrior. Because the Brahmā priest who knows this protects the sacrifice, the sacrificer, and all the priests, one should therefore make a person who knows this the Brahmā priest, and not one who knows it not, yea, not one who knows it not.

 

Part Five

Chapter I

THE SUPREMACY OF THE PRĀNA

1

OM. He who knows what is the oldest and greatest becomes himself the oldest and greatest. The prāna, indeed, is the oldest and greatest.

2

He who knows what is the most excellent (vasishtha) becomes the most excellent among his kinsmen. The organ of speech, indeed, is the most excellent.

3

He who knows what has [the attributes of] firmness (pratishthā) becomes firm in this world and the next. The eye, indeed, is endowed with firmness.

4

He who knows prosperity (sampad), his wishes are fulfilled—both divine and human wishes. The ear, indeed, is prosperity.

5

He who knows the abode (āyatana) becomes the abode of his kinsmen. The mind, indeed, is the abode.

6

The prānas (sense-organs) disputed among themselves about who was the best [among them], [each] saying: “I am the best,” “I am the best.”

7

They went to Prajāpati, their progenitor, and said: “O revered Sir, who is the best among us?”

He said to them: “He by whose departure the body looks worse than the worst is the best among you.”

8

The organ of speech departed. After being away for a whole year, it came back and said: “How have you been able to live without me?” The other organs replied: “We lived just as dumb people live, without speaking, but breathing with the prāna (nose), seeing with the eye, hearing with the ear, and thinking with the mind.” Then the organ of speech entered [the body].

9

The eye departed. After being away for a whole year, it came back and said: “How have you been able to live without me?” The other organs replied: “We lived just as blind people live, without seeing, but breathing with the prāna, speaking with the tongue, hearing with the ear, and thinking with the mind.” Then the eye entered [the body].

10

The ear went out. After being away for a whole year, it came back and said: “How have you been able to live without me?” The other organs replied: “We lived just as deaf people live, without hearing, but breathing with the prāna, speaking with the tongue, seeing with the eye, and thinking with the mind.” Then the ear entered [the body].

11

The mind went out. After being away for a whole year, it came back and said: “How have you been able to live without me?” The other organs replied: “We lived just like children whose minds are not yet formed, without thinking with the mind, but breathing with the prāna, speaking with the tongue, seeing with the eye, and hearing with the ear.” Then the mind entered [the body].

12

Then as the vital breath was about to depart, he uprooted the organs [from their places] just as a noble horse tears up the pegs to which its feet are tied. They came to him and said: “Revered Sir, be thou our lord; thou art the best among us. Do not depart from us.”

13

Then the organ of speech said to him: “That attribute of being most excellent which I possess is thine.”

Then the eye said: “That attribute of firmness which I possess is thine.”

14

Then the ear said: “That attribute of prosperity which I possess is thine.”

Then the mind said: “That attribute of being the abode which I possess is thine.”

15

And people do not call them (i.e. the sense-organs) the organs of speech, the eyes, the ears, or the mind, but the prānas. The prāna alone is all these.

 

Chapter II

THE MANTHA RITE

1

The prāna said: “What will be my food?”

They answered: “Whatever food there is—including that of dogs and birds.”

[The Upanishad says:] All that [is eaten] is the food of the ana. Ana is his (i.e. the prāna’s) direct name. For one who knows this, there exists nothing which is not food.

2

He said: “What will be my dress?”

They answered: “Water.” Therefore when people eat they cover him (the prāna), both before and after eating, with water. Thus the prāna obtains clothing and is no longer naked.

3

Satyakāma the son of Jabālā explained this [doctrine of the prāna] to Gośruti, the son of Vyāghrapada, and said: “If one should tell this to a dry stump, branches would grow and leaves spring forth.”

4

Now, if a man wishes to attain greatness, he should perform the initiatory rite on the day of the new moon, and then on the night of the full moon he should stir a paste of all the herbs with curds and honey, and offer it as a libation in the fire [where the melted butter is offered], saying: “Svāhā to the oldest (jyashtha) and greatest (śreshtha)!” Then let him throw the remainder [adhering to the ladle] into the paste.

5

[In the same manner] he should offer a libation in the fire [where the melted butter is offered], saying: “Svāhā to the most excellent (vasishtha)!” Then let him throw the remainder [adhering to the ladle] into the paste.

[In the same manner] he should offer a libation into the fire [where the melted butter is offered], saying: “Svāhā to firmness (pratishthā)!” and then throw the remainder [adhering to the ladle] into the paste.

[In the same manner] he should offer a libation in the fire [where the melted butter is offered], saying: “Svāhā to prosperity (sampad)!” and then throw the remainder [adhering to the ladle] into the paste.

[In the same manner] he should offer a libation into the fire [where the melted butter is offered], saying: “Svāhā to the abode (ayatana)!” and then throw the remainder [adhering to the ladle] into the paste.

6

Then, moving away a little [from the fire] and holding the paste (mantha) in his hands, he recites: “Thou (prāna) art ama by name, for all this rests in thee. He (i.e. the paste, which is the same as the prāna) is the oldest, the greatest, the king, and the sovereign. May he make me the oldest, the greatest, the king, and the sovereign. May I be all this!”

7

Then he recites the following Rik-mantra, swallowing the paste (mantha) each time he utters a foot of the mantra: “We desire, of the great progenitor (i.e. the sun)”—here he swallows a little—“of the luminous, the food”—here he swallows a little—“the best and all-supporting”—here he swallows a little—“we meditate quickly on the nature of the sun”—here he swallows the whole. Having cleansed the vessel made of metal or wood, he lies down behind the fire, on a skin or on the bare ground, controlling his speech and self-possessed. If he sees a woman [in a dream], then let him know that his work (rite) has been a success.

8

On this there is the following verse: “If during rites performed with a view to fulfilling certain desires, he sees a woman in his dream, let him know of his success from this vision in a dream, yea, from this vision in a dream.”

 

Chapter III

THE STORY OF ŚVETAKETU AND PRAVĀHANA

1

Śvetaketu the grandson of Aruna came to the assembly of .the Panchālas. Pravāhana the son of Jibala said to him: “Boy, has your father instructed you?”

“Yes, revered Sir,” he replied.

2

[The king said:] “Do you know to what place men go after departing from here?”

“No, revered Sir.”

“Do you know how they return again?”

“No, revered Sir.”

“Do you know where the paths leading to the gods and leading to the Manes separate?”

“No, revered Sir.”

3

“Do you know why yonder world is not filled up?”

“No, revered Sir.”

“Do you know how water, in the fifth oblation, comes to be called man?”

“No, revered Sir.”

4

“Then why did you say that you had been instructed? How could he who did not know these things say that he had been instructed?”

Then Śvetaketu went back to his father with a sorrowful mind and said to him: “Revered Sir, you told me that you had instructed me, though you had not instructed me.

5

“That fellow of a kshatriya asked me five questions, and I could not answer one of them.”

The father said: “As you have stated these [questions] to me, [let me assure you that] I do not know even one of them. If I had known them, why should I not have told them to you?”

6

Then Gautama went to the king’s place. When he arrived the king showed him proper respect. Next morning, when the king came to the assembly, Gautama, too, came there.

The king said to him: “Gautama, Sir, ask of me a boon relating to human wealth.”

He replied: “May human wealth remain with you. Tell me that speech which you addressed to my boy.”

The king became sad.

7

The king commanded him: “Stay with me for a long time.”

Then he said to him: “As to what you have told me, O Gautama, this knowledge did not reach any brāhmin before you. Thus it was to the kshatriya alone, among all the people, that the teaching [of this knowledge] belonged.”

Then he began [to teach him]:

 

Chapter IV

THE FIVE FIRES (I)

1

“Yonder world is the [sacrificial] fire, O Gautama, the sun the fuel, the rays the smoke, daytime the flame, the moon the embers, and the stars the sparks.

2

“In this fire the gods offer faith as libation. Out of that offering King Moon is born.”

 

Chapter V

THE FIVE FIRES (II)

1

“Parjanya (the god of rain), O Gautama, is the fire, the air the fuel, the cloud the smoke, lightning the flame, the thunderbolt the embers, and thunderings the sparks.

2

“In this fire the gods offer King Moon as libation. Out of that offering rain is born.”

 

Chapter VI

THE FIVE FIRES (III)

1

“The earth, O Gautama, is the fire, the year the fuel, the ākāśa the smoke, the night the flame, the quarters the embers, and the intermediate quarters the sparks.

2

“In this fire the gods offer rain as libation. Out of that offering food is born.”

 

Chapter VII

THE FIVE FIRES (IV)

1

“Man, O Gautama, is the fire, speech is the fuel, the prāna the smoke, the tongue the flame, the eye the embers, and the ear the sparks.

2

“In this fire the gods offer food as libation. Out of that offering semen is produced.”

 

Chapter VIII

THE FIVE FIRES (V)

1

“Woman, O Gautama, is the fire, her sexual organ is the fuel, what invites is the smoke, the vulva is the flame, what is done inside is the embers, the pleasures are the sparks.

2

“In this fire the gods offer semen as libation. Out of that offering the foetus is formed.”

 

Chapter IX

BIRTH AND DEATH

1

“Thus in the fifth libation water comes to be called man. The foetus enclosed in the membrane, having lain inside for ten or nine months, or more or less, is born.

2

“Having been born, he lives whatever the length of his life may be. When he is dead, they carry him to the fire [of the funeral pyre] whence he came, whence he arose.”

 

Chapter X

THE VARIOUS PATHS FOLLOWED AFTER DEATH

1-2

“Those who know this and those who, dwelling in the forest, practise faith and austerities go to light, from light to day, from day to the bright half of the moon, from the bright half of the moon to the six months during which the sun goes to the north, from [those] months to the year, from the year to the sun, from the sun to the moon, from the moon to lightning. There a person who is not a human being meets him and leads him to Brahman. This is the Path of the Gods (Devayana).

3

“But those who, living in the village, perform sacrifices, undertake works of public utility, and give alms go to smoke, from smoke to night, from night to the dark half of the moon, from the dark half of the moon to the six months during which the sun goes to the south. But they do not reach the year.

4

“From [those] months they go to the World of the Manes, from the world of the Manes to the ākāśa, from the ākāśa to the moon. This is King Soma. They are the food of the gods. Them the gods eat.

5-6

“Having dwelt there [in the lunar world] till their [good] works are consumed, they return again the same way they came. They [first] reach the ākāśa, and from the ākāśa the air. Having become air, they become smoke; having become smoke, they become mist;

“Having become mist, they become cloud; having become cloud, they fall as rain-water. Then they are born as rice and barley, herbs and trees, sesamum and beans. Thence the exit is most difficult; for whoever [capable of begetting children] eats that food and injects semen, they become like unto him.

7

“Those whose conduct here [on earth] has been good will quickly attain some good birth—birth as a brāhmin, birth as a kshatriya, or birth as a vaiśya. But those whose conduct here has been evil will quickly attain some evil birth—birth as a dog, birth as a pig, or birth as a chandāla.

8

“[Those who neither practise meditation nor perform rituals] do not follow either of these ways. They become those insignificant creatures which are continually revolving and about which it may be said: ‘Live and die.’ This is the third place.

“Therefore that world never becomes full. Let a man despise this course. To this end there is the following verse:

9

“’A man who steals the gold [of a brāhmin], he (i.e. a brāhmin) who drinks liquor, he who dishonours his teacher’s bed, and he who kills a brāhmin—these four fall, as also a fifth who associates with them.’”

10

“But he who knows these Five Fires is not stained by sin even though associating with them. He becomes pure and clean, and obtains the world of the blessed—he who knows this, yea, he who knows this.”

 

Chapter XI

CONCERNING THE UNIVERSAL SELF

1

Prāchinaśāla the son of Upamanyu, Satyayajna the son of Pulusha, Indradyumna the grandson of Bhallavi, Jana the son of Sarkarāksha, and Buḍila the son of Aśvatarāśva—great householders and great scriptural scholars—came together and discussed the question: “What is our self and what is Brahman?”

2

They solved the problem [with the words]: “Revered Sirs, Uddālaka the son of Aruna knows, at present, about the Vaiśvānara Self. Let us go to him.”

They went to him.

3

He (Uddālaka) concluded: “These great householders and great scriptural scholars will question me. [Perhaps] I shall not be able to tell them everything. Therefore I shall direct them to another teacher.”

4

He said to them: “Revered Sirs, King Aśvapati the son of Kekaya knows, at present, about the Vaiśvānara Self. Let us all go to him.”

They went to him.

5-7

When they arrived, the king ordered that proper respect should be paid to each of them. The next morning, after leaving bed, he said to them:

“In my kingdom there is no thief, no miser, no wine-bibber, no man without a sacrificial fire, no ignorant person, no adulterer, much less adulteress.

“Revered Sirs, I am going to perform a sacrifice. I shall give to you as much wealth as I give to each priest. Please, revered Sirs, stay here.”

They said: “If a person comes to another with a purpose, he should tell the other only about that. At present, you know about the Vaiśvānara Self. Please tell us about Him.”

He said to them: “I shall give you a reply tomorrow morning.” Next morning they approached him with fuel in their hands. Without having performed any initiatory rites, the king said to them:

 

Chapter XII

THE HEAD OF THE VAIŚVĀNARA SELF

1-2

“O son of Upamanyu, whom do you meditate on as the Self?”

“Heaven only, venerable King,” he replied.

“The Self you meditate on,” said the king “is the Vaiśvānara Self called the Good Light (Sutejas). Therefore one sees in your family the Suta libation as also the Prasuta libation and the Āsuta libation, and you eat food and see what is pleasing. Whoever thus meditates on the Vaiśvānara Self eats food, sees what is pleasing, and has in his family the glory of Brahman. That, however, is only the head of the Self. Surely your head would have fallen off if you had not come to me.”

 

Chapter XIII

THE EYE OF THE VAIŚVĀNARA SELF

1-2

Then he said to Satyayajna the son of Pulusha: “O Prāchinayogya, whom do you meditate on as the Self?”

“The sun only, venerable King,” he replied.

“The Self you meditate on,” said the king, “is the Vaiśvānara Self called the Universal Form (Viśvarupa). Therefore one sees in your family much and manifold wealth-there are ready the chariot and mules, female servants, and gold necklaces—and you eat food and see what is pleasing. Whoever thus meditates on the Vaiśvānara Self eats food, sees what is pleasing, and has in his family the glory of Brahman. That, however, is only the eye of the Self. Surely you would have become blind if you had not come to me.”

 

Chapter XIV

THE PRĀNA OF THE VAIŚVĀNARA SELF

1-2

Then he said to Indradyumna the grandson of Bhallavi: “O Vaiyāghrapadya, whom do you meditate on as the Self?”

“The air only, venerable King,” he replied.

“The Self you meditate on,” said the king, “is the Vaiśvānara Self of varied courses (Prithagvartmā). Therefore gifts come to you in various ways, rows of chariots follow you in various ways, and you eat food and see what is pleasing. Whoever thus meditates on the Vaiśvānara Self eats food, sees what is pleasing, and has in his family the glory of Brahman. That, however, is only the prāna of the Self. Surely your prāna would have left you if you had not come to me.”

 

Chapter XV

THE TRUNK OF THE VAIŚVĀNARA SELF

1-2

Then he said to Jana the son of Śarkarāksha: “Whom do you meditate on as the Self?”

“The ākāśa only, venerable King,” he replied.

“The Self you meditate on,” said the king, “is the Vaiśvānara Self called Bahula (full). Therefore you are full of offspring and wealth, and you eat food and see what is pleasing. Whoever thus meditates on the Vaiśvānara Self eats food, sees what is pleasing, and has in his family the glory of Brahman. That, however, is only the trunk of the Self. Surely your trunk would have been destroyed if you had not come to me.”

 

Chapter XVI

THE BLADDER OF THE VAIŚVĀNARA SELF

1-2

Then he said to Buḍila the son of Aśvatarāśva: “O Vaiyāghrapadya, whom do you meditate on as the Self?”

“Water only, venerable King,” he replied.

“The Self you meditate on,” said the king, “is the Vaiśvānara Self called Rayi (wealth). Therefore you are wealthy and flourishing, and you eat food and see what is pleasing. Whoever thus meditates on the Vaiśvānara Self eats food, sees what is pleasing, and has in his family the glory of Brahman. That, however, is only the bladder of the Self. Surely your bladder would have burst if you had not come to me.”

 

Chapter XVII

THE FEET OF THE VAIŚVĀNARA SELF

1-2

Then he said to Uddalaka the son of Aruna: “O Gautama, whom do you meditate on as the Self?”

“The earth only, venerable King,” he replied.

“The Self you meditate on,” said the king, “is the Vaiśvānara Self called Pratishthā (the support). Therefore you are supported by offspring and cattle, and you eat food and see what is pleasing. Whoever thus meditates on the Vaiśvānara Self eats food, sees what is pleasing, and has in his family the glory of Brahman. That, however, is only the feet of the Self. Surely your feet would have withered away if you had not come to me.”

 

Chapter XVIII

THE VAIŚVĀNARA SELF AS THE WHOLE

1

Then he (the king) said to them all: “You [being endowed with limited knowledge] eat your food, knowing that Vaiśvānara Self as if He were many. But he who worships the Vaiśvānara Self as the measure of the span [from earth to heaven] and as identical with the self, eats food in all worlds, in all beings, and in all selves.

2

“Of this Vaiśvānara Self the head is Sutejas (the Good Light), the eye Viśvarupa (the Universal Form), the prāna Prithagvartmā (of various courses), the trunk Bahula (full), the bladder Rayi (wealth), the feet Prithivi (the earth), the chest the Vedi (altar), the hair the [kuśa] grass [on the altar], the heart the Gārhapatya Fire, the mind the Anvahārya Fire, and the mouth the Āhavaniya Fire.”

 

Chapter XIX

PERFORMANCE OF THE AGNIHOTRA IN ONESELF (THE PRĀNA)

1

Therefore the food that comes first should be offered as an oblation. The first oblation that he (i.e. the eater) offers, he should offer, saying: “Svāhā to the prāna!” Then the prāna is satisfied.

2

The prāna being satisfied, the eye is satisfied. The eye being satisfied, the sun is satisfied. The sun being satisfied, heaven is satisfied. Heaven being satisfied, whatever is under heaven and under the sun is satisfied. They being satisfied, he (i.e. the eater or sacrificer) is satisfied with offspring, cattle, food, brightness [of the body], and the light of Brahman.

 

Chapter XX

THE VYĀNA

1

The second oblation that he offers, he should offer, saying: “Svāhā to the vyāna!” Then the vyāna is satisfied.

2

The vyāna being satisfied, the ear is satisfied. The ear being satisfied, the moon is satisfied. The moon being satisfied, the quarters are satisfied. The quarters being satisfied, whatever is under the quarters and under the moon is satisfied. They being satisfied, the eater is satisfied with offspring, cattle, food, brightness [of the body], and the light of Brahman.

 

Chapter XXI

THE APĀNA

1

The third oblation that he offers, he should offer, saying: “Svāhā to the apāna!” Then the apāna is satisfied.

2

The apāna being satisfied, speech (i.e. the tongue) is satisfied. Speech being satisfied, fire is satisfied. Fire being satisfied, the earth is satisfied. The earth being satisfied, what is under the earth and under fire is satisfied. They being satisfied, the eater is satisfied with offspring, cattle, food, brightness [of the body], and the light of Brahman.

 

Chapter XXII

THE SAMĀNA

1

The fourth oblation that he offers, he should offer, saying: ”Svāhā to the samāna!” Then the samāna is satisfied.

2

The samāna being satisfied, the mind is satisfied. The mind being satisfied, the rain-god is satisfied. The rain-god being satisfied, the lightning is satisfied. The lightning being satisfied, what is under the lightning and under the rain-god is satisfied. They being satisfied, the eater is satisfied with offspring, cattle, food, brightness [of the body], and the light of Brahman.

 

Chapter XXIII

THE UDĀNA

1

The fifth oblation that he offers, he should offer, saying: “Svāhā to the udāna!” Then the udāna is satisfied.

2

The udāna being satisfied, the skin is satisfied. The skin being satisfied, the air is satisfied. The air being satisfied, the ākāśa is satisfied. The ākāśa being satisfied, what is under the air and under the ākāśa is satisfied. They being satisfied, the eater is satisfied with offspring, cattle, food, brightness [of the body], and the light of Brahman.

 

Chapter XXIV

THE GLORY OF THE AGNIHOTRA SACRIFICE

1

If, without knowing this [knowledge of the Vaiśvānara Self], one offers an Agnihotra oblation, it is like an oblation offered in dead ashes after removing the live coals.

2

But if, knowing this, one offers an Agnihotra oblation, it is like an oblation offered in all the worlds, in all beings, and in all ātmans.

3

Even as the soft fibres of the ishikā reed, when thrown into fire, are burnt, so also are burnt all the sins of one who, knowing this, offers an Agnihotra oblation.

4

Therefore even if a man who knows this gives what is left of his food to a chandāla, he verily offers it to his Vaiśvānara Self On this there is the following verse:

5

“As here on earth hungry children gather around their mother, so do all beings gather around the Agnihotra sacrifice, yea around the Agnihotra sacrifice.”

 

Part Six

Chapter I

THE NON-DUALITY OF THE SELF

1

OM. There once lived Śvetaketu the grandson of Aruna. To him his father said: “Śvetaketu, lead the life of a brahmachārin; for there is none belonging to our family, my dear, who, not having studied the Vedas, is a brāhmin only by birth.”

2-3

Śvetaketu went to his teacher’s house when he was twelve years old and studied the Vedas till he was twenty-four. Then he returned to his father, serious, considering himself well read, and arrogant.

His father said to him: “Śvetaketu, since you are now so serious, think yourself well read, and are so arrogant, have you, my dear, ever asked for that instruction by which one hears what cannot be heard, by which one perceives what cannot be perceived, by which one knows what cannot be known?”

Śvetaketu asked: “What is that instruction, venerable Sir?”

4-6

“Just as, my dear, by one clod of clay all that is made of clay is known, the modification being only a name, arising from speech, while the truth is that all is clay;

“Just as, my dear, by one nugget of gold all that is made of gold is known, the modification being only a name, arising from speech, while the truth is that all is gold;

“And just as, my dear, by one pair of nail-scissors all that is made of iron is known, the modification being only a name, arising from speech, while the truth is that all is iron-even so, my dear, is that instruction.”

7

“Surely those venerable men did not know that. For if they had known it, why should they not have told it to me? [Therefore] do you, venerable Sir, tell me about it.”

“So be it, my dear,” said the father.

 

Chapter II

BRAHMAN THE CAUSE OF THE UNIVERSE

1

”In the beginning, my dear, this [universe] was Being (Sat) alone, one only without a second, Some say that in the beginning this was non-being (asat) alone, one only without a second; and from that non-being, being was born.”

2

Āruni said: “But how, indeed, could it be thus, my dear? How could Being be born from non-being? No, my dear, it was Being alone that existed in the beginning, one only without a second.

3

“It (Being, or Brahman) thought: ‘May I be many; may I grow forth.’ It created fire. That fire thought: ‘May I be many; may I grow forth.’ It created water. That is why, whenever a person is hot and perspires, water is produced from fire (heat) alone.

4

“That water thought: ‘May I be many; may I grow forth’. It created food (i.e. earth). That is why, whenever it rains anywhere, abundant food is produced. From water alone is edible food produced.

 

Chapter III

THE THREEFOLD DEVELOPMENT

1

“Of all these [living] beings, there are only three origins: those born from an egg, those born from a living being, and those born from a sprout.

2

“That Deity thought: ‘Let Me now enter into those three deities by means of this living self and let Me then develop names and forms.’

3

“That Deity, having thought: ‘Let Me make each of these three tripartite,’ entered into these three deities by means of the living self and developed names and forms.

4

“It made each of these tripartite; and how these three deities became, each of them, tripartite, that learn from me now, my dear.

 

Chapter IV

THE THREEFOLD DEVELOPMENT FURTHER EXPLAINED

1

“The red colour of [gross] fire is the colour of [the original] fire; the white colour of [gross] fire is the colour of [the original] water; the black colour of [gross] fire is the colour of [the original] earth. Thus vanishes from fire what is commonly called fire, the modification being only a name, arising from speech, while the three colours (forms) alone are true.

2

“The red colour of the sun is the colour of fire, the white [the colour] of water, the black [the colour] of earth. Thus vanishes from the sun what is commonly called the sun, the modification being only a name, arising from speech, while the three colours alone are true.

3

“The red colour of the moon is the colour of fire, the white [the colour] of water, the black [the colour] of earth. Thus vanishes from the moon what is commonly called the moon, the modification being only a name, arising from speech, while the three colours alone are true.

4

“The red colour of lightning is the colour of fire, the white [the colour] of water, the black [the colour] of earth. Thus vanishes from lightning what is commonly called lightning, the modification being only a name, arising from speech, while the three colours alone are true.

5

“It was just through this knowledge that the great householders and great Vedic scholars of olden times declared: ‘No one can now mention to us anything which we have not heard, thought of, or known.’ They knew all from these [three forms].

6-7

“Whatever appeared red they knew to be the colour of fire; whatever appeared white they knew to be the colour of water; whatever appeared black they knew to be the colour of earth.

“Whatever appeared to be unknown they knew to be the combination of these three deities (i.e. colours). Now learn from me, my dear, how these three deities, when they reach man, become each of them tripartite.

 

Chapter V

THE THREEFOLD NATURE OF FOOD

1

“Food when eaten becomes threefold. What is coarsest in it becomes faeces, what is medium becomes flesh, and what is subtlest becomes mind.

2

“Water when drunk becomes threefold. What is coarsest in it becomes urine, what is medium becomes blood, and what is subtlest becomes prāna.

3

“Fire when eaten becomes threefold. What is coarsest in it becomes bone, what is medium becomes marrow, and what is subtlest becomes speech.

4

“The mind, my dear, consists of food, the prāna of water, and speech of heat.”

 

Chapter VI

THE PHYSICAL NATURE OF THE MIND, THE PRĀNA, AND SPEECH

1

“That, my dear, which is the subtlest part of curds rises, when they are churned, and becomes butter.

2

“In the same manner, my dear, that which is the subtlest part of the food that is eaten rises and becomes mind.

3

“The subtlest part of the water that is drunk rises and becomes prāna.

4

“The subtlest part of the fire that is eaten rises and becomes speech.

5

“Thus, my dear, the mind consists of food, the prāna consists of water, and speech consists of fire.”

“Please, venerable Sir, instruct me further.”

“So be it, my dear.”

 

Chapter VII

HOW THE MIND CONSISTS OF FOOD

1

“A person, my dear, consists of sixteen parts. Do not eat [any food] for fifteen days, but drink as much water as you like. Since the prāna consists of water, it will not be cut off if you drink water.”

2

Śvetaketu did not eat [any food] for fifteen days. Then he came to his father and said: “What, Sir, shall I recite?”

His father said: “The Rik, Yajus, and Sāman verses.”

He replied: “They do not occur to me, Sir.”

3

His father said to him: “Just as, my dear, of a great blazing fire a single coal, the size of a firefly, may be left, which would not burn much more than that, even so, my dear, of your sixteen parts only one part is left; and therefore with that one part you do not remember the Vedas. Now go and eat and you will understand me.”

4

Śvetaketu ate and approached his father. Then whatever his father asked him, he showed that he knew it.

5-6

Then his father said to him:“Just as, my dear, of a great lighted fire a single coal the size of a firefly, if left, may be made to blaze up again by adding grass to it, and will thus burn much more,

“Even so, my dear, of your sixteen parts only one part was left, and that, when strengthened by food, blazed up. With it you now remember the Vedas. Therefore, my dear, the mind consists of food, the prāna consists of water, and speech consists of fire.”

After that he understood what his father said, yea, he understood it.

 

Chapter VIII

CONCERNING SLEEP, HUNGER, THIRST, AND DEATH

1

Uddālaka the son of Aruna said to his son Śvetaketu: “Learn from me, my dear, the true nature of sleep. When a person has entered into deep sleep, as it is called, then, my dear, he becomes united with Pure Being (Sat), he has gone to his own [Self]. That is why they say he is in deep sleep (svapiti); it is because he has gone (apita) to his own (svam).

2

“Just as a bird tied by a string [to the hand of the bird-catcher] first flies in every direction, and [then] finding no rest anywhere, settles down at the place where it is bound, so also the mind (i.e. the individual soul reflected in the mind), my dear, after flying in every direction and finding no rest anywhere, settles down in the Prāna (i.e. Pure Being); for the mind (the individual soul) is fastened to the Prāna (Pure Being).

3

“Learn from me, my dear, what hunger and thirst are. When a man is hungry, as they say, it is water that has led (i.e. carried away) what was eaten. Therefore, just as they speak of a leader of cows, a leader of horses, a leader of men, so do they speak of water as the leader [of food]. So, my dear, know this offshoot (i.e. the body) to have sprung forth [from a cause], for it cannot be without a root.

4

“And where could its root be except in food (earth)? And in the same way, my dear, as food too is an offshoot, seek for water as its root. And as water too, my dear, is an offshoot, seek for fire as its root. And as fire too, my dear, is an offshoot, seek for Being (Sat) as its root. Yes, all these creatures, my dear, have their root in Being, they dwell in Being, they [finally] rest in Being.

5

“When a man is said to be thirsty, it is fire that has led (i.e. carried away) what was drunk by him. Therefore as they speak of a leader of cows, a leader of horses, a leader of men, so do they speak of fire as the leader [of water]. So, my dear, know this offshoot (the body) to have sprung forth [from a cause], for it cannot be without a root.

6

“And where could its root be except in water? And in the same way, my dear, as water is an offshoot, seek for fire as its root. And as fire too, my dear, is an offshoot, seek for Being as its root. Yes, my dear, all these creatures have their root in Being, they dwell in Being, they [finally] rest in Being.

“And how these three deities (fire, water, and earth), on reaching a human being, become each of them tripartite has already been said (VI. iv. 7).When a person departs hence, his speech merges in his mind, his mind in his prāna, his prāna in heat (fire), and the heat in the Highest Being.

 

Chapter IX

THE ABSENCE OF INDIVIDUALITY IN DEEP SLEEP

1-2

“As bees, my dear, make honey by collecting the juices of trees located at different places, and reduce them to one form,

“And as these juices have no discrimination [so as to be able to say]: ‘I am the juice of this tree,’ or ‘I am the juice of that tree’—even so, indeed, my dear, all these creatures, though they reach Pure Being, do not know that they have reached Pure Being.

3

“Whatever these creatures are, here in this world—a tiger, a lion, a wolf, a boar, a worm, a fly, a gnat, or a mosquito—that they become again.

4

“Now, that which is the subtle essence—in it all that exists has its self. That is the True. That is the Self. That thou art, Śvetaketu.”

 

Chapter X

THE ABSENCE OF PARTICULARIZED CONSCIOUSNESS IN DEEP SLEEP

1-2

“These rivers, my dear, flow—the eastern toward the east, and the western toward the west. They arise from the sea and flow into the sea. Just as these rivers, while they are in the sea, do not know: ‘I am this river’ or ‘I am that river,’

“Even so, my dear, all these creatures, even though they have come from Pure Being, do not know that they have come from Pure Being. “Whatever these creatures are, here in this world—a tiger, a lion, a wolf, a boar, a worm, a fly, a gnat, or a mosquito—that they become again.

3

“Now, that which is the subtle essence—in it all that exists has its self. That is the True. That is the Self. That thou art, Śvetaketu.”

“Please, venerable Sir, give me further instruction,” said the son.

“So be it, my dear,” the father replied.

 

Chapter XI

THE INDESTRUCTIBILITY OF THE JIVA

1

”If, my dear, someone were to strike at the root of this large tree here, it would bleed but live. If he were to strike at the middle, it would bleed but live. If he were to strike at the top, it would bleed but live. Pervaded by the living self, that tree stands firm, drinking in again and again its nourishment and rejoicing.

2

“But if the life (i.e. living self) leaves one of its branches, that branch withers; if it leaves a second, that branch withers; if it leaves a third, that branch withers. If it leaves the whole tree, the whole tree withers.

3

“In exactly the same manner, my dear,” said he, “know this: This body dies, bereft of the living self; but the living self dies not.

“Now, that which is the subtle essence—in it all that exists has its self. That is the True. That is the Self. That thou art, Śvetaketu.”

“Please, venerable Sir, give me further instruction,” said the son.

“So be it, my dear,” the father replied.

 

Chapter XII

THE BIRTH OF THE GROSS FROM THE SUBTLE

1

“Bring me a fruit of that nyāgrodha (banyan) tree.”

“Here it is, venerable Sir.”

“Break it.”

“It is broken, venerable Sir.”

“What do you see there?”

“These seeds, exceedingly small, venerable Sir.”

“Break one of these, my son.”

“It is broken, venerable Sir.”

“What do you see there?”

“Nothing at all, venerable Sir.”

2

The father said: “That subtle essence, my dear, which you do not perceive there—from that very essence this great nyāgrodha arises. Believe me, my dear.

3

“Now, that which is the subtle essence—in it all that exists has its self. That is the True. That is the Self. That thou art, Śvetaketu.”

“Please, venerable Sir, give me further instruction,” said the son.

“So be it, my dear,” the father replied.

 

Chapter XIII

THE INVISIBILITY OF AN EXISTENT OBJECT

1

“Place this salt in water and then come to me in the morning.”

The son did as he was told.

The father said to him: “My son, bring me the salt which you placed in the water last night.”

Looking for it, the son did not find it, for it was completely dissolved.

2

The father said: “My son, take a sip of water from the surface. How is it?”

”It is salt.”

“Take a sip from the middle. How is it?”

“It is salt.”

“Take a sip from the bottom. How is it?”

“It is salt.”

“Throw it away and come to me.”

The son did as he was told, saying: “The salt was there all the time.”

Then the father said: “Here also, my dear, in this body you do not perceive Sat (Being); but It is indeed there.”

3

“Now, that which is the subtle essence—in it all that exists has its self. That is the True. That is the Self. That thou art, Śvetaketu.”

“Please, venerable Sir, give me further instruction,” said the son.

“So be it, my dear,” the father replied.

 

Chapter XIV

THE MEANS OF SELF-KNOWLEDGE

1

“Just as someone, my dear, might lead a person, with his eyes covered, away from [the country of] the Gandhāras, and leave him in a place where there were no human beings; and just as that person would turn toward the east, or the north, or the south, or the west, shouting: ‘I have been brought here with my eyes covered, I have been left here with my eyes covered!’

2

“And as thereupon someone might loosen the covering and say to him: ‘Gandhāra is in that direction; go that way'; and as thereupon, having been informed and being capable of judgement, he would, by asking his way from one village to another, arrive at last at Gandhāra—in exactly the same manner does a man who has found a teacher to instruct him obtain the true knowledge. For him there is delay only so long as he is not liberated [from the body]; then he reaches perfection.

3

“Now, that which is the subtle essence—in it all that exists has its self. That is the True. That is the Self. That thou art, Śvetaketu.”

“Please, venerable Sir, give me further instruction,” said the son.

“So be it, my dear,” the father replied.

 

Chapter XV

ULTIMATE LIBERATION

1

“Around a [dying] person afflicted [with illness], my dear, his relatives gather and ask: ‘Do you know me? Do you know me?’ He knows them as long as his speech is not merged in his mind, his mind in his prāna (breath), his prāna in heat (fire), and the heat in the Highest Deity.

2

“But when his speech is merged in his mind, his mind in his prāna, his prāna in heat, and the heat in the Highest Deity, then he does not know them.

3

“Now, that which is the subtle essence—in it all that exists has its self That is the True. That is the Self. That thou art, Śvetaketu.”

“Please, venerable Sir, give me further instruction,” said the son.

“So be it, my dear,” the father replied.

 

Chapter XVI

LIBERATION FOR THE KNOWER OF BRAHMAN

1

“My dear, they (i.e. the police) bring a man whom they have seized by the hand, and say: ‘He has taken something, he has committed a theft.’ [When he denies it, they say:] ‘Heat the axe for him.’ If he has committed the theft [but denies it], then he makes himself a liar. Being false-minded, he covers himself with falsehood, grasps the heated axe, and is burnt. Then he is killed.

2

“But if he did not commit the theft, then he makes himself what he really is. Being true-minded, he covers himself with truth, grasps the heated axe, and is not burnt. He is released.

3

“As that [truthful] man is not burnt [so also one who has known Sat is not born again]. Thus in That (Sat) all that exists has its self. That is the True. That is the Self. That thou art, Śvetaketu.”

 

Part Seven

Chapter I

DIALOGUE BETWEEN NĀRADA AND SANATKUMĀRA

1

OM. Nārada approached Sanatkumāra [as a pupil] and said: “Venerable Sir, please teach me.”

Sanatkumāra said to him: “Please tell me what you already know. Then I shall tell you what is beyond.”

2

Nārada said: “Venerable Sir, I know the Rig-Veda, the Yajur-Veda, the Sāma-Veda, the Atharva-Veda as the fourth [Veda], the epics (Puranas) and ancient lore (Itihāsa) as the fifth, the Veda of the Vedas (i.e. grammar), the rules of the sacrifices by which the Manes are gratified, the science of numbers, the science of portents, the science of time, logic, ethics, etymology, Brahma-vidya (i.e. the science of pronunciation, ceremonials, prosody, etc.), the science of elemental spirits, the science of weapons, astronomy, the science of serpents, and the fine arts. All this I know, venerable Sir.

3

“But, venerable Sir, with all this I know words only; I do not know the Self. I have heard from men like you that he who knows the Self overcomes sorrow. I am one afflicted with sorrow. Do you, venerable Sir, help me to cross over to the other side of sorrow.”

Sanatkumāra said to him: “Whatever you have read is only a name.

4

“Verily, a name is the Rig-Veda; [so also] are the Yajur-Veda, the Sāma-Veda, the Atharva-Veda as the fourth [Veda], the epics and the ancient lore as the fifth, the Veda of the Vedas, the rules of the sacrifices by which the Manes are gratified, the science of numbers, the science of portents, the science of time, logic, ethics, etymology, Brahma-vidya, the science of elemental spirits, the science of weapons, astronomy, the science of serpents, and the fine arts.

“Meditate on the name.

5

“He who meditates on a name as Brahman can, of his own free will, reach as far as the name reaches—he who meditates on a name as Brahman.”

Nārada said: “Venerable Sir, is there anything greater than a name?”

“Of course there is something greater than a name.”

“Please tell that to me, venerable Sir.”

 

Chapter II

SPEECH AS BRAHMAN

1

“Speech is, verily, greater than a name. Speech makes one understand the Rig-Veda, the Yajur-Veda, the Sāma-Veda, the Atharva-Veda as the fourth, the epics and the ancient lore as the fifth, the Veda of the Vedas, the rules of sacrifices by which the Manes are gratified, the science of numbers, the science of portents, the science of time, logic, ethics, etymology, Brahma-vidya, the science of elemental spirits, the science of weapons, astronomy, the science of serpents, and the fine arts, as well as heaven, earth, air, ākāśa, water, fire, gods, men, cattle, birds, herbs, trees, animals, together with worms, flies, and ants, as also righteousness and unrighteousness, the true and the false, the good and the bad, the pleasant and the unpleasant.

“Verily, if there were no speech, neither righteousness nor unrighteousness would be known, neither the true nor the false, neither the pleasant nor the unpleasant.

“Speech, verily, makes us know all this. Meditate upon speech.

2

“He who meditates on speech as Brahman can, of his own free will, reach as far as speech reaches—he who meditates on speech as Brahman.”

Nārada said: “Venerable Sir, is there anything greater than speech?”

“Of course there is something greater than speech.”

“Please tell that to me, venerable Sir!”

 

Chapter III

MIND AS BRAHMAN

1

“The mind is, verily, greater than speech. Just as the closed fist holds two āmalakas, or two plums, or two aksha fruits, so does the mind hold speech and a name. For when a man thinks in his mind that he would read the sacred hymns, then he reads them. When he thinks in his mind that he would perform actions, then he performs them. When he thinks in his mind that he would have sons and cattle, then he desires them. When he thinks in his mind that he would have this world and the other, then he desires them. Mind, indeed, is the self; mind is the world; mind is Brahman.

“Meditate on the mind.

2

“He who meditates on mind as Brahman can, of his own free will, reach as far as mind reaches—he who meditates on mind as Brahman.”

Nārada said: “Venerable Sir, is there anything greater than mind?”

“Of course there is something greater than mind.”

“Please tell that to me, venerable Sir.”

 

Chapter IV

WILL AS BRAHMAN

1

“Will (samkalpa) is, verily, greater than mind. For when a man wills, then he thinks in his mind, then he utters speech, and then he employs speech in [the recital of] a name. The sacred hymns are included in a name, and all sacrifices are included in the sacred hymns.

2

“Will, indeed, is the goal of all these [beginning with mind and ending in sacrifice]; from will they arise and in will they all abide. Heaven and earth willed, air and ākāśa willed, water and fire willed. Through the will [of heaven and earth, etc.] the rain wills; through the will of the rain, food wills; through the will of food, the prānas will; through the will of the prānas, the sacred hymns will; through the will of the sacred hymns, the sacrifices will; through the will of the sacrifices, the world wills; through the will of the world, everything wills. Such is will. Meditate on will.

3

“He who meditates on will as Brahman can, of his own free will, reach as far as will reaches—he who meditates on will as Brahman.”

Nārada said: “Venerable Sir, is there anything greater than will?”

“Of course there is something greater than will.”

“Please tell that to me, venerable Sir.”

 

Chapter V

CONSIDERATION AS BRAHMAN

1

“Consideration (chitta) is, verily, greater than will. For when a man considers, then he wills, then he thinks in his mind, then he utters speech, then he engages speech in [the recitation of] a name. The sacred hymns are included in a name, and all sacrifices are included in the sacred hymns.

2

“Consideration is, indeed, the goal of all these [beginning with mind and ending in sacrifice]; from consideration they arise and in consideration they all abide. Therefore if a person is without consideration, even though he possesses much knowledge, people say of him that he is nothing, and whatever he knows [is useless]; for if he were [really] learned, he would not be so inconsiderate. But if a person is considerate, though he knows but little, to him people are eager to listen. Consideration, indeed, is the goal of all these; consideration is the self; consideration is the support. Meditate on consideration.

3

“He who meditates on consideration as Brahman, he, being permanent, firm, and undistressed, obtains the worlds which are permanent, firm, and undistressed; he can, of his own free will, reach as far as consideration reaches—he who meditates on consideration as Brahman.”

Nārada said: “Venerable Sir, is there anything greater than consideration?”

“Of course there is something greater than consideration.”

“Please tell that to me, venerable Sir.”

 

Chapter VI

MEDITATION AS BRAHMAN

1

“Meditation (dhyāna) is, verily, greater than consideration. Earth meditates, as it were. The mid-region meditates, as it were. Heaven meditates, as it were. The waters meditate, as it were. The mountains meditate, as it were. The gods meditate, as it were. Men meditate, as it were. Therefore he who, among men, attains greatness here on earth seems to have obtained a share of meditation. Thus while small people are quarrelsome, abusive, and slandering, great men appear to have obtained a share of meditation. Meditate on meditation.

2

“He who meditates on meditation as Brahman, can, of his own free will, reach as far as meditation reaches—he who meditates on meditation as Brahman.”

Nārada said: “Venerable Sir, is there anything greater than meditation?”

“Of course there is something greater than meditation.”

“Please tell that to me, venerable Sir.”

 

Chapter VII

UNDERSTANDING AS BRAHMAN

1

“Understanding is, verily, greater than meditation. Understanding makes one understand the Rig-Veda, the Yajur-Veda, the Sāma-Veda, the Atharva-Veda as the fourth, the epics and the ancient lore as the fifth, the Veda of the Vedas, the rules of sacrifices by which the Manes are gratified, the science of numbers, the science of portents, the science of time, logic, ethics, etymology, Brahma-vidya, the science of elemental spirits, the science of weapons, astronomy, the science of serpents, and the fine arts; heaven, earth, air, ākāśa, water, fire, gods, men, cattle, birds, herbs, trees; animals, together with worms, flies, and ants; and also righteousness and unrighteousness, the true and the false, the good and the bad, the pleasant and the unpleasant, food and taste, this world and yonder [world]. Meditate on understanding.

2

“He who meditates on understanding as Brahman attains the worlds of understanding and knowledge and can, of his own free will, reach as far as understanding reaches—he who meditates on understanding as Brahman.”

Nārada said: “Venerable Sir, is there anything greater than understanding?”

“Of course there is something greater than understanding.”

“Please tell that to me, venerable Sir.”

 

Chapter VIII

STRENGTH AS BRAHMAN

1

“Strength is, verily, greater than understanding. One strong man causes a hundred men of understanding to tremble. When a man is strong he can rise. If he rises he can attend [on the teachers]. If he attends on them he can become their intimate companion [as a pupil]. If he is their intimate companion he can watch [their conduct], listen [to their instruction], reflect [on what he hears], become convinced [of what he reflects on], act, and enjoy the result [of action]. By strength the earth stands firm, by strength the mid-region, by strength heaven, by strength the mountains, by strength the gods and men, by strength cattle and birds, herbs and trees, and animals, together with worms, flies, and ants, by strength the world stands firm. Meditate upon strength.”

2

“He who meditates on strength as Brahman can, of his own free will, reach as far as strength reaches—he who meditates on strength as Brahman.”

Nārada said: “Venerable Sir, is there anything greater than strength?”

“Of course there is something greater than strength.”

“Please tell that to me, venerable Sir.”

 

Chapter IX

FOOD AS BRAHMAN

1

“Food is, verily, greater than strength. Therefore if a man abstains from food for ten days, even though he might live, yet he would not be able to see, hear, reflect, become convinced, act, or enjoy the result. But when he obtains food, he is able to see, hear, reflect, become convinced, act, and enjoy the result.

2

“He who meditates on food as Brahman obtains the world rich in food and drink; he can, of his own free will, reach as far as food reaches—he who meditates on food as Brahman.”

Nārada said: “Venerable Sir, is there anything greater than food?”

“Of course there is something greater than food.”

“Please tell that to me, venerable Sir.”

 

Chapter X

WATER AS BRAHMAN

1

“Water is, verily, greater than food. Therefore if there is not sufficient rain, then living creatures are afflicted with the thought that there will be less food. But if there is sufficient rain, then living creatures rejoice in the thought that there will be much food. It is water that assumes the form of this earth, this mid-region, this heaven, these mountains, these gods and men, cattle and birds, herbs and trees, and animals, together with worms, flies, and ants. Water indeed is all these forms. Meditate on water.

2

“He who meditates on water as Brahman obtains all his desires and becomes satisfied; he can, of his own free will, reach as far as water reaches—he who meditates on water as Brahman.”

Niirada said: “Venerable Sir, is there anything greater than water?”

“Of course there is something greater than water.”

“Please tell that to me, venerable Sir.”

 

Chapter XI

FIRE AS BRAHMAN

1

“Fire is, verily, greater than water. For, having seized the air, it warms the ākāśa. Then people say: ‘It is hot, it burns; it will rain.’ Thus does fire first manifest itself and then create water. Furthermore, thunderclaps roll with lightning upward and across the sky. Then people say: ‘There is lightning, there is thunder; it will rain.’ Here also does fire first manifest itself and then create water. Meditate on fire.

2

“He who meditates on fire as Brahman becomes radiant himself and obtains radiant worlds, full of light and free from darkness; he can, of his own free will, reach as far as fire reaches-he who meditates on fire as Brahman.”

Nārada said: “Venerable Sir, is there anything greater than fire?”

“Of course there is something greater than fire.”

“Please tell that to me, Venerable Sir.”

 

Chapter XII

THE ĀKĀŚA AS BRAHMAN

1

“The ākāśa is, verily, greater than fire. For in the ākāśa exist both the sun and the moon, lightning, stars, and fire. It is through the ākāśa that a person calls [another]; it is through the ākāśa that the other hears; it is through the ākāśa that the person hears back. In the ākāśa we rejoice [when we are together], and in the ākāśa we rejoice not [when we are separated]. In the ākāśa everything is born, and toward the ākāśa all things grow. Meditate upon the ākāśa.

2

“He who meditates on the ākāśa as Brahman obtains the worlds extending far and wide, luminous, free from pain, and spacious; he can, of his own free will, reach as far as the ākāśa reaches—he who meditates on the ākāśa as Brahman.”

Nārada said: “Venerable Sir, is there anything greater than the ākāśa?”

“Of course there is something greater than the ākāśa.”

“Please tell that to me, venerable Sir.”

 

Chapter XIII

MEMORY AS BRAHMAN

1

“Memory is, verily, greater than the ākāśa. Therefore even when many people assemble, if they had no memory they would not hear anyone at all, they would not think, they would not understand. But surely, if they had memory, they would hear, think, and understand. Through memory one knows one’s sons, through memory one’s cattle. Meditate on memory.

2

“He who meditates on memory as Brahman can, of his own free will, reach as far as memory reaches—he who meditates on memory as Brahman.”

Nārada said: “Venerable Sir, is there anything greater than memory?”

“Of course there is something greater than memory.”

”Please tell that to me, venerable Sir.”

 

Chapter XIV

HOPE AS BRAHMAN

1

“Hope is, verily, greater than memory. Kindled by hope, [a person endowed with] memory reads the sacred hymns, performs sacrifices, desires sons and cattle, desires this world and the other. Meditate on hope.

2

“He who meditates on hope as Brahman—all his desires are fulfilled through hope, his prayers are not in vain; he can, of his own free will, reach as far as hope reaches—he who meditates on hope as Brahman.”

Nārada said: “Venerable Sir, is there anything greater than hope?”

“Of course there is something greater than hope.”

“Please tell that to me, venerable Sir.”

 

Chapter XV

THE PRĀNA AS BRAHMAN

1

“The prāna is, verily, greater than hope. As the spokes of a wheel are fastened to the nave, so are all these [beginning with the name and ending with hope] fastened to the prāna. The prāna moves by the prāna. The prāna gives the prāna to the prāna. The prāna is the father, the prāna is the mother, the prāna is the brother, the prāna is the sister, the prāna is the teacher, the prāna is the brāhmin.

2

“If one says something unbecoming to a father, mother, brother, sister, teacher, or brāhmin, then people say: ‘Shame on you! Verily, you are a slayer of your father, a slayer of your mother, a slayer of your brother, a slayer of your sister, a slayer of your teacher, a slayer of a brāhmin.’

3

“But if, when the prāna has departed from them, one shoves them together with a poker and burns every bit of them, no one would say:

‘You are a slayer of your father, a slayer of your mother, a slayer of your brother, a slayer of your sister, a slayer of your teacher, a slayer of a brāhmin.”

4

“The prāna, verily, is all this. He (i.e. the knower of the prāna) who sees this, reflects on this, is convinced of this, becomes an ativādi (superior speaker). If people say to such a man: ‘You are an ativādi,’ he may say: ‘Yes, I am an ativādi'; he need not deny it.”

 

Chapter XVI

THE KNOWLEDGE OF THE TRUTH

1

“But in reality he is an ativādi who has become an ativādi by the knowledge of the True.”

“May I, venerable Sir, become an ativādi by the knowledge of the True.”

“But one should desire to know the True.”

“Venerable Sir, I desire to know the True.”

 

Chapter XVII

TRUTH DEPENDS UPON UNDERSTANDING

1

[Sanatkumāra said:] “When one understands the True, only then does one declare the True. One who does not understand the True does not declare It. Only one who understands It declares the True. One must desire to understand this understanding.”

“Venerable Sir, I desire to understand.”

 

Chapter XVIII

UNDERSTANDING DEPENDS UPON REFLECTION

1

“When one reflects, only then does one understand. One who does not reflect does not understand. Only one who reflects understands. One must desire to understand this reflection.”

“Venerable Sir, I desire to understand reflection.”

 

Chapter XIX

REFLECTION DEPENDS UPON FAITH

1

“When one has faith, only then does one reflect. One who does not have faith does not reflect. Only one who has faith reflects. One must desire to understand faith.”

“Venerable Sir, I desire to understand faith.”

 

Chapter XX

FAITH DEPENDS UPON SINGLE-MINDEDNESS

1

“When one is single-minded [in one's devotion to the teacher], only then does one have faith. One who does not have single-mindedness does not have faith. Only one who has single-mindedness has faith. One must desire to understand single-mindedness.”

“Venerable Sir, I desire to understand single-mindedness.”

 

Chapter XXI

SINGLE-MINDEDNESS DEPENDS UPON CONCENTRATION

1

“When one performs one’s duties (i.e. practises concentration), only then does one have single-mindedness. One who does not perform his duties does not have single-mindedness. Only one who performs his duties has single-mindedness. One must desire to understand the performance of duties.”

“Venerable Sir, I desire to understand the performance of duties.”

 

Chapter XXII

CONCENTRATION DEPENDS UPON BLISS

1

“When one obtains bliss, only then does one perform one’s duties. One who does not obtain bliss does not perform his duties. Only one who obtains bliss performs his duties. One must desire to understand bliss.”

“Venerable Sir, I desire to understand bliss.”

 

Chapter XXIII

THE INFINITE IS BLISS

1

“The infinite is bliss. There is no bliss in anything finite. Only the Infinite is bliss. One must desire to understand the Infinite.”

“Venerable Sir, I desire to understand the Infinite.”

 

Chapter XXIV

THE INFINITE AND THE FINITE

1

“Where one sees nothing else, hears nothing else, understands nothing else—that is the Infinite. Where one sees something else, hears something else, understands something else—that is the finite. The Infinite is immortal, the finite mortal.”

“Venerable Sir, in what does the Infinite find Its support?”

“In Its own greatness-or not even in greatness.”

2

“Here on earth people describe cows and horses, elephants and gold, slaves and wives, fields and houses, as ‘greatness.’ I do not mean this,” he said, “for in such cases one thing finds its support in another. But what I say is:

 

Chapter XXV

INSTRUCTION ABOUT THE INFINITE

1

“That infinite, indeed, is below. It is above. It is behind. It is before. It is to the south. It is to the north. The Infinite, indeed, is all this.

“Next follows the instruction about the Infinite with reference to ‘I': I, indeed, am below. I am above. I am behind. I am before. I am to the south. I am to the north. I am, indeed, all this.

2

“Next follows the instruction about the Infinite with reference to the Self: The Self, indeed, is below. It is above. It is behind. It is before. It is to the south. It is to the north. The Self, indeed, is all this.

“Verily, he who sees this, reflects on this, and understands this delights in the Self, sports with the Self, rejoices in the Self, revels in the Self. [Even while living in the body] he becomes a self-ruler. He wields unlimited freedom in all the worlds.

“But those who think differently from this have others for their rulers; they live in perishable worlds. They have no freedom in all the worlds.”

 

Chapter XXVI

SELF-KNOWLEDGE

1

“For him who sees this, reflects on this, and understands this, the prāna springs from the Self, hope springs from the Self, memory springs from the Self, the ākāśa springs from the Self, fire springs from the Self, water springs from the Self, appearance and disappearance spring from the Self, food springs from the Self, strength springs from the Self, understanding springs from the Self, meditation springs from the Self, consideration springs from the Self, will springs from the Self, mind springs from the Self, speech springs from the Self, the name springs from the Self, the sacred hymns spring from the Self, the sacrifices spring from the Self-ay, all this springs from the Self.”

2

“On this there is the following verse:

“’The knower of Truth does not see death or disease or sorrow. The knower of Truth sees everything and obtains everything everywhere.’

“He (the knower) is one [before the creation], becomes three, becomes five, becomes seven, becomes nine; then again he is called eleven, one hundred and ten, and one thousand and twenty.

“[Now is described the discipline for inner purification by which Self-Knowledge is attained:] When the food is pure, the mind becomes pure. When the mind is pure the memory becomes firm. When the memory is firm all ties are loosened.”

The venerable Sanatkumāra showed Nārada, after his blemishes had been wiped out, the other side of darkness. They call Sanatkumāra Skanda, yea, Skanda they call him.

 

Part Eight

Chapter I

BRAHMAN IN THE HEART

1

OM. There is in this city of Brahman an abode, the small lotus [of the heart]; within it is a small ākāśa. Now what exists within that small ākāśa, that is to be sought after, that is what one should desire to understand.

2-3

If they should say to him: “Now, with regard to the abode, the small lotus, in this city of Brahman, and the small ākāśa within it—what is there in it that is to be sought after and what is there that one should desire to understand?”

Then he (the teacher) should say: “As far as, verily, this [great] ākāśa extends, so far extends the ākāśa within the heart. Both heaven and earth are contained within it, both fire and air, both sun and moon, both lightning and stars; and whatever belongs to him (i.e. the embodied creature) in this world, and whatever does not, all that is contained within it (i.e. the ākāśa in the heart).”

4

If they (the pupils) should say: “If everything that exists—all beings and all desires—is contained in this city of Brahman, then what is left of it when old age overcomes it or when it perishes?”

5

Then he (the teacher) should say: “With the old age of the body, That (i.e. Brahman, described as the ākāśa in the heart) does not age; with the death of the body That does not die. That Brahman [and not the body] is the real city of Brahman. In It all desires are contained. It is the Self—free from sin, free from old age, free from death, free from grief, free from hunger, free from thirst; Its desires come true, Its thoughts come true. Just as, here on earth, people follow as they are commanded [by a leader] and depend upon whatever objects they desire, be it a country or a piece of land (so also those who are ignorant of the Self depend upon other objects and experience the result of their good and evil deeds].

6

“And just as, here on earth, whatever is earned through work perishes, so does the next world, won by virtuous deeds, perish. Those who depart hence without having realized the Self and these true desires—for them there is no freedom in all the worlds. But those who depart hence after having realized the Self and these true desires—for them there is freedom in all the worlds.

 

Chapter II

THE FULFILMENT OF DESIRES THROUGH SELF-KNOWLEDGE

1

“If he desires the World of the Manes, by his mere thought the Manes come to him. Having obtained the world of the Manes he is happy.

2

“And if he desires the world of the mothers, by his mere thought the mothers come to him. Having obtained the world of the mothers, he is happy.

3

“And if he desires the world of the brothers, by his mere thought the brothers come to him. Having obtained the world of the brothers, he is happy.

4

“And if he desires the world of the sisters, by his mere thought the sisters come to him. Having obtained the world of the sisters, he is happy.

5

“And if he desires the world of the friends, by his mere thought the friends come to him. Having obtained the world of the friends, he is happy.

6

“And if he desires the world of perfumes and garlands, by his mere thought perfumes and garlands come to him. Having obtained the world of perfumes and garlands, he is happy.

7

“And if he desires the world of food and drink, by his mere thought food and drink come to him. Having obtained the world of food and drink, he is happy.

8

“And if he desires the world of song and music, by his mere thought song and music come to him. Having obtained the world of song and music, he is happy.

9

“And if he desires the world of women, by his mere thought women come to him. Having obtained the world of women, he is happy.

10

“Whatever country he longs for, whatever objects he desires, by his mere thought all these come to him. Having obtained them, he is happy.

 

Chapter III

THE SERENE SELF AND SATYA BRAHMAN

1

“These true desires are covered by what is false. Though they exist always, yet they have a covering which is false. Thus, whosoever belonging to the embodied creature has departed from this life, him he cannot see in this world with his eyes.

2

“Those of his fellows who belong to him here, and those who are dead, and whatever else there is which he wishes for and does not obtain—he finds all that by going in there (i.e. into his own Self). For there, indeed, lie those true desires of his, covered by what is false.

“As people who do not know the spot where a treasure of gold has been hidden somewhere in the earth, walk over it again and again without finding it, so all these creatures day after day go into the World of Brahman and yet do not find it, because they are carried away by untruth.

3

“That Self abides in the heart. The etymological explanation of heart is this: This one (ayam) is in the heart (hridi); therefore It is called the heart (hridayam). He who knows this goes every day [in deep sleep] to Heaven (i.e. Brahman, dwelling in the heart).

4

“Now, this serene being, after rising from this [physical] body and attaining the Highest Light, reaches his own [true] form. This is the Self.” Thus he (i.e. the teacher, questioned by his pupils) spoke. [Continuing, he said:] “This is the immortal, the fearless. This is Brahman. And of this Brahman the name is Satyam, the True.”

5

This name Satyam consists of three syllables: Sat, ti, and yam. That which is Sat signifies the Immortal; and that which is ti is the mortal; and yam binds them both. Because this syllable binds both, therefore it is called yam. He who knows this goes every day [in deep sleep] to Heaven (i.e. Brahman, dwelling in the heart).

 

Chapter IV

BRAHMAN AS A DAM

1

The self is a dam, a [separating] boundary, for keeping these worlds apart. This dam is not passed by day and night, by old age, death, and grief, or by good and evil deeds. All evils turn back from It, for the World of Brahman is free from all evil.

2

Therefore, having reached this dam, he who is blind ceases to be blind, he who is miserable ceases to be miserable, he who is afflicted [with disease] ceases to be afflicted. Therefore, having reached this dam, the night becomes day; for the World of Brahman is lighted once for all.

3

That World of Brahman belongs to those who realize It by means of continence (brahmacharya)—for them there is freedom in all the worlds.

 

Chapter V

CONTINENCE

1

Now, what people call yajna (sacrifice), that is really continence. For he who knows [Brahman] obtains that World [of Brahman, which others obtain through sacrifice,] by means of continence.

What people call ishta (worship), that is really continence. For having desired (ishtvā) the Knowledge of the Self, by means of continence one realizes the Self.

2

Now, what people call the Satrāyana (sacrifice], that is really continence. For by means of continence one obtains from the True (Sat) the safety (trāna) of the self.

What people call [the vow of] silence (mauna), that is really continence. For after knowing the Self (from the scriptures] one meditates (manutē) on It.

3

Now, what people call [the vow of] fasting (anāśakāyana), that is really continence. For that Self does not perish (na naśyati) which one realizes by means of continence.

What people call the life of a hermit (aranyāyana), that is really continence. There are in the World of Brahman, in the third heaven from here (i.e. from earth), two seas, Ara and Nya by name, and also there is the lake called Airammadiya. Furthermore, there are the Aśvattha tree, which showers soma-juice, and the city of Brahman (i.e. Hiranyagarbha), called Aparājita, and the golden hall built by Brahman (Hiranyagarbha) Himself.

4

The World of Brahman belongs to those who obtain by means of continence the seas Ara and Nya in the World of Brahman. For them there is freedom in all the worlds.

 

Chapter VI

THE COURSE AFTER DEATH FOR THE ILLUMINED

1

Now, those arteries of the heart are filled with the essences of brown, white, blue, yellow, and red liquid substances. Verily, the sun yonder is brown, it is white, it is blue, it is yellow, it is red.

2

As a long highway runs between two villages, this one and that yonder, so do the rays of the sun go to both worlds, this one and that yonder. They start from yonder sun and enter into these arteries; they start from these arteries and enter into yonder sun.

3

When a man is asleep, with the senses withdrawn and serene, and sees no dream, then he has entered into these arteries. Then no evil touches him, for he has obtained the light [of the sun].

4

And when he becomes weak, then those sitting around him say: “Do you know me? Do you know me?” As long as he has not departed from this body, he knows them.

5

When he departs from the body [if he is a mere ritualist and ignorant of Brahman] he then goes upward by these rays [toward the worlds which he has gained by his meritorious work]. Or [if he is a knower of the doctrines of the ākāśa in the lotus of the heart, as described in VIII. i. 1.] he then meditates on Om [and thus secures entrance into Brahmaloka].Or [if he is ignorant he attains lower bodies].The knower attains the solar orb as quickly as one directs one’s mind from one object to another. This indeed is the door [to the World of Brahman] for those who know; for the ignorant it is closed.

6

On this there is the following verse:

“There are one hundred and one arteries of the heart, one of which pierces the crown of the head. Going upward by it, a man [at death] attains immortality. Other arteries, going in different directions, only serve as channels for his departing from the body, yea, only serve as channels for his departing from the body.”

 

Chapter VII

THE PERSON IN THE EYE

1

Prajāpati said: “The Self which is free from sin, free from old age, free from death, free from grief, free from hunger, free from thirst, whose desires come true, and whose thoughts come true—That it is which should be searched out, That it is which one should desire to understand. He who has known this Self [from the scriptures and a teacher] and understood It obtains all the worlds and all desires.

2

The devas (gods) and asuras (demons) both heard these words, and said: “Well, let us search out this Self by searching out which one obtains all the worlds and all desires.”

Indra, among the gods, went forth, and Virochana, among the demons. Without communicating with each other, the two came into the presence of Prajāpati, fuel in hand.

3

They dwelt there for thirty-two years, practising brahmacharya. Then Prajāpati said to them: “For what purpose have you both been living here?”

They said: “A saying of yours is being repeated [by learned people]:

‘The Self which is free from sin, free from old age, free from death, free from grief, free from hunger, free from thirst, whose desires come true, and whose thoughts come true—That it is which should be searched out,That it is which one should desire to understand. He who has known this Self and understood It obtains all the worlds and all desires.’ Now, we both have dwelt here because we desire that Self.”

4

Prajāpati said to them: “The person that is seen in the eye—that is the Self.” He further said: “This is immortal, fearless. This is Brahman.”

They asked: “Venerable Sir, he who is perceived in the water and he who is perceived in a mirror—which of these is he?”

Prajāpati replied: “The same one, indeed, is perceived in all these.”

 

Chapter VIII

THE DOCTRINE OF THE DEMONS

1

[Prajāpati said:] “Look at yourself in a pan of water, and then what you do not understand of the Self, come and tell me.”

They cast their glance in a pan of water. Then Prajāpati said to them: “What do you see?”

They said: “Venerable Sir, we see the entire self even to the very hairs and nails, a veritable picture.”

2

Prajāpati said to them: “After you have well adorned yourselves [with ornaments], put on your best clothes, and cleansed yourselves, look into the pan of water.”

After having adorned themselves well, put on their best clothes, and cleansed themselves, they looked into the pan of water.

“What do you see?” asked Prajāpati.

3

They said: “Just as we ourselves are well adorned, well dressed, and clean, so, venerable Sir, are these two [reflections] well adorned, well dressed, and clean.”

Prajāpati said: “This is the Self, this is immortal, fearless. This is Brahman.”

They both went away satisfied in heart.

4

Prajāpati saw them [going] and said: “They are both going away without having known and without having realized the Self. And whoever of these, whether gods or demons, follow this doctrine shall perish.”

Virochana, satisfied in heart, went to the demons and preached this doctrine (Upanishad) to them: “The self (i.e. body) alone is to be worshipped here on earth, the self (i.e. body) alone is to be served. It is only by worshipping the self here and by serving the self that one gains both worlds—this and the next.”

5

Therefore even today they say of one who does not practise charity, who has no faith, and who does not perform sacrifices: “He is verily a demon”; for such is the doctrine of the demons. The demons deck the bodies of the dead with garlands and perfume, with raiment, and with ornaments, for they think that thus they will win the world beyond.

 

Chapter IX

THE SHADOW SELF IS PERISHABLE

1

But Indra, even before he had reached the gods, saw this difficulty: “As this [reflection in the water] is well adorned when the body is well adorned, well dressed when the body is well dressed, clean when the body is clean, so this [reflection in the water] will be blind if the body is blind, one-eyed if the body is one-eyed, crippled if the body is crippled, and will perish if the body perishes.

2

“I do not see any good in this [doctrine].” He returned with fuel in hand.

To him Prajāpati said: “Well, Indra, you went away with Virochana, satisfied in heart; now for what purpose have you come back?”

He (Indra) said: “Venerable Sir, as this [reflection in the water] is well adorned when the body is well adorned, well dressed when the body is well dressed, clean when the body is clean, so this [reflection in the water] will be blind if the body is blind, one-eyed if the body is one-eyed, crippled if the body is crippled, and will perish if the body perishes. Therefore I do not see any good in this [doctrine].”

3

“So it is Indra,” replied Prajāpati. “I shall explain the Self to you further. Live with me another thirty-two years.”

He lived with Prajāpati another thirty-two years. Then Prajāpati said to Indra:

 

Chapter X

THE DREAM SELF

1-2

“He who moves about, exalted, in dreams—this is the Self, this is immortal, fearless. This is Brahman.”

Then Indra went away satisfied in heart. But even before he had reached the gods, he saw this difficulty: “Although this [dream self] is not blind even if the body is blind, nor do its eyes and nose run when the eyes and nose of the body run; although this self is not affected by the defects of the body,

“Nor killed when it (the body) is killed, nor one-eyed when it is one-eyed—yet they kill it (the dream self), as it were; they chase it, as it were. It becomes conscious of pain, as it were; it weeps, as it were. I do not see any good in this [doctrine].”

3-4

He returned with fuel in hand. To him Prajāpati said: “Well, Indra, you went away satisfied in heart; now for what purpose have you come back?”

He (Indra) said: “Venerable Sir, although this [dream self] is not blind even if the body is blind, nor do its eyes and nose run when the eyes and nose of the body run; although this self is not affected by the defects of the body,

“Nor killed when it (the body) is killed, nor one-eyed when it is one-eyed—yet they kill it (the dream self), as it were; they chase it, as it were. It becomes conscious of pain, as it were; it weeps, as it were. I do not see any good in this.”

“So it is, Indra,” replied Prajāpati. “I shall explain the Self further to you. Live with me another thirty-two years.”

He lived with Prajāpati another thirty-two years. Then Prajāpati said to Indra:

 

Chapter XI

THE SELF IN DREAMLESS SLEEP

1

“When A man is asleep, with senses withdrawn and serene, and sees no dream—that is the Self. This is immortal, fearless. This is Brahman.” Then Indra went away satisfied in heart. But even before he had reached the gods, he saw this difficulty: “In truth it (i.e. the self in dreamless sleep) does not know itself as ‘I am it,’ nor these [other] creatures. It has therefore reached [in dreamless sleep] utter annihilation, as it were. I do not see any good in this.”

2

He returned with fuel in hand. To him Prajāpati said: “Well, Indra, you went away satisfied in heart; now for what purpose have you come back?”

He (Indra) said: “Venerable Sir, in truth it (i.e. the self in dreamless sleep) does not know itself as ‘I am it,’ nor these [other] creatures. It has therefore reached utter annihilation, as it were. I do not see any good in this.”

3

“So it is, Indra,” replied Prajāpati. “I shall explain the Self further to you, and nothing else. Live with me another five years.”

Indra lived with Prajāpati another five years. This made in all one hundred and one years. Therefore people say that Indra lived with Prajāpati as a brahmachārin one hundred and one years.

Then Prajāpati said to him:

 

Chapter XII

THE INCORPOREAL SELF

1

“O Indra, this body is mortal, always held by death. It is the abode of the Self, which is immortal and incorporeal. The embodied self is the victim of pleasure and pain. So long as one is identified with the body, there is no cessation of pleasure and pain. But neither pleasure nor pain touches one who is not identified with the body.

2-3

“The wind is without body; the cloud, lightning, and thunder are without body. Now, as these, arising from yonder ākāśa and reaching the highest light, appear in their own forms,

“So does this serene Being, arising from this body and reaching the Highest Light, appear in His own form. [In that state] He is the Highest Person. There He moves about, laughing, playing, rejoicing—be it with women, chariots, or relatives, never thinking of the body into which He was born.

“As an animal is attached to a cart, so is the prāna (i.e. the conscious self) attached to the body.

4

“When the person in the eye resides [in the body], he resides where [the organ of] sight has entered into the ākāśa (i.e. the pupil of the eye); the eye is the instrument of seeing. He who is aware of the thought: ‘Let me smell this,’ he is the Self; the nose is the instrument of smelling. He who is aware of the thought: ‘Let me speak,’ he is the Self; the tongue is the instrument of speaking. He who is aware of the thought: ‘Let me hear,’ he is the Self; the ear is the instrument of hearing.

5

“He who is aware of the thought: ‘Let me think this,’ he is the Self; the mind is his divine eye. He, the Self, sees all these desires in the World of Brahman through the divine eye, the mind, and rejoices.

6

“The gods meditate on that Self. Therefore all worlds belong to them, and all desires. He who knows that Self and understands It obtains all worlds and all desires.”

Thus said Prajāpati, yea, thus said Prajāpati.

 

Chapter XIII

A MANTRA FOR MEDITATION AND REPETITION

From the dark I come to the variegated; from the variegated I come to the Dark. Shaking off evil as a horse shakes [dust] from its hair, freeing myself from the body as the moon frees itself from the mouth of Rāhu, I fulfill all ends and obtain the uncreated World of Brahman.

 

Chapter XIV

THE PRAYER OF A SEEKER OF ETERNAL LIFE

1

That which is called the ākāśa is the revealer of names and forms. That within which these names and forms exist is, verily, Brahman. That is the Immortal; that is the Self.

[Now is stated a mantra:] “I come to the assembly, the palace of Prajāpati. I am the glory of the brāhmins, the glory of the kings, the glory of the vaiśyas. I wish to obtain that glory. I am the glory of glories. May I never go to the red and toothless, all-devouring, slippery place, yea, may I never go to it.”

 

Chapter XV

THE ATTAINMENT OF BRAHMALOKA

Brahmā told this [knowledge of the Self] to Prajāpati (Kaśyapa), Prajāpati to Manu, Manu to mankind. He who has studied the Vedas at the house of a teacher, according to the prescribed rules, during the time left after the performance of his duties to the teacher; he who, after leaving the teacher’s house, has settled down into a householder’s life and continued the study of the Vedas in a sacred spot and made others (i.e. his sons and disciples) virtuous; he who has withdrawn all the sense-organs into the Self; he who has not given pain to any creature except as approved by the scriptures—he who conducts himself thus, all through his life, reaches the World of Brahman after death, and does not return, yea, does not return.

See Also


The Upanishads

Taittiriya and Chhandogya

Translated from the Sanskrit with detailed Introductions and with Notes and Explanations based on the Commentary of Śri Śankarāchārya, the great Eighth-century Philosopher and Saint of India

By Swami Nikhilananda

Full Text Online (PDF)

Translated by Swami Swahananda

© 2013 Universal Theosophy.com

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